Некоммерческое акционерное общество
АЛМАТИНСКИЙ УНИВЕРСИТЕТ ЭНЕРГЕТИКИ И СВЯЗИ
Кафедра иностранных языков
Методические указания по развитию умения перевода
лексико-грамматических особенностей профессионально-ориентированных текстов для студентов I и II курсов русского и казахского отделений очной формы обучения специальности 5В071900 – Радиотехника, электроника и телекоммуникация
СОСТАВИТЕЛИ: Л.Ж.Кабдушева, Ж.К.Байгаскина. Английский язык. Методические указания по развитию умения перевода лексико-грамматических особенностей профессионально-ориентированных текстов для студентов I и II курсов русского и казахского отделений очной формы обучения специальности 5В071900 – Радиотехника, электроника и телекоммуникация.- Алматы: АУЭС, 2010. – 41 с.
Методические указания предназначены для развития умений чтения и перевода общетехнических текстов у студентов русского и казахского отделений специальности радиотехника и связь, а также их можно использовать для самостоятельной работы студентов с преподавателем.
Методические указания содержат неадаптированные тексты из технической литературы и закрепительные лексико-грамматические упражнения для повторения и закрепления грамматического материала, что будет способствовать обогащению словарного запаса обучаемых и развитию навыков вести беседу по соответствующей тематике.
Рецензент: доцент Серикбаева У.Б.
Печатается по плану издания некоммерческого акционерного общества «Алматинский институт энергетики и связи» на 2010 г.
© НАО «Алматинский университет энергетики и связи», 2011 г.
число и притяжательный падеж имен
существительных. Предлоги как
показатели падежных отношений. По
рядок слов в английском предложении. Использование существительных в функции определения.
– Артикльдер. Зат есімнің көпше түрі және тәуелдік жалғау. Сөз алдында келетін көмекші сөз қандай да бір септік жалғауын көрсетеді. Ағылшын тілінде әр сөйлем мүшесінің сөйлемдегі орын тәртібі. Анықтауыштың қызметін атқару кезіндегі зат есімнің қолданылуы.
2 Степени сравнения имен прилагательных и наречий. Сравнительные конструкции.
– Сын есім мен үстеудің салыстырмалы шырайдағы түрі. Салыстырмалы шырай құрылымы.
3 Имя числительное.
– Сан есім.
4 Местоимения: личные, притяжательные, вопросительные, указательные, неопределенные и другие.
– Есімдік: жіктеу есімдігі, тәуелдеу есімдігі, сұрау есімдігі, сілтеу есімдігі, белгісіздік есімдігі және тағы басқалары.
5 Формы настоящего, прошедшего и будущего времени действительного залога изъявительного наклонения. Спряжение глаголов to be, to have в Present, Past, Future Indefinite.
– Ашық райда сабақты етістің осы шақтағы, өткен шақтағы және келер шақтағы түрлері. Тo be, to have етістіктерін Present, Past, Future Indefinite-те жіктеу.
распространенное предложение: прямой порядок слов в
утвердительной и отрицательной форме. Оборот "there + be".
– Жайылма сөйлем: әр сөйлем мүшесінің хабарлы сөйлемдегі және сұраулы сөйлемдегі тікелей орын тәртібі. "Тhere + be"– сөз орамы.
Словообразование – основные суффиксы и префиксы.
одинаковых по форме, представляющих собой различные
– Сөзжасамдағы негізгі жұрнақтар және сөз алды қосымшалары. Жазылуы және айтылуы бірдей, бірақ бірнеше сөз табы болып келетін сөздердің қолданылуы.
Грамматические упражнения – Грамматикалық жаттығулар
1Вставьте в предложения глагол to be в форме единственного или множественного числа is/are.
– Сөйлемде to be етістігін жекеше және көпше түрде is/are дұрыс нұсқасында қойыңыз.
1. Mathematics … my poorest subject. 2. Physics … a compulsory subject at school. 3. Electronics … one of the main sciences and surrounds us everywhere. 4. Microelectronic devices … made from wafer-thin pieces of semiconductor material, such as silicon. 5. Electronic computers … becoming very good at routine clerical work in offices and factories.
2 Употребите в данных предложениях личные местоимения.
–Төменде берілген сөйлемдерде жіктеу есімдіктерін қолданыңыз.
1. Steve’s new teacher is Mr. Ford, Steve likes … a lot. 2. We are good students and our teacher likes to teach … .3. That’s my notebook. Can I have … back, please? 4. Their tutor gives … a lot of homework. 5. Semiconductors is not just a poor conductor; … has two important properties.
3 Заполните пропуски притяжательными местоимениями в простой или абсолютной форме.
– Көп нүктенің орнына тәуелдеу есімдігінің жай және дара түрін жазыңыз.
1. This is my car. … is a 1992 model. 2. I know that he has lost … text-book, perhaps you can lend him … . 3. Tell him not to forget … paper, she must not forget …, either. 4. I managed to keep … books dry, but you got … wet, I see. 5. Materials can be classified according to … electrical properties.
4 Перепишите и письменно переведите предложения, обращая внимание на перевод неопределенных местоимений и наречий.
– Белгісіздік есімдік пен үстеудің аударылуына мән бере отырып, сөйлемді жазбаша түрде аударыңыз.
1. Nobody missed lectures last week. 2. He knew nothing about this discovery. 3. Something happened to my TV set. 4. No one in the laboratory could tell us about the results of the experiments. 5. No engineer can solve this problem without the help of computers.
5 Образуйте форму множественного числа от данных существительных:
– Берілген зат есімдердің көпше түрін жазыңыз:
device, system, circuit, category, knife, child, day, bench, classroom, main, woman-teacher, table, story, matchbox.
6 Поставьте выделенные существительные во множественном числе. Произведите все необходимые изменения.
– Тиісті өзгерістерді енгізе отырып, ерекше қаріппен жазылған зат есімдерді көпше түрде беріңіз.
1.This is an English dictionary. 2. Where is the brush? 3. Put the box on the shelf. 4. This factory has a good laboratory. 5. His speech was very interesting.
7 Перепишите данные ниже предложения. Определите по грамматическим признакам, какой частью речи является слово, оформленное окончанием -s, какую функцию это окончание выполняет, т.е. служит ли оно: а) показателем 3л.ед.ч. в Present Indefinite (Present Simple), б) признаком множественного числа существительного, в) показателем притяжательного числа имени существительного. Предложения переведите.
– Төменде берілген сөйлемді көшіріп жазыңыз. Грамматикалық белгілеріне қарай –s жалғауы бар сөз қандай сөз табына жататынын анықтап, қандай қызмет атқаратынын, сондай-ақ а) Present Indefinite-ң 3-ші жақ жекеше түрінің көрсеткіші, б) зат есімнің көпше түрінің белгісі, в) зат есімнің тәуелдеу есімдігінің көрсеткіші болып табылатындығын анықтаңыз. Сөйлемді аударыңыз.
1. The lectures of professor Nelson are very interesting. 2. He lectures an mathematics. 3. What is your friends profession? Each lesson lasts 50 minutes. 4. Our country’s needs in electricity will continue to grow. 5. Their institute houses both physical and chemical laboratories.
8 Вставьте вместо точек s, ‘s, s’.
– Көп нүктенің орнына s, ‘s, s’ жалғауларын қойып шығыңыз.
1. The ship … crew consisted of foreign sailors. 2. What was the car … number? 3. This man was Paul … and Kate … teacher …of English. 4. We could not explain the students behavior at yesterday … lesson. 5. There was a moment … silence between them.
9 Перепишите следующие предложения, содержащие разные формы сравнения, и переведите их на русский язык.
– Шырайлардың жасалу жолына мән бере отырып, сөйлемді көшіріңіз және ана тіліне аударыңыз.
1. This new device operates several times faster than your old one. 2. To study well is an important as to work well. 3. Mathematics is as important for technical students as physics. 4. This powerful new apparatus is 4 times as powerful as the old one. 5. The more systematic are our studies, the deeper is our knowledge.
10 Раскройте скобки и поставьте прилагательные в нужной степени. – Жақшаның ішіндегі сын есімді тиісті шырай түріне қойып, көшіріп жазыңыз.
1. Which do you like (good), physics or mathematics. 2. Let’s go by car. It’s (cheap) than by train. 3. Here is the (late) news. 4. There were (few) new words in this text and it took me (little) time to read it. 5. It is (bad) paper you have ever given me.
11 Перепишите данные предложения, определите в них видовременные формы глагола и укажите их инфинитив. Предложения переведите.
– Етістіктің қай шақта тұрғанын анықтап, берілген сөйлемді көшіріп жазыңыз және етістіктің бастапқы формасын беріңіз. Сөйлемді ана тіліне аударыңыз.
1. There were two universities in England in the early 13th century – Oxford and Cambridge. 2. For a long time London University had no library. 3. The students will take an active part in the preparation for the conference. 4. My friend attends lectures, classes and seminars at the University three times a week. 5. There is a wide system of extramural education in our country. 6. In two years my friend will become a specialist in the field of radio engineering.
12 Перепишите и переведите приводимые ниже предложения. Поставьте их в отрицательной форме. Задайте общий и специальный вопрос к каждому предложению.
– Сөйлемнің болымсыз түрін жазыңыз. Әр сөйлемге жалпы және арнайы сұрақ қойыңыз.
1. We shall join them later (Why?) 2. They went to the airport by car (How?) 3. I shall know the result in a week (When?) 4. You will come here next month (Where?) 5. Charles goes to the laboratory every Friday (How often?)
Прочитайте и переведите на русский язык текст. Вкратце перескажите каждый абзац текста и ответьте на следующие вопросы:
– Мәтінді оқып, ана тіліне аударыңыз. Әр абзацтың мазмұнын қысқаша айтып, төменде берілген сұрақтарға жауап беріңіз.
