Некоммерческое акционерное общество 


Кафедра иностранных языков





Методические указания по развитию навыков чтения и говорения

для всех специальностей



Алматы 2010 

СОСТАВИТЕЛЬ: Д.А. Билдебаева. Английский язык. Методические указания по развитию навыков чтения и говорения для всех       специальностей – Алматы, АУЭС, 2010. – 36 стр.      

 Данные методические указания  способствуют развитию навыков чтения     и говорения, улучшению знаний студентов технического профиля путем обогащения словарного запаса и умению использовать его в языковой речи. Указания могут быть использованы в учебном процессе на различных этапах и по различным специализациям.



1. Electrically operated devices                                                                                   

2. Technology in sport                                                                                              

3. Technology develops crime-fighting and security                                                

4. Transport and traffic                                                                                              

5. High living: skyscrapers                                                                                      

6. Medical technology                                                                                             

7. The UK press (measuring the temperature)                                                        

8. Texting. Language change in technology                                                            

9. Internet innovations                                                                                             

10. The manufacturing industry in Ireland. Telephone conversation                       


 Список литературы 

1. English File. Intermediate. Student’s book”. Oxford university press. Oxford,


2. “Across cultures”. Elizabeth Sharman. Longman, 2004.

3. “New Cutting Edge.” Intermediate. Students’ book. Workbook. Sarah Cunningham, Peter Moor. Longman, 2005.

4. “Technology. Student’s book”. Oxford university press. Oxford, 2007.


Lesson 1. Electrically operated devices

1.1 Before reading discuss these questions in group.

Which of these do you have experience of? Do you feel positively about them? Why / Why not?


call centers                                                    mobile phones

the internet                                                    e - mail

computer help desks                                     texting

laptops / palm tops                                       digital TV


1. 2 Work in pairs and answer the question. Which thing(s) in exercise 1 do you associate the following words and phrases with?


a better quality picture                               the customer care department

hardware                                                    instruction manuals

being out of date                                        saving time

a spare part                                                software

using your thumbs


         1.3 Reading

1. 3.1 Read the article written by someone who is a “technophobe” (someone who doesn’t like modern machines). Then match the headings below with the seven paragraphs.

1) It does things you don’t need;

2) It doesn’t save you time;

3) It was out of date before you bought it;

4) It’s anti-social;

5) It’s destroying the English language;

6) More choice does not mean better;

7) No one takes responsibility when things go wrong.


1.3.2 Compare your answers in groups


Machines Behaving Badly


Everyone, it seems, has a mobile these days, even children in kindergarten.      Billions of text messages fly round the world every day, and computers and call centers run every aspect of our lives. But is all this really making life better? Here are seven good reasons to hate modern technology.


It doesn’t save you time

Many people make the mistake of thinking that technology is there to save you time. Wrong. It is there to give people new ways of filling their time. Take personal computers. Learning how to use all the features of a new PC uses up all the

time that having a computer saves. And what about all the hours you spend staring at incomprehensible instruction manuals for your new phone / TV / digital doorbell?



Of course it’s wonderful to have a CD player, a mobile, a home computer, or an electric toaster, for that matter. But do you really want to play computer games on the 4 cm screen of your mobile phone? Do you need your computer to answer the phone, or your TV to make toast?



Digital TV is a perfect example. When it arrived, we were promised a better quality picture and more choice. But at eleven o’clock at night as you flick through the 97 channels you can now get, it is not the quality of the picture that you worry about. More the fact that not one single programme is worth watching.



After several frustrating weeks of finding all the right software for your new PC, then phoning ‘help’ desks when it doesn’t work, you will proudly show off your new machine to friends only to hear ‘Oh, are you still using that one? I’m thinking of buying the new PYX 5000, myself’. A few months later, when you try to buy some minor spare part, you find it is no longer manufactured, and that it would be much cheaper to replace the whole computer with the new PYX 7500.



This is easy, because very few people really understand how the machines they have bought work. So you phone the software company and they will tell you it’s a hardware problem. You then phone the hardware company and they tell you it’s a software problem. Call centers are the worst. Phone the so called ‘customer care’ number, and after waiting on hold for fifteen minutes you will be told you need the sales department. The sales department assure you that it’s the technical department you need, but surprise, surprise, the technical department put you back through to customer care. People can spend weeks of their lives like this.



Apparently, teenagers now do so much texting and e-mailing that their thumbs are getting bigger. Unfortunately, they are also forgetting how to spell. One American Schoolgirl recently wrote her entire essay on ‘My summer holidays’ in text speak.

It began ‘B4 we used 2go2 NY 2C my bro, his GF & thr 3 kids. ILNY it’s a GR8 plc’. Or for you and me: ‘Before we used to go to New York to see my brother, his girlfriend and their three kids. I love New York it’s a great place’.





         A recent survey showed that more than eight out of ten young people would rather text their friends or family than actually speak to them in person. And according to the same survey, twenty five percent of people would answer their mobile phone even during the moment of passion. I ask you, is this really a better world?

1. 4 Work in pairs. Answer the following questions according to the author.

Why doesn’t a PC save you time?

Why do people have to replace their computers so often?

Why is it easy for help desks and call centers to not ‘take responsibility’?

What is the problem with digital TV?

What three effects is text messaging having on young people?


1.5 Can you guess the meaning of these words and phrases from the context? Check in your mini-dictionary.                                                             

a)     anti-social (heading 4 in exercise 3a);

b)    filling your time (A passage, line 2);

c)     staring at (A passage, line 5);

d)    flick through (C passage, line 2);

e)     show off (D passage, line 2);

f)      waiting on hold (E passage, line 5);

g)     text speak (F passage, line 3).


1. 6 Discuss the following questions in small groups;

Do you think the author is male or female, young or middle-aged? What makes you think this?

Do you agree with him / her or do you think he / she is living in the past?

1.7 Either Think of some more ways in which technology drives you mad;

Or Make your own list of ‘seven reasons to love technology’.


1.8 Language focus

Do the quiz below to find out how computer friendly you are.

Are you a “techie” or a technophobe?

Match each word with in the box with a definition 

an anti-virus



 the Internet

 a mouse

 a techie

 a technophobe


a) A person who doesn’t like machines, especially computers;

b) A computer system which allows millions of computer users around the world to exchange information;

c) A system that is able to send different types of communication signals down a telephone line at the same time;

d) A piece of software you install on your computer to protect it from viruses;

e) A small object which you move with your hands to give instructions to the computer;

f) The imaginary place where electronic messages, information, pictures, etc. exist when they are sent from one computer to another;

         g) Someone whose life is dominated by technology – especially computers.


1.9 Grammar analysis: Defining relative clauses

Defining relative clauses give us information about things, people, possessions, places and times using a relative pronoun.


a)     Things (that, which or -);

A machine which converts information.

A calculator is a little machine that does arithmetic.


b)    People (who, that or -);

A person who doesn’t use technology.

A newsreader is a person that reads the news.

The pronoun that is less common than who here.



Notice that in all the examples above, which, who and that are the subject of the relative clause, so they cannot be left out.

We can leave out which, who and that if they are the object of the relative clauses.

There are people (who/ that) you can phone if you have a problem.

Gloves are things (which/that) you wear in cold weather.


c) Possessions (whose);

He’s a person whose life is dominated by computers. (= his life)

An orphan is a child whose parents have died. (= his/her parents)


d) Places (where, which/that + preposition);

We can refer to places in the following ways:

This is the house where I grew up.

This is the house (which/that) I grew up in.

Notice that if we have a preposition at the end of the sentences, the relative pronoun can be obtained.


e) Times (when);

The evening’s a time when we can all relax.

Saturday’s the day when I tidy the flat.



1.10.1 Which words in the box do the definition below describe? Complete them with the correct relative pronoun.

boiler bodyguard cleaner cook cooker decorator dry cleaner’s freezer launderette photocopier plumber stationer’s typewriter vacuum cleaner



1) A _______is a machine ….. makes copies of documents;

2) A _______ is a person …….. protects important people from being attacked;

3) A _______ is a place with washing machines ……. You can wash your clothes;

4) A _______ is a person ……. job is to mend central heating, taps, etc;

5) A _______ is a machine ……. you use to clean floors and carpets.


1.10.2 Match the other words in the box to the prompts below. Then write

definitions. Use which, that, who, whose or where, if necessary. Example:

machine / keep / food very cold.

A freezer is a machine which keeps food very cold.


1) machine / keep / food very cold;

2) person / you pay / cook for you;

3) person / you pay / clean your house or office;

4) old-fashioned machine / you use for typing;

5) machine / heat water for baths, etc;

6) shop / they clean jackets, suits, ets. For you;

7) person / job is to paint houses;

8) shop / you buy office supplies.


1.10.3 Work in pairs. Student A: Close your book. Student B: Read five definitions from exercise 1 to see if Student A can remember the correct words. Then swap roles.

Овальная выноска: What do you call a machine which keeps food very cold?

1.10.4 Work in teams. Team A: Choose eight words or phrases and write questions for the words using relative clauses. Example: What do you call a person who….?



air traffic controller            answering machine

beach                                  call centre

cartoon                               chain restaurants

colleague                            costumes 

hero                                    neighbour

rainforest                            mobile phone

slippers                               temporary job

trainee manager


Now take turns to test team B. Your teacher will give you two points for a good question and two points for a correct answer to Team B’s questions. The team with the most points at the end wins.

Team B: Choose eight words or phrases and write questions for the words using relative clauses. Example: What do you call a person who….?


digital camera                                        MP3 player

 songwriter                                             batteries

 dishwasher                                            Internet

 bill (in a restaurant)                              karaoke bar

 wallpaper                                              firefighter

 laptop                                                    monument

 fax machine                                          electric cooker

 theme park                












Now take turns to test team A. Your teacher will give you two points for a good question and two points for a correct answer to Team A’s questions. The team with the most points at the end wins.


1.11 Vocabulary

1.11.1 Use the clues to complete the grid.





































































































































a) The problem seems to be with the software   and not the computer itself;

b) If you are still experiencing problems, please phone our h_______ d_______ on 0254 7395;

c) Greg used to work at a c________ - c________, but it was very stressful because all the people phoning were frustrated and angry;

d) My t_______ really hearts because I’ve been doing so much texting;

e) The combined DVD/video player comes with a complete instruction m________;

f) The information in last year’s guidebook is already o____  o__ d_____;

g) The receptionist put me o_______ h_______ for ten minutes and then told me to call back;

h) I take my l______ on the train with me so that I can answer all my e-mails before I arrive at the office;

i) How many text m_______ can your mobile store;

j) If you’ve got a d________ camera, you can e-mail me a photo;

k) I’m going to phone the customer c_______ department and ask them how to reset my palmtop;

l) We will have to contact BMW in Germany for the necessary s________ p_______ for your car;

m) You get a better picture q_______ with LCD TV screens.


Lesson 2. Technology in sport

2. 1 Before reading answer to this question. How can clothing help athletes to perform better?

Scan the text quickly to find out which items of sportswear are:

a) designed for swimmers;

b) designed for runners;

c) designed by Adidas;

d) designed to reduce drag.


2. 2 Now read the text again to find the answers to these questions.

How does the Precool vest improve performance?

Why did the designers of Fastskin work with an expert in sharks?

What are Power socks designed to prevent and why is this important?

In addition to reducing drag, how does Swift suit help athletes?

How are Strapless goggles held on the swimmer's face?


High-tech sportswear

Sports companies are always trying to develop new sportswear that will allow athletes to perform more efficiently. Recent developments include:

Precool vest

Nike have developed a vest which holds ice packs in its lining. It is desig'-sd for athletes who compete in marathons and other long distance races. Wearing it for one hour before the race will reduce the body temperature by 19%, and therefore reduces the risk of heat injury.


Speedo have designed a swimsuit which they claim is the world's fastest The designers have worked with an expert on sharks-famously fast swimmers of the fish world. The material copies features of sharkskin arc is designed to reduce drag.The makers say it can increase performance b_. up to 4%.

Power socks

Adidas produce knee-length socks for runners which are designed to reduce leg fatigue. The socks save energy by compressingthe muscles in the legs.This prevents the muscles vibrating each time the runner's foot hits the ground. The vibration is a waste of energy.

Swift suit

Adidas have designed an aerodynamic head-to-ankle suit for sprinters, cyclists, rowers, and ice-skaters. It keeps athletes cool and reduces drag.The designer claims it gives a ten-centimetre advantage in a 100-metre sprint.

Strapless goggles

For swimmers, Nike have developed featherweight carbon goggles without straps. Each lens is stuck to the eye socket with medical glue. Having no straps, the goggles produce less drag than ordinary goggles.



Lesson 3. Technology develops crime-fighting and security

3. 1 Read one of these texts, A, B, or C, as your teacher directs. Find out the answers to these questions.

What is this device or system called?

Who uses it?

How does it work?


3. 2 Share your answers with others in your group.

3. 3 Read the other two texts and see if you can find any extra information.


                                                   A Shock tactics

The Advanced taser gun is an electric stun gun which allows police to deal with violent people without causing injury or death. It has a laser sight to make sure the suspect is properly targeted. It uses a compressed air cartridge to fire two darts at the suspect. The darts pull behind them fine electric cable. They can penetrate the thickest clothing, up to 5 centimetres, at a range of 6.4 metres.

When the darts hit someone, the gun delivers a 50,000 volt shock for five seconds. The shock causes temporary paralysis. Taser waves, electrical signals, cause the suspect's muscles to contract. The guns contain a microchip which records the date and time of each firing.

                                                  B Eyes don’t lie

The iris is the coloured ring round the central part of your eye. Each one is different, which makes it perfect for security systems such as Iris-scanning.

First, your iris is scanned and the information converted to a digital file which is stored in a database. This process takes about three minutes. When you go to a high security area, you simply look at a camera which scans your iris. The result is compared with your database entry. It takes just over a second to complete the check.

The system is used at airports to speed passengers through passport control and to control entry to restricted areas. Some banks use it at ATM machines instead of PINs.