1. When was the first semiconductor device – a transistor invented? 2. What does the electronics study? 3. What applications of electronics do you know?
Fundamentals of Electronics
Electronics is one of the main sciences and it surrounds us everywhere. Electronics was born in the 19th century and first established itself in wireless telegraphy. For a long time afterwards it was used only for the purpose of communication. More intensive development of radiolocation began in the earliest forties. All these years the vacuum tube was the heart of electronics. The first semiconductor device — a transistor - was invented in 1948. It meant another important advance in the development of electronics, because semiconductors possessed much more valuable advantages over electron vacuum tubes. Thus, electronics became the study of electron motion in vacuum, solid bodies and gasses. This opened up new fields of application. Complex electronic systems control the work of the largest plants and power stations. Electronic computers capable of performing the most complex mathematical calculations are now widely used in scientific research. The latest models of electronic machines perform such operations as calculating the most accurate designs of jet-planes and the longest trajectories of artificial Earth satellites, telling the fishermen where the catch is the biggest, speed regulation, automatic control, etc. Today electronics has started a new era. Different electronic devices and instruments have taken the place of man. Some industries such as the manufacture of goods are controlled by electronic robots. Planes and rockets are also electronically controlled. Electronic computers are becoming very good at routine clerical work in offices and factories. Progress in space research would be impossible without computers making thousands of operations per second.
Electronics as a science studies the properties of electrons, the laws of their motion, the laws of transformation of various kinds of energy. Electronics is a science, which deals with devices and instruments that are operated by the control of the movement of electric charges in a vacuum, in gasses, or in semiconductors; or with the processing of information or the control of energy by such devices. This definition covers the whole complex family of vacuum and gaseous electron tubes and their application. It also includes semiconductor and transistor technologies to process information or to convert energy. Without electronics we would not have cybernetics, cosmonautics and nuclear physics. It is no mistake to compare the birth of electronics to such great achievements of mankind as the discovery of fire, and penetration into the secrets of the atom. Shortly speaking, electronics is not so much a new subject; it is rather a new way of looking at electricity.
Large-scale application of electronics made it possible to revolutionize our life. At present it is difficult to enumerate all branches of science and technology, which are based on electronic techniques. Electronics surrounds us everywhere. It seems to influence every aspect of human activity. Electronics is at the heart of TV and radio reception, broadcasting, radio and sound location, electronic computation and so on. Huge radio telescopes, equipped with sensitive instruments and powerful amplifiers enable men to penetrate onto the remotest comers of space, discover new and puzzling phenomena of nature. Electronic computers calculate the trajectories of spaceships, launch and control the rockets. It is the intensive development of radiolocation that gave start to radio electronics. For a long time electronics was used only for communication and for ensuring amplification and transformation of various signals in applied sciences. Soon men witnessed another stage in the development of electronics. Integrated circuits came into being (появились). Their application allowed engineers to reduce the dimensions of electronic devices and increase their reliability.
The development of the transistor initiated the development of microelectronic devices. Very small electronic circuits of great reliability were needed by those organizations, which were concerned with sending equipment into space since the weight of the missile was of primary importance. Microelectronic devices (integrated circuits) are made from wafer-thin pieces (тонкие пластины) of semiconductor material, such as silicon. A small chip of silicon can contain a very large number of electronic components built into the circuit. Integrated circuits (1С) have a wide variety of processing and storage functions. Today it is possible to have all circuits needed for a microcomputer, for example, on a single semiconductor chip, which is about the same size as the early ICs that contained only a few components. Large-Scale Integrated circuits (LSI), containing thousands of components, are now commonplace. Each 1С (chip) is mounted in a package so that electrical connections can be made. The availability of these small microelectronic devices allows the electromechanical devices in industrial and domestic equipment to be replaced by much more compact control systems, and has given rise to developments in automation, which was not previously possible. The use of microelectronic devices in computers has had a considerable effect in that computer power is now available in the office, on the shop floor, and at home.
wireless – беспроводный – сымсыз
tube – труба, трубка – түтік, трубка
motion – движение, ход – қимыл, қозғалыс
accurate – точный, правильный – дәлме-дәл, дұрыс
penetration – проникание – ену, кіру
to enumerate – перечислять – түгендеп шығу, санап шығу
applied – прикладной – қолданбалы
dimensions – размеры, объем – мөлшер, көлем
wafer-thin-pieces – тонкие пластины – жұқа тілімше, тілік
silicon – кремний – кремний
Лексические упражнения – Лексикалық жаттығулар
1 Найдите синонимы:
– Әр сөздің синонимін табыңыз.
device, include, purpose, method, motion, to transfer, artificial, standard, significance, different, various, importance, common, man-made, to convert, movement, technique, aim, contain, instrument.
2 Переведите термины типа: «существительное + существительное» на русский язык.
– Зат есім + зат есім тұрғысында берілген сөз тіркестерін аударыңыз.
vacuum tube, electron motion, power station, Earth satellite, speed regulation, space research, transistor technology, radio telescopes, radio electronics, storage function, semiconductor chip, computer power, shop floor.
3 Образуйте существительные при помощи суффиксов и переведите их на русский язык:
– Берілген жұрнақтарды қолданып зат есім жасаңыз және ана тіліне аударыңыз:
-ness: weightless, useful;
-ment: develop, achieve, move, equip, establish;
-ance: important, perform;
-ity: intensive, possible, electric, human, active, complex, reliable;
4 Определите по суффиксам, к какой части речи относятся следующие слова:
– Келесі сөздердің жұрнақтарына қарап, қандай сөз табына жататынын анықтаңыз:
invent, inventor, invention; operate, operator, operation; apply, application; science, scientific, scientist; amplifier, amplify, amplification; rely, reliable, reliability; calculate, calculation, calculator.
1 Видовременные формы глагола:
– Етістіктің шақтарының түрлері:
А) активный залог (The Active Voice) для форм Continuous (Present, Past, Future) и Perfect (Present, Past, Future); – Continuous (Present, Past, Future) және Perfect (Present, Past, Future) шақтарындағы негізгі етіс;
Б) пассивный залог, (the Passive Voice) для формы Indefinite (Present, Past, Future); – Indefinite (Present, Past, Future) формаларында ырықсыз етістің (the Passive Voice) қолданылуы;
Особенности перевода на русский язык пассивного залога английских глаголов, имеющих предложное дополнение или дополнение без предлога. – Көмекші есімді толықтауыш немесе көмекші сөзі бар ырықсыз етістегі сөйлемде ағылшын етістіктерінің ана тіліне аударылуының ерекшеліктері.
2 Модальные глаголы и их эквиваленты:
– Модальді етістіктер және олардың баламасы:
A) модальные глаголы can (could), may (might), выражающие возможность, и эквивалент модального глагола сап = to be able; – can (could), may (might) модальді етістіктері
Б) модальный глагол must, выражающий долженствование, и его эквиваленты to be to, to have to;
B) модальные глаголы should, ought (следует), need’t (нет необходимости);
неличные формы глагола
Participle I (Present Participle)
и Participle II (Past Participle) в функции определения и обстоятельства.
– Анықтауыш пен пысықтауыштың қызметін атқаратын Participle I (Present Participle) және Participle II (Past Participle)-де тұрған етістіктің дербес түрі.
Грамматические упражнения – Грамматикалық жаттығулар
1 Перепишите предложения; подчеркните в каждом глагол-сказуемое и определите его видовременную форму и залог. Переведите предложения на русский язык. В разделе (Б) обратите внимание на особенности перевода конструкций со страдательным залогом.
– Сөйлемді көшіріп жазыңыз; әр сөйлемдегі баяндауыштың астын сызып, етістіктің шақтарының түрі мен етіс түрін анықтаңыз. Сөйлемді ана тіліне аударыңыз. (Б) бөліміндегі ырықсыз етістегі сөз тіркестерінің ерекшеліктеріне мән беріңіз.
Образец: – Үлгі: were agreed upon - Past Ind. (Simple) Passive от глагола to agree.
(A) 1. While
engineers were testing a new high-frequency device the power
supply was suddenly interrupted. 2. A number of investigations have shown
that the poles of the Earth's magnetic field have reversed many times. 3.The
astronomers have concluded that the Earth is hit by cosmic bodies as often as the Moon. 4. A new welding machine will be put into operation next week. 5. Integrated circuits are rapidly replacing transistors, diodes, resistors and capacitors.
(Б) 1. A subroutine may be used many times during the computation of a programme but is written only once in the whole programme. 2. A computer must be told what operation to perform by means of instructions. 3. The term integrated circuits is used to describe a group of electronic elements connected together. 4. Heat energy is being used in many branches of industry now. 5. Energy is involved in any motion and in any event.
(B) 1. No special attention was paid to the early period of this scientist's activity. 2. The lecture was followed by a discussion. 3. The achievements in the field of radio electronics were much written about. 4. The operation of semiconductor devices is affected by temperature. 5. The reverse current is influenced by the rate of change of applied voltage.
2 Заполните пустые графы таблицы номерами соответствующих предложений:
– Кестедегі бос бағанды тиісті сөйлемнің нөмірімен толтырыңыз:
(А) 1. Я занимаюсь каждый день. – Мен тіл үйренумен күнде шұғылданамын. 2. Я занимаюсь сейчас. – Мен дәл қазір сабақ оқып отырмын. 3. Я уже выучил уроки сегодня. – Мен бүгінгі сабақты әлдеқашан дайындап қойғанмын. 4. Я занимался английским вчера. – Мен ағылшын тілін кеше оқыдым. 5. Я занимался английским, когда он пришел. – Ол келгенде, мен ағылшын тілін оқып отырғанмын. 6. Я уже выучил первый урок, прежде чем начал второй. – Екінші сабақты бастамас бұрын, мен бірінші сабақты әлдеқашан дайындап қойғанмын.7. Завтра я буду заниматься. – Мен ертең сабақ оқимын. 8. Я буду заниматься, когда вы придете. – Сіз келгенде, мен сабақ оқып отырамын. 9. Я уже выучу первый урок, перед тем как начну изучать второй. – Екінші сабақты бастамас бұрын, мен бірінші сабақты әлдеқашан дайындап қоямын.