Apart from the speed, the advantage is that users don't need to remember a password or key. The system can handle users wearing glasses, contact lenses, and also changes to the eye as people age. So far, it's foolproof.


C GPS helps track offenders

Offender tracking consists of a small tracking unit worn on the belt or ankle. It uses the technology of Global positioning system (GPS) to record the wearer's movements. This data is fed to a server which matches movements with places. Some offenders are restricted to an area around their home. If they move outside that area, this is reported by email to the police. Some offenders are forbidden to enter certain areas. If they go there, this is reported automatically to the police. The system also contains details of crimes. If an offender is near the scene of a crime at the right time, a report is sent directly to the police.

Lesson 4. Transport and traffic

4. 1 Before reading try to answer to this question.

A hybrid results from combining two different things. What two things are combined to make a hybrid car?

4.2 Read the text and find the answers to these questions.

When is the petrol engine used alone?

When is the electric motor used alone?

When are both motors used?

What advantage does this car have over an electric car?

How is the battery charged?


Hybrid cars

A Hybrid-electric vehicle (HEV) has both a petrol engine and an electric motor. The petrol engine is the main power source. It is smaller and lighter than the engines of conventional cars. The electric motor provides extra power when needed. In some HEVs, it is connected to the wheels by the same transmission. In addition to a fuel tank, the HEV carries a pack of advanced batteries. There is also a processor which decides when to use the motor and engine.

When the car is running at a constant speed, cruising, the petrol engine provides all the power required. For overtaking, hill climbing, and accelerating from stop, the electric motor provides extra power. In some cars, the motor also provides power for low-speed cruising as petrol engines are least efficient in these conditions.

HEVs use regenerative braking. When the driver brakes, the resistance of the motor helps to slow down the car. At the same time, the energy from the wheels turns the motor which then functions as a generator, producing electricity to recharge the batteries. When the batteries are low, the petrol engine also drives the generator.

HEVs have automatic start / shutoff. The petrol engine shuts off when the car comes to a stop. When the driver presses the accelerator, the motor instantly starts the engine again. No energy is wasted from idling when the car is stopped.

HEVs are more efficient and pollute less than cars with only petrol engines. They do not require special fuel like hydrogen cars and, unlike electric cars, they do not need to be plugged in overnight to recharge the batteries. However, they are heavy because of the weight of the batteries.


Race through the rush hour: Vehicles and traffic

4. 3 Build your vocabulary

Answer these questions with a partner.

Have you been in a sports car/van/lorry? When?

When's the rush hour in your town/city?

Are there enough car parks/parking spaces?

Are there any cycle lanes? Do people use them?

4. 4 Read better

4.4.1 Read the introduction below quickly. In pairs, answer the questions from memory.

Why did The Times organize the race?

Who took part in the race? What vehicles were they using?

Where did it start? Where did it end?

How far was it? When was it?

What were the rules?

Who do you think won the race? Why?


The Rush-hour Grand Prix

Do you live in a city or a large town? How do you get to work or get to class? Do you drive or go on a motorbike, do you use public transport or a bike, or do you just walk?

Every day more than 500,000 people travel across the city of London to get to work or school. 

But what's the best way for them to get around the city? To find the answer to this question, The Times newspaper decided to organize a race.

The four contestants in the race, Linda, Nick, Alan and Dalya, all Times journalists, had to choose between a bike, a scooter, a car, and public transport (the London underground or 'tube').

The race started at Belsize Park underground station in north London, about 12 kilometres away from The Times offices. The start of the race was 8.36 on a sunny morning in June, right in the middle of the London rush hour. The objective was to see who would arrive first at the office, and in what condition (stressed, exhausted, etc.). There were only two rules: “you mustn't break the law, and you have to be considerate to other travelers”.


4.4.2 Read the rest of the article and complete with car, bike, scooter, or underground. What problems did they each have?


They set off at exactly 8.36a.m.

Nick went by_______________.

'Although you don't have to wear a helmet in Britain, I always wear one. People who use this form of transport are famous for not obeying traffic signs or traffic lights. But I remembered the rules of the race and I tried to behave impeccably. However, I was stopped by a policeman who said: "Excuse me sir, but you've just turned right where it said no right turn. Next time I'll fine you." I had to listen to a five-minute lecture.'

Alan chose the_______________.

'I had the most comfortable journey, but the race was over for me at the first traffic lights. While I was sitting in traffic jams, I turned on the air-conditioning and listened  to classical music to relax. On the journey I noticed that very few drivers were carrying more than one passenger, which I suppose is the reason why there's so much  traffic on the roads during the rush hour.'

Daly went by_____________;   ,

on the Northern line, which London commuters call the Misery line. Her journey was a nightmare (although she said it wasn't the worst she has 85 had.)

'The one I wanted to catch left just as I arrived, so I had to wait for ten minutes. The next one was too crowded to get on, and when the next one came there were still no seats so I had to stand. Then we had a delay of a few minutes because of 'problems on the line'. I tried to forget my frustration by studying the face of the woman opposite me who was wearing earrings in all sorts of strange places...'

Linda chose the_______________.

'When you travel like this, it's a good idea to go behind someone on a big motorbike, because they protect you - but you shouldn't stop next to them at traffic lights -they look down at you as if you were inferior! I was wearing a leather jacket, gloves and a helmet so I got a bit hot as it was a sunny day.'


4.4.3 In what order do you think they arrived?

4.4.4 Read the text again quickly and find words in the text for the following definitions. There are two in each paragraph.

a) a hard hat which protects your head ________;

b) perfectly _________;

c) was finished ________;

d) saw ________;

e) people who travel to a city to work ________;

f) irritation when you can't do anything _________;

g) not as good ________;

h) material made from animal skin ________.


4.4.5 If you organized a similar race in your city, which form of transport would win and which would come last? Why?


4.5 Making conversation

Survey: How do you get around?

Interview three people about how they get around. Write the information in the chart



Getting to school/ work/ university

Getting around at night




Time taken























How do you usually get to work/school?

How long does it take you?

What problems do you have?

How do you usually get around when you go out at night?


4.6 Grammar analysis: Modals of obligation/recommendation

4.6.1 Match sentences 1-7 with their meanings a-g.

1) You mustn't stop on the motorway;

2) You have to wear a seat-belt in a car;

3) You shouldn't go by car in the rush hour;

4) I had to stand on the bus, because there were no seats;

5) You should cycle to work - it's good exercise;

6) You must be careful when you cross the road;

7) Cyclists don't have to wear helmets, only motorcyclists.

a) It’s not necessary/obligatory;

b) Do this. I think it’s very important;

c) It’s not allowed. Don’t do it;

d) An obligation or necessity in the past;

e) Not a good idea. I don’t recommend it;

f) It’s a good idea. I recommend it;

g) It’s the law.


4.6.2  Answer with must, have to, or should.

- Which verb needs do /did to make questions and negatives? __________;

- Which verbs don't need to? ____________;

- Which verb has present, past, and future forms?;

- Write the three forms __________________.