(Б) 10. I was studying when they came. 11. I shall (I’ll) have studied Lesson Six when I start Lesson Seven. 12.1 have already studied Lesson One. 13. I study every day. 14. I shall be studying when you come. 15. I am studying now. 16. I studied yesterday. 17. I shall study tomorrow. 18. I had studied Lesson 1 before I began to study Lesson 2.
3 Определите, какой английской форме глагола соответствует данный русский перевод (например, 1е, 2а и т. д.):
– Берілген орысша сөздер ағылшын тіліндегі етістіктің қандай түріне жатады (мысалы, 1е, 2а ж. т. б.):
1) write а) пишу (сейчас)
2) am writing б) писал (вчера)
3) have written в) напишу (завтра)
4) wrote г) написал (уже)
5) was writing д) буду писать (когда ты придешь)
6) will write e) пишу (регулярно)
7) will be writing ж) писал (когда ты пришел)
5 Перепишите и переведите предложения. Поставьте их в отрицательной форме. Задайте общий и специальный вопросы к каждому предложению.
– Сөйлемді көшіріп жазып, ана тіліне аударыңыз. Осы сөйлемдерден болымсыз сөйлем жасаңыздар. Әр сөйлемге жалпы және арнайы сұрақ қойыңыз.
1. She is having an English lesson now. (What lesson?) 2. They are translating a very interesting article. (What?) 3. She has just gone to the lecture.(Where?) 4. I was writing a report at this time yesterday. 5. She had learned to speak English by the end of the year. (What language?)
6 Выберите правильную форму глагола.
– Етістіктің дұрыс түрін таңдаңыз.
1. I … all my exams in June (have passed, passed, is passing).
2. I … not … your book today (have brought, had brought, brought).
3. He …school two years ago (finished, has finished, had finished).
4. We … her at the Institute yesterday (saw, have seen, will see).
5. … the delegation visit your school (did, has, had)?
7 Завершите разделительный вопрос, выбрав правильный вариант.
– Дұрыс вариантын таңдай отырып, талғаулы сұрағы бар сөйлемді аяқтаңыз.
1. He has taken his examination this winter, … ?
2. I shall go to the Institute very early tomorrow, … ?
Перепишите предложения; подчеркните в них причастие
(Participle I) и причастие II (Participle II) и укажите, являются ли
они определением, обстоятельством или составной частью глагола-сказуемого. Предложения переведите.
– Сөйлемді көшіріп жазып, есімше І (Participle I), есімше ІІ-нің (Participle II) астын сызыңыз және олардың сөйлемнің қандай мүшесінің міндетін атқарып тұрғанын көрсетіңіз. (анықтауыш, пысықтауыш немесе баяндауыштың негізгі құрамы). Сөйлемді аударыңыз.
1. If used
economically, these fuel supplies could last for a month. 2. When
performing the problem in mathematical practice, the students of our university
use computers. 3. The problem discussed aroused interest. 4. They carried out the experiment using the best computer programs. 5. There is a growing demand for information. 6. Having passed the exams he went to Japan. 7. People studying foreign languages can acquire good knowledge if they have regular conversational practice. 8. The students are writing a test at the moment. 9. They were asked what methods
the scientists used during the experiment. 10. The work being finished, we went home.
Перепишите и письменно переведите следующие предложения;
подчеркните в них модальные глаголы или их эквиваленты.
– Төменде берілген сөйлемді көшіріп жазып, жазбаша аударыңыз, модальді етістік пен оның баламаларының астын сызыңыз.
1. One object may be larger than another one, but it may weigh less. 2. Mass can also be defined as a measure of inertia. 3. Man-made satellites had to use solar sells as a source of power. 4. Plastics should be reinforced by different kinds of fibers. 5. The method that is to be used in this case is rather complicated.
10 Выберите правильный модальный глагол:
– Модальді етістікті дұрыс таңдаңыз.
1. Не … speak three foreign languages. (can, may, must)
2. You … work hard at your English if you want to know it. (can, may, must)
3. When the scientist was 21 years old he … solve a very important mathematical problem. (could, was able to, had to)
4. You … not go out, the lesson is not over yet. (can, may, must)
5. To solve a problem a computer … have a way of accepting data. (is to, must, could)
11 Выберите правильный вариант ответа;
– Дұрыс жауабын таңдаңыз.
1.Must I speak about the results of the experiment at the conference? – No, you (mustn't, can't, needn't)
2.May I take one of your books for a week? – Yes, you … . (can, must, may)
12 Определите, в каком предложении глагол to be является модальным.
– Қай сөйлемде to be етістігі модальді етістіктің қызметін атқарып тұр?
1. She is to start work at 9 a.m. 2. The delegation is to arrive on Monday. 3. What are you doing?
13 Завершите варианты (b) и (с):
– Сөйлемді аяқтаңыз (b) және (с):
1. (a) Police must work on holidays in the USA.
(b) ……………. on holidays in the USA?
(с) …. not ………. on holidays in the USA.
2. (a) They have to start work at 7 o’clock in the morning.
(b) ………. they …… work at 7 o’clock in the morning?
(с) They …. not ….. work at 7 o’clock in the morning.
Прочитайте и переведите на русский язык текст. Вкратце перескажите каждый абзац текста и ответьте на следующие вопросы:
– Мәтінді оқып ана тіліне аударыңыз. Төмендегі сұрақтарға жауап беріп, қысқаша мазмұнын айтып беріңіз.
1. What was the first application of electronics? 2. What is the advantage of radio waves over other forms of communication? 3. What are the basic types of receivers and transmitters? 4. What new equipments were made in radio systems?
Radio transmission and reception was perhaps one of the earliest applications of electronics, the application that made the greatest impact on society. Surprisingly enough, we can use radio, predict its properties and design circuits that work very efficiently, but we know little about the real nature of radio. Ask an electronic engineer what radio is, and the answer will be a confident "electromagnetic waves". Ask a physicist what electromagnetic waves are, and he will tell you that really we do not know. We do know that electromagnetic radiation is a form of energy, and that it is propagated as waves. The model became more of a model and less like reality when we discover that radio travels through vacuum. One has to understand how can there be waves in a vacuum. Perhaps in the future, theoretical physics will give us an answer. Possibly the hardest concept to understand radio is the way in which circuits can broadcast or communicate radio waves. As to communication it is a process of conveying intelligence from one point to another by radio. At the start, and also at the end of the communication process radio technique is identical with that of wire telephony and telegraphy. Radio differs from other methods of communication in the means used to connect the transmitting and receiving points. As we have already mentioned that the science of radio is centered round electromagnetic fields or waves. In fact, the term "radio" has been driven from "radiation" — the process of propagating or sending the waves into space. The basic elements of any system of radio communication are: a transmitter and a receiver, a transmitting and a receiving antenna, a modulator, a cathode-ray tube, a relay, headphones, a loudspeaker, etc.
Radio waves are electromagnetic waves used for radio-communication. According to their frequencies electromagnetic waves produce different effects and are generated and detected by different methods. The waves of highest frequency so far discovered are cosmic rays, which appear in interstellar space and reach the earth from all directions. Next in order down the frequency spectrum come X-rays, ultra-violet rays and ordinary light space, to be followed by infrared rays and radio waves. The frequencies of radio waves are too low to be perceived by the eye, although they are of exactly the same type as light waves, which operate on higher frequencies. Because of their low frequency, radio waves have to be collected on an aerial system and made perceptible by converting them to sound or vision. They have a great advantage over other forms of communication in that they follow the curvatures of the earth and so are suitable for communication over great distances.
A much simplified transmitter block-diagram could be called the all-purpose block-diagram since it could be easily converted to a low-level or high-level amplitude modulation transmitter, a single sideband transmitter, or a frequency modulation transmitter. Obviously in the example, the circuit details would vary greatly, particularly in the modulators, "and if detailed block diagrams were drawn the underlying similarities in structure would be less obvious.
The desired radio frequency (r. f.) is converted to a constant intermediate frequency by taking the difference frequency after mixing the received signal with the output from a local oscillator. Since most of the amplification and selectivity is provided by constant frequency and bandwidth stages, the design problem is eased. In both the transmitter and the receiver, r. f. oscillators have to be tuned to different frequencies. In the transmitter it is the master oscillator, while in the receiver it is the local oscillator. Modem practice is to use a frequency synthesizer with a single crystal to provide stability and accuracy.
Changes in aircraft radio systems occur more and more frequently. The first airborne radio equipment used thermionic devices, cat's whisker detectors and large parallel plate tuning capacitors; power, weight and size were restrictions on the development of such equipment. In the 1950s transistorized equipment began to appear although not completely transistorized. Even now thermionic devices are still with us in the shape of the magnetron and the cathode-ray tube. Claims concerning all solid-state weather radars were made about mid-1979, and commercially available equipment appeared in .1980.