4.6.3 Complete the chart with must/mustn't, have to/don't have to, should/shouldn't.


Obligation/ strong recommendation (+)

Recommendation / advice (+ and-)

No obligation/ no necessity

Not allowed/ strong recommendation (-)

have to









! mustn't /don't have to: Remember that mustn't and don't have to are completely different.

You mustn't use a dictionary. = It's not allowed. Don't do it.

You don't have to use a dictionary. = It's not necessary. The text is very easy. » When mustn't = is not allowed, it is the same as can't.

You mustn't park here. = You can't park here.


4. 7 Practice

4.7.1 Complete with the correct form of must, have to, or should.

- You______. tell anybody. It's a secret;

- It's Sunday so I__________ go to work;

- That skirt is perfect for you. I think you buy it;

- We _________ were a uniform at our school. I hate it;

- I ________ remember to give you back the money I borrowed;

- You __________ eat too much white bread. It's not very good for you;

- Peter bought the cinema tickets and dinner last night. I__________

pay for anything;

- Our car broke down on holiday so we _______ rent a car for a week.


4.7.2 You are going on a long car journey. In pairs, make true sentences for your country with you have to, you should, you don't have to, you shouldn't, you mustn't.


check your oil and water             clean your car

drive slowly in the fast lane        go over the speed limit

stop at traffic lights                     use a mobile phone while you're driving

stop and rest every two hours     let children sit in the front

wear a seat-belt in the front        wear a seat-belt in the back


4. 8 Making conversation

Driving laws

4.8.1 Choose the best answer.


1 The minimum age for driving motorbikes or scooters should be____.

a) 14;        b) 16;       c) 18.

2 The speed limit on a motorway should be____.

a) 100 kph;       b) 120 kph;       c) 140 kph.

3 People who drink and drive should lose their driving licence for____.

a) 6 months;   b) a year;     c) life.

4 People should have to stop driving when they reach the age of____.

a) 65;    b) 75;    c) 80.

5 People should wear seat-belts____.

a) only in cars;

b) in cars and taxis but not in coaches;

c) in all vehicles.

6 Mobile phones____.

a) should never be used by drivers;

b) should be used only if they are 'hands free;

e) can be used by drivers if they're careful.

7 Helmets should be worn by____.

a) people on motorbikes;

b) people on motorbikes and scooters;

c) people on motorbikes, scooters, and bicycles.


4.8.2 In groups of three, compare your choices and explain why. For example:

- I think the speed limit on motorways should he 140 kph;

- Why?;

- Because nobody drives at 120. It's too slow;

- I don't agree. I think 140 is dangerous. That's why there are so many accidents.


4. 9 Read better

4.9.1 Read two mixed-up stories: The Weddingand and The Interview.

Which four paragraphs belong to each story? Write the correct order 1-4.

a)     The Wedding 1 E 2 _____ 3 _____ 4 _____;

b)    The Interview 1 _____ 2 _____ 3 _____ 4 _____.


Nightmare journeys

We asked our readers to send us their “nightmare” journeys.

Here are this week's two best stories called The Wedding and The Interview.

A. After a few agonizing minutes of indecision I decided to abandon the car and take a taxi. But even the taxi took ages to get there because there was a terrible traffic jam. I eventually arrived, ten minutes late, hot, sweaty and really stressed. When I walked into the manager's office, the first thing she asked me was, 'Did you have a good journey?' 'Oh, yes,' I said. 'It was fine.' But at least the story has a happy ending, because I got the job!

B. Finally, with my car repaired, I reached the village at two o'clock in the afternoon, but the wedding had already finished. My friend was furious because I'd missed one of the most important moments in his life. “Why don't you buy a normal car, he said, “which doesn't always break down when you really need it?”

C. I started to change the wheel myself, but I was wearing a very tight white skirt and jacket and was afraid of getting dirty. Time was running out, and I knew that being late for the interview would be disastrous. They might not even believe what had really happened.

D. But when I arrived at the first crossroads, I took the wrong turning and I soon found myself completely lost. The engine was beginning to get very hot and suddenly black smoke began coming out. Five minutes later the car broke down. In my elegant suit I began walking towards the nearest village to find a mechanic. Luckily, a passing car stopped and gave me a lift to the garage.

E. The worst journey I've ever had was three years ago when I was going to my friend's wedding at a small village in Scotland. I was the best man so it was very important for me to arrive early.

F. First of all, I saw that I'd almost run out of petrol, and had to stop at a garage. Then, as I was driving towards the centre, another car hooted at me and I realized that I had a puncture. I couldn't believe it!

G. My nightmare journey happened last year. I'd been unemployed for about six months but I had just been called for an interview for a job. The interview was at 4.15 in the centre of town. But as soon as I got into the car, everything started to go wrong.

H. The ceremony was at 1 p.m., but my car, an old sports car which I loved, was eighteen years old and sometimes used to break down. Although it was only an hour's journey from my home in Aberdeen, I'd decided to set off at 11.00 in the morning


4.9.2 Look at the highlighted words and expressions in the text. Guess the meaning from the context. Check with your dictionary or the teacher.

4.9.3 Underline any more words or expressions you don't know. Check the meaning.


4. 10 Making conversation

Car problems

4.10.1.  In groups of three or four, talk about your experiences of car journeys.

Have you ever ___________?

-         got really lost in a car;

-         run out of petrol;

-         had a puncture;

-         broken down;

-         missed something important because of traffic problems;

-         been stopped in a car by the police;

-         stopped to pick up a hitch-hiker.


4.10.2 If someone has had one of the experiences, ask him/her more questions. When? Where were you going? What did you do? What happened in the end?


Lesson 5. High living: skyscrapers

You need to be able to travel quickly up and down skyscrapers.

5. 1 Before reading try to answer to these questions

What is the counterweight for?

What are the guide rails for?

What are the safety features?


5. 2 Now read the text to check and to add to your answers.

5. 3 Read the text again and answer the questions.

What does the microprocessor do?

Why is travel in lifts one of the safest journeys you can make?


How lifts work

The development of tall buildings and lifts go together. The first lifts, or 'elevators' in American English, consisted of a platform suspended from a rope which passed over a pulley at the top of the building. If the rope broke, the platform fell to the ground, In 1852 Elisha Otis invented the first safety lift. If the rope broke, a brake was applied automatically   which locked the platform in place between guide rails. Today the Otis company is the largest supplier of lifts in the world.

Most lifts today are roped lifts. The car runs between verticai guide rails which keep it steady and act as a safety device. Steel ropes, or cables, attached to the roof of the car pass over a pulley, called the drive sheave, which is turned by an electric motor. The other end of the cable is attached to a counterweight. This matches the weight of a car with an average load of passengers.

The counterweight saves energy. Its weight helps to raise the car. In the same way, the weight of the car when it descends helps to raise the counterweight. For the most part, the motor only has to overcome friction.

Lifts are controlled by a microprocessor in the machine room. This logs all passenger calls and monitors the number of passengers travelling from floor to floor, the position of any car in the system, and its speed. It can direct passengers to the car which will get them to their destination fastest and will prevent any car which is overloaded from moving.