The cathode-ray tube will remain with us for many years but will eventually be replaced by a matrix of electroluminescent elements. Transistorized equipment is, of course, still marketed, but many of the transistors, diodes and resistors now appear on integrated circuits. The emergence of integrated circuits has revolutionized the design of air radio systems. The use of 1С techniques to produce microprocessors has opened up a new world. Increased safety, increased payload, increased reliability and improvement in performance allow flights to be made in conditions where previously aircraft have to be grounded. Completely new systems do not appear very frequently, although when they do, it is often because the improvement in the state of the art made the impossible possible.
impact – плотно сжимать, удар, толчок, импульс – нығыздап қысу, соққы, түрткі, электр импульсі
propagation – распространение (напр. волн, колебаний) – өрістету, тарату (толқын, тербеліс)
interstellar – межзвездный, космический – жұлдыз аралық, космостық
to perceive – воспринимать – қабылдау, түсіну
curvature — искривление – майысу, қисаю, бұрмалану
suitable — подходящий, соответствующий – ыңғайлы, қолайлы
airborne radio systems – бортовое радиооборудование – ернеулік радиожабдық
restriction – ограничение – шек қою, кедергі жасау
payload – полезный груз – пайдалы жүк
cat's whisker detectors – детекторы (датчики) с нитевидным кристаллом – жіп-жіңішке (қылдай) кристалды детекторлар
parallel plate tuning capacitors – конденсатор настройки с параллельными анодами – параллельді анод арқылы жөндеп, күйге келтіретін конденсатор
Лексические упражнения – Лексикалық жаттығулар
1 Переведите словосочетания:
– Сөз тіркестерін аударыңыз:
sideband transmitter, bandwidth stages, thermionic devices, intermediate frequency, local oscillator;
2 Переведите термин типа: причастие I + существительное
– Есімше І + зат есім түрінде берілген терминді аударыңыз.
receiving points, transmitting antenna, underlying similarities, measuring techniques, welding machine.
3 Образуйте прилагательные, используя суффиксы и переведите на русский язык:
– Төмендегі сөздерге тиісті жұрнақтарды қосып сын есім жасаңыз және ана тіліне аударыңыз.
-ic: electromagnet, basis, cosmos;
-al: theory, identify, practice, nature, physics;
-ent: differ, efficiency,
4 Найдите антонимы:
– Антонимдарды табыңыздар:
transmitter, old, frequently, difficult to start, nonstandard, different, complex, high, disadvantage, appear, receiver, modern, rarely, easy, to finish, similar, simple, low, standard, disappear, advantage;
1. Пассивные формы (Passive Voice) глагола в трех временных формах – Indefinite, Continuous, Perfect. Страдательный залог с модальными глаголами.
–Ырықсыз етістің (Passive Voice) үш түрлі шақтағы формасы – Indefinite, Continuous, Perfect. Ырықсыз етістегі модальды етістіктер.
2. Многозначность глаголов to be, to have, to do.
– Тo be, to have, to do етістіктерінің көп жақтылығы.
3. Неличные формы глагола: инфинитив (Infinitive) герундий (Gerund).
– Етістіктің бастапқы формасы: инфинитив (Infinitive) герундий (Gerund).
4. Отличие герундия от причастия настоящего времени (Participle).
– Герундидің осы шақтағы есімшеден (Participle) айырмашылығы.
5. Основные правила согласования времен. Перевод на русский язык главных и придаточных предложений при согласовании времен.
– Шақтардың қиылысуының негізгі ережелері. Шақтардың қиылысуы кезіндегі басыңқы сөйлем мен бағыныңқы сөйлемнің ана тіліне аударылуы.
6. Прямая и косвенная речь. Перевод из прямой речи в косвенную.
– Төл сөз және төлеу сөз. Төл сөзді төлеу сөзге айналдыру.
Грамматические упражнения – Грамматикалық жаттығулар
1 Перепишите следующие предложения, подчеркните в них глагол-сказуемое, определите его время, вид и залог. Переведите предложения на русский язык.
– Сөйлемді көшіріп жазып, ондағы баяндауыштың қызметін атқарып тұрған етістіктердің астын сызыңыз, етістің қандай түріне жататынын және етістіктің шағын анықтаңыз. Сөйлемді ана тіліне аударыңыз.
Например: is based ~~ Pr. Simple Passive
Newton’s law of motion can be subjected to criticism. 2. Compound semiconductors
have been applied to a great extent. 3. Which of two operations is to be
performed next? 4. Despite the apparent properties of compound semiconductors,
use has not been great because of several limitations. 5.
The potential difference
across the junction had been increased. 6. Magnetic amplifiers have been
employed for some 50 years; transistors were reported upon in 1948. 7.Sometimes a decision to compute is followed by a process of selecting the
particular kind of computing machine, which best suits for the given problem.
8. Our rockets, the first in the world, were being sent to other planets. 9 This
problem must be approached from, another point of view. 10. This job cannot
be done for a short period, you need at least a month.
глагол-сказуемое в следующих предложениях в стра
дательном залоге, стараясь сохранить время.
– Етістіктің шағын сақтай отырып, баяндауыштың қызметін атқарып тұрған етістікті тиісті ырықсыз етіске айналдырыңыз.
1. ? will-open the new University next October. 2. ? built these houses about 25 years ago. 3. ? can’t learn a foreign language in a few days.
3 Из данных слов постройте предложения. Глаголы
поставьте в нужной форме страдательного залога.
– Берілген сөздерден сөйлем құрастырыңыз. Жақшаның ішінде берілген етістікті ырықсыз етістің тиісті формасында жазыңыз.
1. she – in the library – every day – can (to see)
2. next year – is (to invite) – to England – she – to come.
3. Oxford – he – at – was (to educate).
4. a few students – was (to do) – this exercise – correctly.
5. the sun rays – is (to give) – to us – heat.
4 Трансформируйте предложения в активный залог, используя слова they, we, somebody в качестве подлежащего, где это необходимо.
– Тиісті жерде бастауыштың орнына they, we, somebody сөздерін қолдана отырып, сөйлемді негізгі етіске айналдырыңыз.
1. When much material had been looked through and some problems had been solved, the article was published. 2. Electric cars will be widely used in future. 3. The radar has been used for automatic control of ground transport. 4. To day plastics are being applied for car bodies. 5. The experiments on the new microcomputer must be finished in a month.
5 Перепишите и переведите на русский язык следующие предложения, обращая внимание на различные значения глаголов to do, to be, to have.
– Тo do, to be, to have етістіктерінің көп мағыналылығына мән бере отырып, сөйлемді ана тіліне аударыңыз және көшіріп жазыңыз.
1. You have to come to the language laboratory as often as possible. 2. This material does not possess elastic properties. 3. These computers will have to perform millions of operations. 4. The speed of electrons is almost the same as that of light. 5. The kind of electrolyte used has no effect on the electromotive force. 6. Man has made numerous inventions to increase the range of radio and TV transmissions. 7. Our task is to buy all their equipment. 8. What kinds of operations does the modem computer perform? 9. Don't do it!
6 Трансформируйте следующие предложения в придаточные дополнительные, начав с фраз I knew, I thought, He said. Измените время глаголов-сказуемых в придаточных дополнительных предложениях в соответствии с правилами согласования времен.
– I knew, I thought, He said сөз тіркестерімен бастай отырып, төмендегі сөйлемдерді бағыныңқы толықтауышқа айналдырыңыз. Шақтардың қиылысу ережесіне сүйене отырып, бағыныңқы сөйлемдегі баяндауыштың қызметін атқарып тұрған етістіктердің шақтарын өзгертіңіздер.
1. Faraday produced electricity through magnetism, which had never been done before. 2. Some substances are alike in their properties but differ in their mass. 3. Much attention will be given to artificial intelligence techniques applicable to problem solving and to man-machine interface. 4. We must get the samples, I admit the complexity of this. 5. Franklin didn't know what electricity was, but he knew it could be passed through a metal wire.
7 Перепишите следующий диалог с целью передачи чужих высказываний в косвенной речи сначала в настоящем времени
мер: Professor says that Alec's answer was rather good and...), а затем в
прошедшем (например: Professor said that Alec's answer had been rather
good and...). Помните, что при передаче чужого высказывания в
косвенной речи действует правило согласования времен, если кос
венная речь вводится глаголом в прошедшем времени!
– Төменде берілген диалогты төлеу сөзге айналдыру мақсатында әуелі осы шақта (мысалы: Professor says that Alec's answer was rather good and...), одан кейін өткен шақта (мысалы: Professor said that Alec's answer had been rather good and...) жазыңыз. Негізгі етіс өткен шақта тұрса төл сөзді төлеу сөзге айналдыру барысында шақтардың қиылысу ережесінің сақталатынын ескерген жөн.
Professor: Your answer was rather good. Would you answer a few extra questions?
Alec: I'll try.
Professor: What can the computer do with the information?
Alec: It can calculate, compare and copy the information stored in its memory.
Professor: What kinds of memory do you know?
Alec: RAM and ROM.
Professor: What is RAM?
Alec: RAM stands for Random Access Memory, because information can be transferred into and out of any single byte of memory.
Professor: And what does ROM stand for?
Alec: ROM is Read Only Memory. It is a finnmade permanent memory chip for program storage.
Professor: Good. Your answers are excellent.
Alec: Thank you, Professor. I'm pleased, as Programming has always been my favourite subject.
8 Передайте диалог, пересказанный в косвенной речи, в прямой речи.
– Төлеу сөзде берілген диалогты төл сөзге айналдырыңыз.
When Alec and Bob met Alec said that he had some questions about the computer interface. So he wanted Bob to explain some aspects to him. Bob answered in the positive.
The first question Alec asked concerned the notion of an interface. He added that people often used the English equivalent of that term and seemed not to differentiate between the types of interfaces. Bob explained that the interface was an interconnection between hardware, software and people. When Alec inquired what hardware interface consisted of Bob told that that type of the interface consisted of physical channels, cables, or wires that connected and exchanged electronic signals between CPU and peripherals or between any two units.
Then Alec was interested to learn what software interfaces connected in particular and Bob told that they were specific messages established between programs. Alec remembered that software interfaces were application programs. Data Base Management Systems and the operating programs. He thanked Bob and added that he felt ready to pass his exam in programming successfully.