Lifts have many safety devices which make it virtually impossible for an accident to happen. The cables consist of up to eight steel ropes wound together. Each one is strong enough to support the car. If the car starts to run too quickly, a 'governor' or safety brake locks the car to the guide rails. Doors on each floor ensure that no one can fall down an open lift shaft. Doors on the car ensure that no passenger can be injured by contact with the shaft. The car cannot move until both sets of doors are closed. Finally, at the bottom of the shaft there are large shock absorbers, or buffers, to cushion the impact of any fall. All these things combined make travel in lifts one of the safest journeys you can make!


Lesson 6. Medical technology

6. 1 Before reading try to answer to these questions.

The affix tele- means 'distant'. What do you think these terms mean?

a)     telemedicine;

b)    telecare;

c) telesurgery.

What sort of technology would be needed for each of the services described by these terms?

Who might benefit from these services?

6. 2 Read the text and check your answers.




Telemedicine is the application of Information Technology to medical care. It's about providing medical support at a distance to people who have no access to a doctor Using the Internet, satellite phones, video links, and digital cameras, patients, nurses, doctors, and others can obtain specialist help quickly. If passengers fall ill on an aircraft in flight, cabin crew can use a device called. Vital signs to measure blood pressure and other important signs. The data can then be transmitted to a doctor interpret and provide advice on treatment. Medical images, such as X-rays or ultrasound scans, can be taken in one country and sent by broadband to a specialist in another for expert advice. Using a video link, nurses in a minor injuries clinic can call a specialist to examine difficult cases remotely. This is much cheaper than having a j specialist available in the clinic.

Telecare is a way of looking after vulnerable people such as old people at a distance. Sensors in their homes can detect falls, lack of activity, or even if food is removed from the refrigerator Lack of movement triggers an alarm I which alerts medical staffer relatives. Patients can wear monitors for recording the pulse and other signs. This can be sent via the telephone I system to medical staff without the patient leaving home.

Telesurgery was used in 2001 to allow a surgeon in New York to operate on a patient in France The operation was carried out using a high-speed computer link and robotic tools in the French operating theatre. At this j stage, such procedures are expensive and a local surgeon has to be present  in case the network link fails. In the future, however telesurgery could be a life-saver for people living, working, or travelling remote from medical help.


6. 3 Vocabulary: Personal entertainment

6.3.1 What advice would you give to someone making a digital video movie for the first time ?

6.3.2 Compare your advice with the tips given in the text.

6.3.3 Study these explanations for some of the tips given. Match each explanation to the correct tip.

a) Professionals make limited use of these kinds of shots.____;

b) When you start filming you won't have to worry about where to shoot next.____;

c) They have to catch your attention and make their message clear in a very short time.____;

d) It's quality, not quantity that counts.____;

e) Unsteady or jerky shots can look amateur.____;

f) If the unexpected happens on the day of filming - problems with the technology, weather, or the actors - you still have time get it right.____;

g) Wind or street noise can ruin your film.____;

h) You won't lose time, or worse, make serious technical mistakes and ruin good shots._____;

i) You can get all the necessary actors and locations organized in good time._____.


Tips for making a digital video movie

Digital video cameras along with software such as Apple's iMovie allow anyone to make home movies. You can add video and audio effects and publish your films on websites and blogs. You can produce video podcasts for others to share. However, having the right equipment doesn't guarantee quality. These tips might help:


1) Prepare your storyboard well in advance;

2) Allow plenty of time for filming;

3) Make a shooting schedule listing each location and the time for filming;

4) Find quiet locations and check them before you start filming;

5) Use TV adverts for good ideas;

6) Keep your film short;

7) Make sure you are familiar with all your camera controls;

8) Use a tripod to ensure your camera is steady;

9) Don't overuse zoom shots.


Lesson 7. The UK press ( measuring the temperature )

7. 1 Before you read try to answer to these questions.

What different newspapers do you have in your country? Are they national papers or local ones? What are the differences between them?

Look at the headlines of the two newspaper articles. One is from The Daily Star (a tabloid paper) and the other is from The Independent (a broadsheet paper). What story are they both reporting?

Britain's National Daily Newspapers

The broadsheets (or "qualities") (2.9 million sales per day)

The Telegraph

The Times

The Financial Times

The Guardian

The Independent

The middle-market tabloids (3.4 million sales per day)

The Daily Mail

The Daily Express

The popular tabloids (7 million sales per day)

The Sun

The Daily Mirror

The Daily Star

7.2. Vocabulary

These words are all connected with heat. Match them to their definitions.

- centigrade;

- fahrenheit;

- to dehydrate;

- to melt;

- to roast;

- to sizzle;

- to soar;

- to wilt.

a) when something solid turns to liquid because of the heat;

b) to suddenly go up;

c) when a plant bends over because it is too hot and dry;

d) a scale for measuring temperature where freezing point is 0 and boiling point is 100;

e) to make a hissing noise (like sausages in a pan);

f) to lose water;

g) to cook food using dry heat;

h) a scale for measuring temperature where freezing point is 32 and boiling point is 212.


7. 3 Reading

 Read the news articles. Which article reports the following things: The Daily Star, The Independent, or both?

a) The actual temperature that was reached on the previous day;

b) The previous temperature record in the UK;

c) The possible link to global warming;

d) The effect of the hot temperatures on bookmakers;

e) How certain people suffered from the heat;

f) Damage to roads;

g) A quote from a bookmaker.



Millions chill out at 100°F

Sizzling Sunday had Brits steaming yesterday on the hottest day ever. The temperature officially reached 37.9°C (100.2 F) at Heathrow Airport, topping the 37.1°C recorded in 1990 - but elsewhere thermometers rose to 101 or even higher. Bookies got a £1 million roasting as punters cleaned up on the temperature soaring past the 100°F mark for the first time. Travellers and workers at Heathrow were grabbing stocks of ice creams, lager and soft drinks as they wilted in the heat. "All our chocolates are melting," moaned sales assistant Martin Stankiwicz. "But ice cream sales have gone through the roof." One traveller, Aaron  Rouse,  25,   said: "There's half a dozen ambulances outside because people keep dehydrating." Elsewhere, shoppers huddled  around supermarket chiller cabinets to cool off. Roads in Great Leighs, Essex, melted, leaving the surface "like syrup". Ambulance crews in Hampshire treated 27 pensioners who collapsed from the heat in church.

Faced with paying out £250,000 on the record being broken and the temperature passing 100°F, a spokesman for bookies William Hill moaned: "It's the worst weather result we have ever seen."


100 °F: Britain’s hottest day

Britain entered a new hot-weather era yesterday when the temperature record was broken by a substantial margin, the thermometer exceeding the 100 °F mark for the first time. In the mid-afternoon of a sweltering day in southern England, the temperature at Heathrow airport was recorded at 37.9 °C (100.2 °F higher than the previous record of 37.1 °C (98.8 °F) set at Cheltenham in August 1990. It was the hottest temperature since records began in 1659-Nigel Reed, head of the operations centre at the UK Met Office in Bracknell, Berkshire, said that although no individual weather event could be directly attributed to global warming, "this was consistent with what we would expect to happen with climate change". Although there can be no direct proof that yesterday's record temperature was the result of climate change, many observers see it as part of a steadily warming pattern affecting the world, not least because of the margin by which the previous UK record was broken - nearly a whole degree     centigrade    and nearly a degree-and-a-half Fahrenheit. Bookmakers will have to pay out an estimated & 500,000 to hundreds of people who put money on the heat hitting 99 °F and 100 °F. William Hill faces having to pay out up to £ 250,000. "It will be as big a payout as one of the White Christmas ones," said Graham Sharpe, William Hill's spokesman.