9 Сгруппируйте предложения в зависимости от функции герундия, а затем переведите на русский язык.
– Герундидің функцияларына сай топтастырып, сөйлемді ана тіліне аударыңыз.
1. Casting is a process of forming metal objects. 2. Numerous methods have been developed for producing metal castings. 3. The test needed increasing the temperature of the metal. 4. There are some ways of obtaining high quality alloys. 5. Aluminum has a melting point of 658. 7 °C. 6. Melting may be done in cupolas, air furnaces, electric 7. Some metals require treatment before being placed in the melting furnace. 8. We know of electric furnaces being used for the production of high-grade castings. 9. Plastics are a new group of materials replacing natural products. 10. We know of Newton's having developed principles of mechanics.
слов, а затем и все предложение на русский язык.
– Сөйлемді көшіріп жазыңыз. Ерекшеленген сөз топтарының дұрыс аударылуына мән бере отырып, сөйлемдерді толыққанды аудырыңыз.
1. In building new metallurgical factories, engineers have to solve many different problems. 2. In melting steel, electric furnaces, crucible furnaces and converters are used. 3. Liquids and gases expand on heating. 4. On completing the construction, the machine was tested in operation. 5. Casting is a process of forming metal objects by melting metal and pouring it into molds. 6. By introducing new methods the engineers increased the speed of manufacture. 7. High-quality programs can't be produced without employing qualified programmers. 8. Magnets made by rubbing pieces of iron against natural magnets are called artificial magnets. 9. Scientists succeeded in developing means of obtaining a synthetic rubber. 10. The hardening process consists in heating steel and cooling it in water.
приводимые ниже предложения с инфинитивом и
покажите разницу их структурных моделей через перевод.
– Төменде берілген сөйлемді тұйық етістікпен салыстырыңыз және аудару арқылы сөйлемдердің жасалу жолдарының айырмашылықтарын көрсетіңіздер.
1. То obtain steel of the desired quality is the main subject of the experiments carried out in the research laboratory. To obtain steel of the desired quality the research laboratory earned out a lot of experiments. 2. To develop a new method of cutting metals was necessary. To develop a new method of cutting metals the engineers made some interesting experiments. 3. To design new machine tools a mechanical engineer must study much. To design new machine tools is the task of a mechanical engineer.
14 Перепишите и переведите на русский язык предложения с инфинитивом в функции определения.
– Анықтауыштың қызметін атқарып тұрған тұйық етістігі бар сөйлемді көшіріп жазып, ана тіліне аударыңыз.
1. Engineers must know the best and most economical materials to use and understand the properties of these materials and how they can be worked. 2. Another factor for the industrial engineer to consider is whether each manufacturing process can be automated in whole or in part. 3. The problem to be discussed at the conference is of great importance. 4. Much was done to make the work engineers easier. 5. Russian scientists were the first to synthesize diamonds. 6. The road to be built next year will connect these two towns.
времени или герундием. Переведите предложения на русский язык.
– V-ing жалғауы жалғанған сөздер есімшенің қызметін атқарып тұр ма әлде, герундидің қызметін атқарып тұр ма соны анықтаңыз. Сөйлемді ана тіліне аударыңыз.
1. While decoding was taking place, other parts of the control section were prepared for the following operation. 2. We can get a better idea of the use and operation of a computer by looking at an example. 3. Programming with machine language requires knowledge of the computer and its internal connections. 4. Assembly language programming is easier to use. 5. Everything we supply to the computer for processing must be converted into binary form. 6. The cells are arranged as groups, storing a number of bits together as a byte. 7. Obtaining a byte from storage and moving it to the control block is called the fetch part of the computation cycle. 8. Input to the register is called data, and is in the form of one binary digit following the other. 9. The register is capable of processing four bits.
Прочитайте и переведите на русский язык текст. Вкратце перескажите каждый абзац текста и ответьте на следующие вопросы:
– Мәтінді оқып ана тіліне аударыңыз. Әр абзацты жүйелі түрде қамти отырып, мәтінді баяндап беріңіз және төмендегі сұрақтарға жауап беріңіз.
1. What is computing? 2. What was the purpose for building of the early electronic computers? 3. What are the parts of computer system. 4. What is programming for automatic computer?
Suppose you sit down with pencil and paper and center your attention on adding figures. You add first all the digits in the right-hand column, then all the digits in the next column, and so on - until you finally arrive at the answer. When you do this, you are computing. When you stop at a street corner, looking first to the left for any coming car, then to the right, to cross the street or to wait on the sidewalk - you are computing. When you are walking along a poorly marked path in the woods, thinking if you are really on the path or have lost it- you are computing. When you are taking in information or data, performing reasonable operations (mathematical or logical) on the data, and are producing one or more answers -you are computing. A machine can also do this. It can take in information or data, perform a sequence of reasonable operations (последовательность разумных операций) on the information, which it has received, and put out answers. When it does this, it is computing.
A very simple example of a computer is the ordinary business adding machine which prints on paper tape the number entered into its keyboard, and also prints a total when you press the total key. A complex example of a computer is a modem automatic digital computer, which in each second can perform more than 100,000,000,000 additions, subtractions, multiplications, or divisions. A computing machine can take in and store information because the hardware inside the machine expresses arithmetical and logical relations, such as adding or subtracting, comparing or selecting. A computer can also put out information, display the answers when it receives them. Hardware is useless without software, which is computer instructions and programs. The modem computers are of three kinds called analog, digital, and hybrid. An analog computer computes by using physical analogs of numerical measurements. A digital computer computes by using numbers (digits) and yes's and noes expressed usually in 1 's and O's. A hybrid computer is a machine, which combines some of the properties of digital and analog computers.
In the early 1940s the electronic computer was made with the mechanical Relays replaced by vacuum tubes. These were, however, single-purpose computers designed to aid in the war effort. The first general-purpose electronic computer was ENIAC (Electronic Numeric Integrator and Calculator) that was put into operation at the University of Pennsylvania in 1946 - a 30-ton machine that contained over 17,000 vacuum tubes and performed 100,000 operations per second (1 000 Kilohertz, or kHz), 1 000 times slower than today's mega hertz (MHz) chips. With the invention of transistors in 1948, vacuum tubes that generated a great amount of heat were replaced by small transistors that functioned perfectly as switches and generated little heat. By 1953 there were only about 100 computers in the entire world. They were huge expensive machines. It was hard to imagine that one day machines that were hundreds of times smaller and thousands of times more powerful would occupy most homes and offices.
The first integrated circuit for computers was developed in 1958. Only in 1971 was the microprocessor that contained all the basic elements of a computer on a single chip introduced, followed by desktop computers in the mid-1970s. Early computers were built as single-purpose machines, that is, they were built for performing a specific task. The first general-purpose ENIAC built in 1946 was programmable, but changing a program required rewiring the machine! The micromini computers of the 1970s and most in the 1980s followed the same pattern and required extensive knowledge of common codes and function keys. Apple Computer's Macintosh revolutionized the personal computer industry with a new machine. The user no longer has to memorize an operating system command for loading a program or file. Icons or small graphic images that can be selected with a mouse or other pointing device represent programs, functions, and flies.
In order to use computers effectively to solve problems computer systems are devised. Computer systems may be discussed in two parts. The first part is hardware - the physical, electronic, and electromechanical devices that are thought of and recognized as "computers". The hardware consists of die Central Processing Unit (CPU), input devices and output devices. The CPU is made up of a processor and a main memory, or .main store. The processor carries out, or executes, instructions in the program. The main memory stores input data and the program needed by the processor. The main memory also holds output data, or the results of processing.
Input devices are used to provide data for the CPU. The keyboard is a common data input device. By using a keyboard, a user can enter data directly into the computer system. Data is sometimes entered on cards or it is often input from a mass storage device, such as magnetic tape ormagnetic disk. A mass storage device has amuch larger capacity Лап main memory. That is, it can store more data The tapes or disks are read by an input device called a tape drive or a disk drive.
Output devices receive data from the CPU. The Visual Display Unit (VDU) and printer are common output devices. The VDU is similar to a TV screen. The printer produces printed output on paper. Both the VDU and printer present output data for immediate use. Sometimes, the output data is transmitted along a telephone line to another computer. Output data can also be stored for future use on a mass storage device, such as magnetic tapes or disks.
Input and output devices as well as mass storage devices are collectively called peripherals.
The second part is software - programs that control and coordinate the activities of the computer hardware and that direct data processing.
For the computer system to operate, computer programs are required. A computer program is a set of instructions for the CPU. These instructions tell the CPU where to find the input data in the system The CPU is also instructed how to process die data and where to put the results. Programs are not hardware, as they have no electrical or mechanical components. They can be easily changed according to the user's needs.
Computer software can be divided into two very broad categories - system software and application software.
The word "program" has come into use to refer to a sequence of instructions, which a computer carries out. A program for a computer is an exact sequence of instructions that it uses to solve a problem. It usually consists of subroutines or subprograms, which are portions of it.
Programming for automatic computer requires a good deal of knowledge, common sense, and training. Specially, programming requires:
(1) understanding the operations of a business or the steps of a scientific calculations; (2) understanding the best way for having a computer carry out these operations and steps; (3) arriving at a good sequence of commands for the computer to solve the problem; and (4) adequately translating these commands into the computer language.
Programming for the computer has several forms. One form is the construction of compiling programs or compilers - which use the computer to take subprograms out of a library and link (соединять) them together appropriately (соответственно) so as to solve a new problem. A second form is the construction of programs called interpreters, which accept instructions in certain standard words and translate theses words into a machine language, so that the machine "knows" what the words "mean". A third form is the development of common languages for automatic programming for problems, so that any problem when expressed in such a language can be given to any other automatic computer, and the computer will translate the common language into its own instruction code, and then solve the problem.
until you finally arrive at the answer - до тех пор, пока вы наконец не получите ответ – нақты жауап алғанға дейін
a sidewalk — тротуар – көшенің жаяу адам жүруге арналған бөлігі
а poorly marked path — едва заметная тропинка – көрінер-көрінбес жалғыз аяқ жол
if you are really on the path or have lost it – действительно ли вы находитесь на тропинке или заблудились – сіз шынымен жалғыз аяқ жолдасыз ба, әлде адасып кеттіңіз бе?
yes's and noes expressed usually as 1's and O's - да и нет, выраженных обычно единицами и нулями – бірлікпен немесе нөлмен көрсетілген, ия және жоқ белгісі
to aid in the war effort - для помощи в военных действиях – әскери іс-әрекеттерге көмек көрсету үшін
Switches – переключатели – тоққа қосу тетігі
rewiring – перепрошивать – қайта тігу, қайта тесу
followed the same pattern — следовали тому же образцу – тура сол үлгіні қолдану
exact sequence – точная последовательность – дәлме-дәл жүйелілік, бір ізділік
a good deal of – много – көп
common sense — здравый смысл – дұрыс мағына(ақыл)
compilers – составитель, компилятор – құрастырушы
link – соединять – жалғау, қосу
appropriately – соответственно – сәйкес, лайық
Лексические упражнения – Лексикалық жаттығулар
1 Переведите следующие атрибутивные словосочетания:
– Төмендегі анықтауыштық құрылымды аударыңыз.
next column, total key, numerical measurements, mechanical relays, integrated circuit, common codes, main memory.
2 Переведите следующие словосочетания и составьте предложения:
– Төмендегі сөз тіркестерін аударып, сөйлем құрастырыңыз.
adding figures, single purpose, computer instructions, put out answers, tape the number, press the key, computing machine, function keys, input devices, out put data, single chip.
3 Образуйте существительные при помощи следующих суффиксов
– Берілген сөздерге суффикстерді жалғап, зат есім жасаңыз.
-or: process, generate
-ation: operate, calculate, coordinate
-ing: program, solve, control, add, press
-ion: instruct, subtract, constract
-age: use, store
1. Основные сведения о сослагательном наклонении. Аналитические и синтетические формы сослагательного наклонения. Сослагательное наклонение в условных придаточных предложениях.
– Шартты рай туралы жалпы мағлұмат. Шартты райдың аналитикалық және синтетикалық түрлері. Бағыныңқы сөйлемдегі шартты рай.
2. Сложные формы инфинитива, герундия и причастия. Обороты, равнозначные придаточным предложениям:
– Тұйық етістіктің, герундидің және есімшенің күрделі формалары. Бағыныңқы сөйлемге сай келетін сөз орамдары.
-объектный инфинитивный оборот (Complex Object);
–күрделі толықтауыш (Complex Object);
-субъектный инфинитивный оборот (Complex Subject);
–күрделі бастауыш (Complex Subject);
- самостоятельный (независимый) причастный оборот (Absolute Participial Construction);
– дербес есімшелік орам (Absolute Participial Construction);
- конструкции с герундием (Gerundial Complexes).
– герундиді сөз құрамы (Gerundial Complexes).
3. Сложные предложения. Способы перевода придаточных определительных, обстоятельственных и дополнительных предложений.
– Күрделі сөйлемдер. Бағыныңқы анықтауыш, пысықтауыш және толықтауышты сөйлемдердің аударылу тәсілдері.
Грамматические упражнения – Грамматикалық жаттығулар
1 Перепишите и письменно переведите данные ниже предложения, учитывая особенности употребления сослагательного наклонения в английском языке.
– Ағылшын тілінде шартты райдың қолданылу ерекшелігіне мән бере отырып, сөйлемді көшіріп жазып, ана тіліне аударыңыз.
would go abroad for a month, but she won't be able to finish
her experiments. 2.It is impossible that they should have done this. 3.I wish I were you. 4.Our students would take part in the forthcoming conference. 5.They insisted that he should make a report about the results of his investigation. 6.He speaks English as if he had lived in England all his life. 7. The scientists would test the equipment together with the representative of the plant. 8.It was important that he should make a report. 9.He speaks English as if he were a foreigner. 10.He looks as though he had known it before.
2 Перепишите и
письменно переведите данные предложения, со
держащие придаточные условные. Определите тип условного предложения (реальное или нереальное условие).
– Шартты бағыныңқы сөйлемді көшіріп жазып, аударыңыз. Шартты райдың типін анықтаңыз (айқын жүзеге асатын немесе қисынсыз жүзеге аспайтын).
1. If you
intensify the process by heating the materials, you' 11 save a great
deal of time. 2. If we fail to find the materials mentioned in the description, we
shall try to use those available in the laboratory. 3. If we had any trouble with
the equipment we were using in the tests, the engineer would always help us.
4. If the new materials such as plastics were applied in railway transport to a
considerable extent, van and car bodies would have a long life and low costs
of maintenance. 5. If the technician had given instructions we should have
carried out the experiments successfully. 6. Had the students studied the English
language well enough when they were at school, they would have been able to
read any book without a dictionary. 7. If the same temperature is maintained
all the time, we shall obtain the desired results. 8. If you applied this method,
you would get better results. 9. If you had classified the data, fewer tests
would have been needed. 10. Should you ask me what the advantages of
plastics are I shall begin with those of their properties?
3 Употребите нужную форму сослагательного наклонения в придаточном предложении.
–Бағыныңқы сөйлемде шартты райдың тиісті формасын қолданыңыз.
1. He might have understand it if you … slowly.
a) have spoken
b) had spoken
c) would speak
2. He would have participated in the conference if he … ill.
a) didn’t fall
b) wouldn’t fall
c) hadn’t fallen
3. If I … school this year, I should enter the physics department of the University.
a) shall finish
c) have finished
4. He would translate this paper without any difficulty if you … him a dictionary
a) will give
b) have given
5. If I … busy, I should have visited the exhibition.
a) were not
b) haven’t been
c) hadn’t been
4 Употребите нужную форму сослагательного наклонения в главном предложении.
– Басыңқы сөйлемде шартты райдың тиісті формасын қолданыңыз.
1. If you hadn’t been late for the lecture, you … this information.
a) would hear
b) would have heard
c) should have heard
2. If I knew that the traffic lights were red I … .
a) would have stopped
b) would stop
c) should stop
3. If you had obeyed my instructions you … into trouble.
a) wouldn’t get
b) wouldn’t have got
c) couldn’t get
5 Поставьте глагол в скобках в нужную форму сослагательного наклонения.
– Жақшаның ішінде берілген етістікті шартты райдың тиісті формасына қойыңыз.
1. He (to be) the best student in the group if he (to work) harder. 2. I (to read) the book long ago if I (to borrow) it from the library, but the book was not available. 3. The experiment (to give) good results if we (not to use) the old method of testing. 4. If we (not to waste) so much energy, our resources (to last) longer. 5. Just imagine what the world (to be) like if we (not to have) electricity!
переведите следующие предложения, принимая во
внимание многозначность английских глаголов should и would.
– Ағылшын тілінде should және would етістіктерінің көп мағыналылығына мән бере отырып, төмендегі сөйлемдерді көшіріп жазып, ана тіліне аударыңыз.
1. The workers insisted that the new method should be introduced without delay. 2.1 thought that I should meet you in the laboratory. 3. We should meet today or tomorrow to discuss some of the common problems. 4. Should we have any trouble with the machine, we may ask the engineer to give instructions to us. 5.1 believed that we should double the output after having introduced new machine tools. 6. I thought it would be difficult to avoid the motor overheating. 7. It would be difficult to avoid the overheating of the motor without introducing an effective cooling system.
Перепишите и письменно переведите
данные ниже предложения, учитывая
особенности перевода зависимого и независимого
– Тәуелді және дербес есімшелік орамдардың аударылуының ерекшелігіне мән бере отырып, төмендегі сөйлемдерді көшіріп жазыңыз және ана тіліне аударыңыз.
1.When calculating the weight of a body, we have to multiply its specific gravity by its volume. 2.While working at his new computer, the inventor made numerous improvements. 3. An electron computer forms an impressively complex device, when viewed as a whole. 4. When using a controller on a modern military aircraft, it can perform automatic testing of aircraft equipment. 5. Other conditions being equal, iron heats up faster than aluminum. 6. Personal computers being used for many purposes, scientists go on improving their characteristics. 7.There were some reports concerning electric waves at the Congress of 1896, Popov's report of the new type of communication being the center of attention. 8. The machines arriving to day, we shall proceed to mount them. 9. The new instrument being designed in our laboratory will be used in radio engineering research. 10.My father, being an engineer himself, was very pleased when he heard me speaking to my schoolmates about the methods of making various kinds of steel.
8 Перепишите и письменно переведите предложения с инфинитивными конструкциями Complex Object и Complex Subject.
– Тұйық етістігі бар күрделі толықтауыш пен күрделі бастауышты сөз құрылымы бар сөйлемді көшіріп жазып, ана тіліне аударыңыз.
(А) 1. We expect this discover}' to produce great changes in the field of electronics. 2. We want this machinery to be utilized to 80 % of its capacity. 3. He assumed the vacuum rubes to have been made of all sizes. 4. The engineer wants / this new computer to be tested under very severe conditions. 5. Many people believe computers to be able to solve problems yet unsolved. 6. We observe the precision required during processing be constant. 7. The test has shown the system to be oriented principally to general business and industrial data processing. 8. The scientist believes a microcomputer system designed for severe-environment industrial application to have been constructed.