7. 4 Which of the articles do you find easier to understand? Why do you think this is? Read the articles again carefully with the glossary. Which article includes the most:

a) slang words;

b) longer, Latin-based words;

c) puns (word-based jokes);

d) direct quotes from people.

e) long sentences.


7. 5 Speaking

7.5.1. Which types of stories do you think tabloid newspapers concentrate on? Choose from the following:

- the economy;

- the private lives of famous people;

- crime;

- politics;

- TV and pop music;

- sport;

- the arts.

7.5.2. Discuss this question in group. Are there similar newspapers or magazines in your country?

Lesson 8. Texting. Language change in technology

8. 1 Before you read look at the text message and the title of the first text. Can you translate' them into normal English?



Before the new millennium, the English word text was just a noun, but these days texting is one of Britain's favourite activities. It's short for text-messaging, the everyday phrase for what mobile phone companies officially call SMS, or 'short messaging service'. The UK is the world's texting champion, with 60 million messages being sent each day, most of them by the 77 percent of teenagers who own a mobile phone. Because texting is hard work on the thumbs, it has also developed its own language of abbreviations, often incomprehensible to adults. And texters aren't limited to just words - nowadays they can add graphics, or even photos, to their messages too.


8. 2 Reading. Read the text WAN2 TXT? Find out:

What SMS means?

Which country in the world sends the most texts?

How many texts are sent in the UK each day?

How many British teenagers own a mobile phone?

Why texters use a lot of abbreviations in their messages?


8. 3 Read the web page below. Are the following sentences true or false?

a) 100 million messages were sent in February 2002;

b) 57.5 million messages were sent on Valentine's Day 2002;

c) A lot more messages were sent on Valentine's Day 2001;

d) Repetitive finger movements can cause injuries;

e) Virgin Mobiles have suggested some exercises to prevent texting injuries.


Texting boom could lead to injuries

The popularity of text messaging on mobile phones is continuing to rise, but experts are warning that sending too many could lead to hand injuries.

In February, a record 1.4 billion messages were sent in the UK - 100 million more than in January. The surge is attributed to a boom in messages sent on Valentine's Day. The Mobile Data association, which compiles the figures, says the 57.5 million messages sent by amorous texters on 14th February was more than double the number sent on the same day last year.

However, the increase could lead to finger and wrist injuries from repetitively pushing the tiny buttons on mobile phones, say medical experts.

A safe text guide with exercises for avoiding injury, including shoulder shrugs and neck-muscle stretches, has now been launched by Virgin Mobiles. The guide is backed by the British Chiropractic Association and the Repetitive Strain Injury Association. A spokesman from the BCA said "Text messaging regularly, over a long period of time, could cause repetitive strain and lead to injuries in later life"


8. 4 Speaking

In groups, discuss the advantages and disadvantages of these forms of communication:

- letters;

- phone calls;

- faxes;

- emails;

- texts.


8. 5 Vocabulary.

8.5.1 Answer to these questions in groups.

How many English words can you list connected to computers and the Internet?

Do the words have an equivalent in your own language?


8.5.2 Read the New Words text. Insert the words into the correct sentences below.

- Did you know you can watch a live..........of Big Brother 24 hours a day?;

- “Did you get any interesting emails this morning?  No, just a lot of...........”;

- My sister works for Web Systems in London - it's one of the


- They're putting up a..........in the City Hall so they can broadcast the concert on the Internet;

- Have you read this girl's ..........today? Some of her views are really extreme;

- “I never received that email you sent me.' 'Didn't you? It must have got lost in............”.

New words

blog (web + log) a personal on-line diary or journal that anyone can access.

cyberspace the imaginary 'space' through which Internet messages travel.

dotcom an Internet business.

spam unwanted emails sent to you by commercial companies.

webcam (web + camera) a videocamera that can transmit images live over the Internet. webcast (web + broadcast) a live 'television programme' on the Internet, broadcast by a webcam


8. 6 Reading

Read the text “Welcome to Weblish!” and match these titles to the four paragraphs.

a) The spread of American English;

b) A period of huge change for English;

c) Changing style and tone;

d) Changing words and meanings.


Welcome to Weblish!

… New technology always brings changes and new additions to the language, but the telecommunications revolution of the last few years has caused some of the most rapid and widespread changes yet seen.

… New words, such as webcast, are entering the language all the time to put a name to concepts that haven't existed before, and existing words are being used in a new way. For example, the words access and text, previously used only as nouns, are now commonly used as verbs in phrases such as to access the Internet and to text someone. Other words, such as chat, which used to mean 'casual verbal communication' but now means live email communication’,   have   taken   on   entire   new meanings.

… In addition, many of these English words - the most obvious being computer itself - have spread outside of the English-speaking world and become part of a global language of technology. Thanks to the influence of the American computer industry users of British English have abandoned some British spellings in favour of their American equivalents, such as program instead of programme and disk instead of disc.

… Finally, the style and tone of the language itself is changing. Although they are written forms of communication, the immediacy of emails and text messages means that their language is usually much more informal than a letter would be, even in a business context And, to the o concern of many people, spelling and punctuation are becoming much more o unconventional.


Text message shortcuts

The senders of text messages have invented a unique language of abbreviations. Here are some of the most common:

CU                       See you

GR8                     great

L8R                      later

MSG                    message

NE                       any-

R                          are

THX                     thanks

TXT ME BAC      text me back

U                          you

UR                       your/ you’re

WAN2… ?           do you want to… ?

Y                          why?

2DAY                   today

2MORO               tomorrow



8. 7 Complete the table about changes to the English language.


Before computers

In the computer age

access was only a noun

access is now also a……...

text was only a noun

Text is now also a..............

.......meant a.......form

of communication

.......can mean a written form

of communication

British people used the spelling programme

British people use the spelling..............

British people used the spelling..............

British people used the spelling disk

most written communication was formal

A lot of written communication is ….

.......and.......were very correct

.......and.......are not so correct



8.8 Look at the text message abbreviations below then read the text message on this page. Rewrite it in full using standard English.




Lesson 9. Internet innovations

9. 1 Before you read answer to these questions.

Do you use the Internet? How often do you use it?

Do you know how much your family spends on Internet use?

9.2 Vocabulary

Match these technological words ( 1 – 6 ) to their definitions ( a – f ).

1) to dial up;            

2) to download;      

3) wireless;               

4) laptop;

5) notebook;

6) network.                                   


a) without cables or wires;

b) a small mobile computer, about the size of a large book;

c) a very small mobile computer that will fit in your hand;

d) to make a connection to a phone line;

e) a group of computers that are connected;

f) to copy something from the Internet on to your computer.