(Б) 1. The use of mercury in thermometers appears to have been first mentioned in the middle of the 18th century. 2. The rocket is known to be an engine, which propels itself by using liquids as fuel. 3. Every educated person is supposed to know Newton's Third Law "For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction"-. 4. The human beings seem not to be able to add or multiply without using auxiliary devices such as pencil and paper. 5. The first stage appears to have taken almost a month to complete. 6. A party to investigate the locai materials available for construction is expected to submit its report by the first of March. 7. These devices are considered to be very effective. 8. These changes are expected to take place due to the Earth magnetism.
9 Перепишите и письменно переведите предложения, содержащие конструкции с герундием.
– Герундиді сөз құрылымы бар сөйлемді көшіріп жазып, ана тіліне аударыңыз.
1. I remember this weapon having been mentioned in the history of the First World War. 2. He mentioned his having tested this particular material for strength with entirely satisfactory results. 3. We know of his having been instructed to find a satisfactory substitute for copper. 4. The engineer insisted on plywood being used instead of metal for some parts of the car. 5. Mme Curie’s having discovered radium enabled her to isolate radioactive elements.
10 Перепишите следующие сложноподчиненные предложения, подчеркните в них придаточные и укажите, являются ли они дополнительными (Д) или определительными (О).
– Төменде берілген сабақтас құрмалас сөйлемді көшіріп жазып, бағыныңқы сөйлемдердің астын сызыңыздар және олардың қайсысы толықтауыштың (Т), қасысы анықтауыштың (А) қызметін атқарып тұрғанын анықтаңыз.
1.In this case we can suppose that a molecule consists of two equal atoms. 2. Perhaps, the most important uses of radar are those that give greater reliability to sea and air travel. 3. It is necessary to know whether or not the molecules can still rotate freely in the crystal at the lowest temperature. 4. The asymmetry we observe indicates that the electrons strike the plate with a tendency to spin to the right rather than to the left. 5. The latest investigations show how this deflection system works. 6. It is interesting to know if this circuit is a low-level noise device. 7. The computer, which can utilize both analog and digital data is called hybrid computer.
– Мәтінді оқып ана тіліне аударыңыз. Әр абзацты жүйелі түрде қамти отырып, мәтінді баяндап беріңіз және төмендегі сұрақтарға жауап беріңіз:
1. What technological inventions were made in the 20th century? 2. What are the main achievements in the development of cosmonautics? 3. What new smart machines of robotics are in practical use? 4. The technological and industrial progress depends on the profession of engineering, doesn’t it?
Technology has made modern society possible. It has added to leisure time and reduced the long hours of work. Technology can allow the world feed itself. It has reduced the effects of natural catastrophes. The world is now a smaller place where people can communicate with each other and travel rapidly everywhere. The establishment of the assembly line by Henry Ford in 1913 made automobiles inexpensive enough. Technology has raised the standard of living. The 20th century has become the century of many inventions. New materials (e. g. synthetic rubber, artificial fabrics and plastics) have affected the ways of life and fashion. Electronics was ushered in when Marconi sent the first transatlantic radio message in 1901. Radio and television changed communications and entertainment habits. In 1948 the transistor was invented, and the era of modern computers was started. In 1957 the Space Age began, when the first Earth-orbiting satellite - Sputnik - was launched by the Soviet Union. Medical technology was expanded by the use of new medicines and new equipment. New technologies in biology led to genetic engineering, in which living cells can be altered. In 1996 a lamb called Dolly has become the first large animal, which was cloned from the genetic material extracted from the adult cell. Technology keeps advancing at a rapid rate. It can only be guessed what the "information revolution" of the late 20* century will bring about.
The development of cosmonautics is closely connected with the achievements of pilots and spacemen, aircraft and spacecraft engineers and builders. Aviation has become the cradle of cosmonautics. And this was not accidental at the turn of the 20th century the Russian scientists Konstantin Tsiolkovsky solved several problems on the theory of reactive movement and substantiated the possibility of manned space flight. His theoretical calculations have been extensively used by scientists in all countries. In the 1920s several groups of scientists and engineers worked on the problems of rocketry in the Soviet Union. In 1934 a research Institute of reactive Propulsion was organized and all the fundamental works and investigations in rocketry were concentrated in it. It was this institute that trained many outstanding experts in rocketry, including S. Korolyov who subsequently became chief designer of powerful multi-stage rockets. Today, outer space is not merely an object of study; it is also an enormous laboratory where new materials and design structures are tested under natural conditions. Cosmonautics is becoming more international in nature, mainly for global scientific, engineering and economic reasons. A vital step towards understanding the Solar System and the Universe is the flight to another celestial body though such an exploration will take generations. Landing on the Moon is just the beginning - not the end - of a new era of discovery of new worlds. Manned flight to Mars seems to be the next logical step. From the scientific and engineering standpoint, a typical Mars landing mission might begin with the orbiting of the elements for either one or two identical spaceships by newly developed "space shuttles". These are reusable carriers for transporting men and equipment between the ground and the Earth's orbit. While the mission could be carried out with a single ship, the use of two would provide an. additional safety factor, since each would be large enough to accommodate the astronauts of its sister ship in the event of a major failure. Furthermore, with two ships, additional equipment could be carried. The nominal crew of each ship would be six men. The spaceship itself would be divided into major three sections: the forward compartment housing the Mars surface exploration module; the main mission module with living quarters, the control area, experimental laboratories, and a radiation shelter in which the crew could live during periods of intense solar activity; and the biological laboratory for receiving and analyzing surface samples from Mars. The entire spaceship would be continuously rotated. If two ships made the trip simultaneously, they could be docked end-to-end and rotated in the plane of the longitudinal axis. No doubt, the time will come when people will build and inhabit orbiting stations and reach other planets in order to harness outer space to serve the mankind.
In the mid-1960s Prof. Hiroyasu Funakubo of Japan's Medical Precision Engineering Institute was handed a particularly challenging assignment: develop an artificial limb for thalidomide babies born without arms. Eight years later Fimakubo produced an aluminum and carbon-fiber ami powered by eleven separate micromotors - which, on command, could duplicate almost any function of the human arm. Professor Funakubo's arm proved too expensive for its intended purpose. But it has turned out to be a key element in a generation of "mechatronic" robots. This class of robots seemed to cement Japan's position as world leader in the business for years to come. Japanese companies moved into the field and quickly conquered the market. By the end of 1980s Japanese producers had supplied about 70% of the industrial robots working in the Western world. Nevertheless, industry leaders in Japan feel their biggest growth is yet to come. Much of the growth is likely to stem from research like Professor Funakubo's. The electrical arm is much more accurate than the hydraulic arms used in many robot models, and robot manufactures are now confident they will produce "intelligent robots" that will be able to "see" and "feel" and take over more production-line and commercial functions. For example, there has been developed a snake-like robot that can creep through pipes and other narrow openings to inspect and even do repair work in places inaccessible to humans. One Japanese company is getting ready to market a janitor-watchman that is simultaneously able to clean the floor and send out radio signals warning against fires or intruders. In the prototype stage are even more sophisticated devices: a 25-fingered breast-cancer detector, a Seeing Eye dog and a home-care system for invalids. Most of the new robots are expected to be used in heavy industry, where the current generation of smart machines has already proved popular in automotive and other assembly plants, performing such tasks as spot welding and body painting. Industry around the world is looking for robots to save on labour costs. Nissan Motor says that its new light-truck plant in Smyrna, U. S., is equipped with more than 200 robots. Experts also point out that demograpliic trends show fewer people coming into the job market in the years ahead, making robots something of a necessity. Robots may also take over jobs that humans find undesirable — such as coal mining. While industry should continue to be the biggest markets for robotry, some of the more interesting developments are taking place in the medical field. Funakubo's arms, for example, have been mounted in pair on a bedside table and linked to a robot cart that shuttles back and forth between a storage cabinet and the patient's bed. That system can be activated by keyboard, voice command and even by whistles and gasps. The cart and the amis can find and deliver to the patient a newspaper or a piece of fruit - anything that is stored in the cabinet. As yet the fingers of the arms are not able to peel the fruit, but Funakubo thinks they will have that capacity. Among the other new robots under development is the Melkong. which can pick the patient gently off his bed, put him in a bathtub and deposit him back in bed again. Not all of the applications on the robotry drawing boards will prove to be practical. But the demand for new smart machines will continue. After all, they never go on vacation, take a break or ask for a rise.
Engineering is one of the most ancient occupations in history. Without the skills included in the broad field of engineering, our present-day civilization never could have evoked. The first toolmakers that chipped arrows and spears from rock were forerunners of modern mechanical engineering. The craftsmen who discovered metals in the earth and found ways to refine and use them were ancestors of mining and metallurgical engineers. And the skilled technicians who devised irrigation systems and erected the marvelous buildings of the ancient world were the civil engineers of their time. Engineering is often defined as making practical application of theoretical sciences such as physics and mathematics. Many of the early branches of engineering were based not on science but on empirical information that depended on observation and experience. The great engineering works of ancient times were constructed and operated largely by means of slave labour. During the Middle Ages people began to seek devices and methods of work that were more efficient and humane. Wind, water and animals were used to provide energy for some of these devices. This led to the Industrial Revolution, which began in the 18th century. First steam engines and then all kinds of machines took over more and more of the work that had previously been done by human beings or by animals. By the end of the 19th century not only were mechanical, civil, and mining and metallurgical engineering established but newer specialties of chemical and electrical engineering also emerged. This growth in the number of specialists is continuing with the establishment of such disciplines as aerospace, nuclear, petroleum, and electronic engineering. Engineering has become a profession. Today technological and industrial progress depends on it and the engineer must combine many of the characteristics of the scientists, research engineer and technologist. His interest must be in combining the abstract-theoretical world and the technical-practical world.