9. 3 Reading

Read the What's New? text and answer the questions.

Is broadband quicker than an ordinary Internet connection?

How do you pay for a broadband connection?

What are the advantages of wireless technology?

What are the limits of wireless technology?

Has 3G technology been completely developed yet?

What will you be able to do with 3G technology on your mobile?


WAP, broadband, wi-fi, 3G - phone technology and the Internet change so rapidly that we barely have time to get used to one new concept before it is immediately replaced by another and becomes outdated!


What's New?

This week we look at the latest technological advances for the internet. Be prepared! By  2010, you’ll wonder how we ever managed without them.


What is it? A combination of the latest cable and radio technology means that huge amounts of electronic data can now be transmitted from computer to computer at incredibly high speeds. It's like changing from a narrow pipe delivering your water to a much broader pipe.

Benefits for the user: much faster, more reliable Internet connection; it's turned on all the time (you pay a fixed sum every month, so you don't have to keep dialling up); you can do two Internet operations at the same time (eg. collect emails and download a picture from the Internet).


What is it? Computing without phone lines, similar to cordless phone technology. Benefits for the user: the freedom to use a laptop or notebook without connecting it to a phone line (as long as you don't go too far away from the wireless hub - the main unit of the network that is connected to a phone line).

3 G

What is it? “Third generation”  mobile technology (still in development) that will be able to transmit data quickly to your phone.

Benefits for the user: access to the complete, real Internet (not the mobile-only WAP network) quickly and in colour over your mobile; the ability to download music and video to your mobile.


9. 4 Read about War-Chalking text and answer these questions.

Why did hobos leave chalk marks for other hobos on houses during the   Depression?

How far can Wi-Fi signals travel?

What does this mean for anyone near your building with a laptop?

What symbol do people leave on walls when they discover a free Wi-Fi connection?

Why did restaurants and hotels war-chalk their buildings?

How did telecommunications companies react to the war-chalking phenomenon?



Clive Thompson

Back in the Depression, hobos would draw chalk marks on the walls of houses to show where a generous stranger lived. A top hat meant "kind gentleman lives here"; a cross meant "religious talk will get you a meal."

This summer, the British designer Matt Jones created a new set of hobo symbols for the Internet age. Jones is a fan of "Wi-Fi" (short for "wireless fidelity"), the new technology that lets you take your broadband connection and broadcast it around your home or office. Wi-Fi signals can travel more than 1.000 feet, which means that your private connection often leaks out into the street. If you're feeling generous, you can leave it "open" for anyone passing by to use. ... Presto: free high-speed access!

The only problem is that Wi-Fi radio signals are invisible. You might be near a node right now. But how  you tell? Easy. You look for one of Jones's symbols scrawled on the wall. If you see two back-to-back half-circles, it means some geek has discovered an open node nearby. ...

Within weeks of Jones's invention, war-chalking ... took off. The Schlotzsky's Deli chain began war-chalking its restaurants, and the state of Utah announced it would mark up its   conference   rooms.   Wireless companies, in contrast, reacted with alarm: Nokia called war-chalking "theft, plain and simple", and some cable companies have sent warning letters to users who openly share their Internet connections.

Yet the growth of Wi-Fi seems unstoppable. ... Consider it a lesson from the hobos: in a world full of generous strangers, sometimes there really is such a thing as a free lunch.


9. 5 Speaking

9.5.1  How do you think computer and Internet technology will develop over the next 50 years? Discuss with your classmates.

9.5.2  Find out from your classmates how interested they are in computers and how often they use them. Follow your teachers instructions, then report the results to the class.


9. 6 Before you read answer to these questions.

Do you ever use the Internet to help you with your schoolwork?

How is studying with the Web different to studying with books?


9. 7 Vocabulary

Find words in the text Cheating.com to complete the table.




Person who does it


to pi.............


(=copying something directly without admitting it)




9. 8 Reading

Read the text Cheating.com and choose the correct answers to the questions.

What are 'paper mills'?

a) Software programs that detect plagiarism;

b) Websites that offer ready-made essays.

Do you always have to pay to download an essay?

a) Yes;

b) No, not always.

When would a teacher start to suspect plagiarism?

a) If the level of a student's work seemed too high;

b) If the level of a student's work seemed too low.

When would a British teacher become suspicious?

a)  If one of their students turned in an essay with lots of spelling mistakes;

b) If one of their students turned in an essay with lots of American spellings.

What can happen to students who are found guilty of plagiarism?

a) They can be thrown out of their school;

b) They can be taken to the police.




These days lots of students use the Internet for help with their homework and

assignment there is no doubt that the Web has become a valuable academic tool. But now that cutting and pasting is so easy there can often be a fine dividing line "between using the Net for research and plagiarising material directly from it. There are even some unscrupulous sites (often called 'paper mills') that offer students ready-made downloadable essays on a number of popular topics - usually for a payment. But most teachers are now aware of Internet plagiarism, and there is even a variety of software that schools can use to detect it. But teachers can often spot plagiarists simply by following their own suspicions. For example:

-  a high-school student turns in an essay using language and ideas more

suitable for a university student;

         - a weak student suddenly turns in an outstanding essay;

- the same work occurs in a number of different students' assignments;

- the essay doesn't quite fit the question or title that the teacher has set the class;

-  american students produce essays written in British English, or vice versa;

-    the price of plagiarism can be high, especially in the USA, where it is not

uncommon for students to be expelled, particularly at college level.


9. 9 Read the websites below and answer the questions.


How do Turnitin.com check an essay for plagiarism?

What do they give to the teacher after their check?

What did James Hunter discover about the essay that they analysed for him?


What is “Turnitin. com” ?


Turnitin.com is an online resource for educators and students concerned with developing quality writing and research skills. We do this by:

-  providing a reliable, efficient and powerful deterrent to Internet-based plagiarism;

-  detecting digital plagiarism when and where it occurs;

-  helping educators and students fight plagiarism with guidelines for good research.


How does our Website stop Plagiarism?


We prevent and detect plagiarism by comparing submitted papers to billions of Internet pages and our own databases. For each paper submitted we produce a special 'originality report', which we send to the relevant educator.

"The first paper I turned in was full of material from three Internet sources. I knew that the work was not from the student, but the report made it quite painless for me to confront him. There was no argument and we could then deal with the issues regarding plagiarism."

James Hunter, North High School


9. 10 Speaking


Are there any school subjects that you would be tempted to cheat in? Discuss the different reasons why plagiarising an essay would be wrong. Talk about:

- why it is wrong to tell lies;

- unfairness to your teacher;

- unfairness to other students;

- learning how to think and work independently;

- how you can learn by making mistakes.


         Lesson 10. The manufacturing industry in Ireland . Telephone conversation.

10. 1 Before you read can you name any places in Ireland, or any famous Irish people?

10. 2 Read the Information File on Ireland below. Answer the questions.

Where, in the country, is Ireland's capital?

What percentage of Irish people live in Dublin?

         Is Ireland part of the UK?

Do you think that Ireland experiences much hot weather?


Information file:

The Republic of Ireland

Total area - 70,000 sq. km

Total population - 4 million

Ethnic mix - 98% White

2% Other

Capital - Dublin

Popul. of capital - 1 million

Government - A democracy with a president

Climate - Mild, cool, cloudy


10. 3 Read the text Wired Ireland and answer the questions.

What proportion of the Irish population are aged between 25-44?

What currency does Ireland have?

What proportion of Ireland's exports are connected to computers and telecommunications?

What proportion of Europe's software originates in Ireland?


The Republic of Ireland

Wired Ireland

The stereotypical view of Ireland is of a rural, agricultural country where the people are friend!)', but short of money and not very in touch with the modem world. Nothing could be further from the truth. Today, only about 8% of Irish people work in agriculture, and the population is young and well-educated. Nearly a third of Irish residents are aged between 25-44. In the last decade, government initiatives have encouraged manufacturing and service industries in Ireland and have brought in much foreign investment, especially from Europe. Ireland is a member of the EU and, unlike the UK, adopted the euro as its currency at the beginning of 2002. Electronics is the largest manufacturing industry in Ireland, and a third of the country's exports these days consists of products from the telecommunications and computer industries. About 500 computer and software companies, including world leaders such as Apple, Dell, Microsoft and Intel, have operations in Ireland. Almost a third of personal computers and 60°o of packaged software sold in Europe comes from Ireland.

10. 4 Read the text A bite of the Apple in Ireland and put these events in the correct order.

a) Apple opened a call centre in Cork;

b) Apple first opened a branch of their business in Cork;

c) Cork became Apple's European headquarters;

d) Apple produced the iMac computer.


A bite of the Apple in Ireland

In 1980, the American computer manufacturer Apple opened a factory in Cork, Ireland's second city, in order to produce and distribute Apple Mac computers for Europe. In 1999, the huge demand for Apple's new product, the iMac computer, led them to add a call centre to their operations in Cork in order to process customers' orders and queries, and in 2002 the Apple Centre in Cork became Apple's headquarters for Europe. Although there is less manufacturing done in Cork today, the Centre currently employs

1,200 people working in the areas of sales, financial management, planning, software development and testing, and customer service.

The call centre has now expanded to cover the whole of Europe. This means that anyone in a European country phoning Apple with a query or technical problem with their Apple computer will speak directly to one of the multi-lingual operators in Cork. Call centres in general are a huge growth industry in Ireland, and have become one of the country's top employers.


         10. 5 Are these sentences about the text true or false?

Cork is the most important city in Ireland.

Apple's original business in Ireland was manufacturing.

The iMac computer was a very popular product.

Manufacturing is still Apple's main business in Cork.

Over a thousand people work at the Apple Centre in Cork.

The call centre only takes phone calls from the UK and Ireland.

There are employees at the call centre who speak foreign languages.

Call centres employ a lot of people in Ireland these days.


10. 6 Speaking

Discuss what can go wrong when you are using a computer, and why you might have to phone a call centre technical support.

10. 7 Grammar

10.7.1 What new technologies are scientists developing for the home and the car? Read the text “The networked home” quickly and find the answer.


10.7.2 Complete the table with the examples of future tenses from the text. Then explain why each tense is used.




Be going to

Present continuous

will be able to



















10.7.3  Now read the text again quickly and find three modal verbs which are used to express possibility or uncertainty about the future.


The networked home

Talking fridges and intelligent central heating systems could become standard in houses all over the UK within a few years. The UK government announced that it is spending a budget of £40 million on new technologies over the next few years. The fridges and central heating systems will be able to speak to a service centre when they need a new part or when there is a problem. Some of the new types of fridges will also be programmed to inform the owner when they are running out of certain food items. These fridges will speak to the owner when the owner opens the door and will tell them what they need to buy.

Televisions on wristwatches, the Internet on microwave ovens and DVD players on fridges will all be potential future products. Scientists might also develop energy-saving systems to reduce bills and the cost to the environment. Research is already taking place to find out what those costs will be.

The home isn't the only focus for new developments: researchers are going to develop cars that talk to service stations and personal digital shopping assistants. They are going to program the shopping assistants not only to do the shopping but also to deliver it to people's homes.

So going shopping and buying spare parts for your fridge may become a thing of the past.


10. 8 Read the text Powering the Network and circle the best future form



Powering the Network

In the future, high-speed Internet access (1) will belts being essential in order to power the networked home. However, there (2) will be/are going to be problems because certain parts of the country (3) are never having/will never have this sort of technology. The government says it (4) will give/is giving £30 million to provide broadband to all parts of the UK, especially rural areas, over the next three years. However, critics say this (5) isn't being/isn't going to be enough.

“People (6) will have/are going to have problems,” said one critic, “when they buy an item for their networked home but can't use it because there is no

broadband in the area where they live.” The total budget (7) is splitting/is going to be split equally between the government and industry.


10. 9 Skills

Complete the phone conversation with the words and phrases below.


I didn't catch what you said   

I just wanted to ask you          

I said I think I'll

I'd better go                  

I'll call you tomorrow night    

It's me        

No problem     

Oh, hi     


 See you    

Is that you? (1)


Laura:   Alison, (1) is that you? (2).........., Laura.

Alison: (3)..........! How are you?

Laura:   Fine thanks. Look, I'm on a train. (4).......... if you're going to the gym tonight. Alison: Well, I'm not sure. Lee phoned me and asked me to go for a drink with him.

Laura:   (5)..........? We were in a tunnel then. (6)...........

Alison: (7)..........Lee has asked me to go for a drink tonight.

Laura:   Oh. So are you going out with him or going to the gym?

Alison: (8)..........go for a drink with him if that's okay.

Laura:   Yeah. (9)...........I'll go to the gym on my own.

Alison: OK. (10)...........Maybe we could go together then.

Laura:   Fine. Look, Alison, (11)...........I'm losing the signal.

Alison: OK. (12)...........

Laura:   Bye!


10. 10 Speaking.

10.10.1 In pairs, act out the phone conversation in exercise 9.

10.10.2 Now choose one of the situations below and act out a phone conversation with your partner.

- You are phoning a friend to arrange to go to the cinema;

- You are phoning the doctor's to make an appointment;

- You are phoning your mother to tell her you will be home latter;

- You are phoning your brother/sister who is studying in a different town.


Список литературы 

1. English File. Intermediate. Student’s book”. Oxford university press. Oxford, 2005.

2. “Across cultures”. Elizabeth Sharman. Longman, 2004.

3. “New Cutting Edge.” Intermediate. Students’ book. Workbook. Sarah Cunningham, Peter Moor. Longman, 2005.

4. “Technology. Student’s book”. Oxford university press. Oxford, 2007.



1 Electrically operated devices                                                                                    3

2 Technology in sport                                                                                                10

3 Technology develops crime-fighting and security                                                 11

4 Transport and traffic                                                                                               12

5 High living: skyscrapers                                                                                         18

6 Medical technology                                                                                                19

7 The UK press (measuring the temperature)                                                           21

8 Texting. Language change in technology                                                              24

9 Internet innovations                                                                                                27

10 The manufacturing industry in Ireland. Telephone conversation                         32