институт точной медицинской техники – нақты медициналық техника институты
седативный препарат, в результате приема которого женщина может родить ребенка с деформированными конечностями – дәрі-дәрмекті ішу салдарынан, жүкті әйелдің аяқ-қолы әртүрлі өзгеріске душар болған баланы дүниеге әкелуі
уборщик и сторож одновременно – әрі тазалаушы,әрі күзетші
alter – переделывать, изменить – өзгерту
cradle – колыбель, люлька – бесік, бесікті тербету
propulsion – движение вперед, движущая сила – ілгері қозғалыс, қозғаушы күш
merely – только, просто – тек қана, әншейін
universe – вселенная. Мир – әлем, әлем дүниесі
shelter – приют, убежище, укрытие (дать приют, служить убежищем) – пана, баспана
intense – сильный, напряженный – күшті, қуатты қызу
longitudinal axis – продольная ось – ұзына бойлық ось (білік)
rotate – вращаться – айналу, дөңгелену
to harness – использовать как источник энергии – энергия көзі ретінде пайдалану (күнді)
limb – часть тела – дене бітім бөлігі
Лексические упражнения – Лексикалық жаттығулар
1 Сгруппируйте слова “A” противоположные по значению и “B” одинаковые по значению:
– “A” тармағында мағыналары қарама-қарсы сөздерді, ал “B” тармағында бірдей мағына беретін сөздерді топтастырыңыз.
A. possible-impossible, rapidly-quickly, expensive-inexpensive, natural- artificial, main- major, entire-whole, to harness-to use, supply-provide, current-modern, task-assignment, sophisticated-complex, heavy-easy, smart-intelligent, desirable-undesirable, rise-fall.
B. alter-change, fundamental-basic, investigation-exploration, starting-beginning, manned-unmanned, enough-sufficient, accommodate-include, accessible-inaccessible, heavy-hard, equipment-facility, field-branch, capacity-power, use-application, pick-collect.
2 Переведите следующие словосочетания:
– Төмендегі сөзтіркестерін аударыңыздар:
assembly line, the first Earth-orbiting satellite, living cells, manned space flight, powerful multistage rockets, typical Mars landing mission, an additional safety factor, the Mars surface exploration module, intense solar activity, eleven separate micro motors, a snake-like robot.
3 Переведите следующие словосочетания и составьте предложения:
– Төмендегі сөзтіркестерін аударыңыздар және сөйлем құрастырыңыздар.
Travel rapidly, radio message, rapid rate, space flight, new era, intelligent robots, heavy industry, smart machines, industrial revolution, electronic engineering.
ТЕКСТЫ ДЛЯ ДОПОЛНИТЕЛЬНОГО ЧТЕНИЯ
ҚОСЫМША ОҚУҒА АРНАЛҒАН МӘТІНДЕР
From the history of computers
The introduction of agriculture revolutionized ancient man's social, economic, and cultural potential. This was the first great step in the evolution of civilization. The more recent Industrial Revolution, vastly increasing man's productive capabilities, was the next great step and brought forth our present highly mechanized economic and interdependent social civilization.
Nowadays we have another new kind of revolution, based on machines that greatly increase man's thinking capabilities of planning, analyzing, computing, and controlling. Hundreds of millions of computers are already in daily use penetrating almost all spheres of our modern society, from nuclear energy production and missile design to the processing of bank checks and medical diagnoses.
The development of mechanical calculating machines made the digital computers necessary. An ordinary arithmometer and a desk key calculator have given rise to electronic digital computers. Digital computers came into being in the first half of the 17 th century. Many outstanding Russian and foreign mathematicians of that time created mechanical calculating devices.
The famous Russian scientist M. V. Lomonosov compiled a lot of calculating tables and several computing devices concerning different fields of science and engineering.
In 1874 the Russian engineer V. T. Odner invented a special counter wheel named after him the Odner's wheel, which is used in modem arithmometers and calculators.
P. L. Chebyshev, academician, made a valuable contribution to the field of computing machines. He is known to have many good ideas in mathematics, some of which have been named after him. For example, the Chebyshev's polynomials play a unique role in the field of orthogonal functions. In 1878 he constructed an original computing machine, which was exhibited in Paris. In 1882 P. L. Chebyshev invented an arithmometer performing automatically multiplication and division. The automation principle put into this computing machine is still widely used all over the world for developing modem computers.
In 1884 Russia began manufacturing computing machines. During World War I the output of computing machines was stopped but soon it continued.
At the end of the 1930s computing engineering began the new era. There appeared computers operating at high speed. The rapid advance of computers resulted from the success achieved by electronics. There appeared a possibility to solve complex mathematical problems within an unusually short time. Modern engineering enables to do the amount of calculations and researches within a very short period of time, which would have required years of laborious work of large groups of people before.
The first electronic digital computer was developed in Russia under the supervision of S. A. Lebedev in 1950. Then, in 1953 BESM (High-Speed Electronic Computer) was designed by the Academy of Sciences. This machine could perform about 250 million operations. A human being could do this work during 300 years of continuous labour.
BESM was followed by a number of large-, medium-, and small-size general and special purpose computers. It was the first generation of computers constructed on electronic tubes.
The second-generation computers were solid-state large-powered machines. Computers made on integrated circuits containing hundreds of thousands of active electronic devices in tiny elements are of the third and fourth generations. Computers of the fifth generation contain high-level user interfaces based on VLSI and SLSI, optical fibers, videodisks, and artificial intelligence approaches for interaction via natural languages, including speech input.
A major advance in the development of computer technologies was the creation of microprocessors and microcomputers. These tiny computer devices are able to control complex operations.
So we see that the significance of the electronic computers invention can be compared with the invention of the steam engine at the end of the 18th century and the utilization of atomic energy.
a special counter wheel - специальное счетное колесо –арнайы есептегіш дөңгелек
he is known to.... - известно, что он ... – оның ... болғаны белгілі
which would require years of laborious work of large groups of people before - которые потребовали бы раньше годы трудоемкой работы большей группы людей – бұрынғы кезде көптеген адамның бірнеше жыл бойы тынымсыз жұмыс жасауын қажет ететін
general and special purpose computers - универсальные и специализированные компьютеры – әмбебап және арнайы компьютерлер
VLSI (Very Large-Scale Integration) - интеграция очень высокого уровня – ең жоғары дәрежелі интеграция, SLSI (Super Large-Scale Integration) – интеграция сверх высокого уровня –шамадан тыс жоғары дәрежелі интеграция
artificial intelligence – искусственный интеллект – жасанды интеллект
Computer as a concert
In the developed world of the 20th century, man lives surrounded by a bewildering variety of machines on which his way of life and even life itself depends. These machines can be simple or complex, minute or enormous. Some, like a sewing machine, are for specific applications while other, like electric drill, can be used for a variety of purposes. Some machines, though designed for a specific purpose, are components in many different machines; for instance, the electric motor gives the electric drill its flexibility. This is because the purpose of the motor - to provide power — is fundamental in many applications.
Another fundamental aspect of twentieth-century Hfe is the vast amount and variety of information that surrounds man from media such as the telephone and radio. This has transformed everyday life as much as engines and motors. There are many machines developed to handle the information, for example television cameras to record pictures, transmitters to send these pictures to television receivers in people's homes.
The ease of using machines also varies and is not always related to their complexity. For example, some, like refrigerators, can work untended, and little skill or training is required to use a television set or a tin-opener; whereas considerable aptitude, instruction and practice is needed to fly an airplane or use a potter's wheel. The amount of skill and training required might depend on the circumstances of use - driving a motorcar on a country road is a skill relatively easily acquired compared to driving a racing car on a grand prix circuit. Knowledge of the principles behind the operation of a machine may be useful. It is possible to drive a car without knowing anything about what happens under the bonnet, although one can probably drive better for knowing something about mechanics.
Computers are machines, which handle information, and they are based on relatively simple principles. Knowledge of these principles helps one to understand computers and make better use of them.
Computers which deal with numerical information can be divided into three classes: (1) digital, in which the representation of numbers and the calculations on them are performed by counting processes (e. g. by counting teeth on gear wheels or counting electrical impulses); (2) analogue, in which the representation of numbers and the calculations on them are performed my measuring processes (e. g. in electronic computers by measuring voltages); and (3) hybrid, in which both kinds of process are used. Nowadays the word computer, unless qualified, normally means 'electronic digital computer'; 'electronic' because in most computers electronic processes have replaced all others because of their speed, reliability and cheapness, "digital" because the exactness of digital processes implies a greater potential for accuracy.
The Internet, a global computer network that embraces millions of users all over the world, began in the US in 1969 as a military experiment. It was designed to survive a nuclear war. Information sent over the Internet takes the shortest path available from one computer to another. Because of this, any two computers on the Internet will be able to stay in touch with each other as long as there is a single route between them. Most of the Internet host computers (more than 50%) are in the US, while the rest are located in more than 100 other countries. Although the number of host computers can be counted fairly accurately, nobody knows exactly how many people use the Internet, there are millions, and their number is growing.
The most popular Internet service is e-mail. Most of the people, who have access to the Internet, use the network only for sending and receiving e-mail messages. However, other popular services are available on the Internet: reading USENET News, using the World-Wide Web, telnet, FTP, and Gopher.
In many developing countries the Internet may provide businessmen with a reliable alternative to the expensive and unreliable telecommunication systems of these countries. Commercial users can communicate over the Internet with the rest of the world and can do it very cheaply. When they send e-mail messages, they only have to pay the phones calls to their local service providers, not for calls across their countries or around the world. But who actually pays for sending e-mail messages over the Internet long distances, around the world? The answer is very simple: a used pays his/her service provider a monthly or hourly fee. Part of this fee goes towards its cost to connect to a larger sendee provider. And part of the fee got by the larger provider goes to cover its cost of running worldwide networft of wires and wireless stations.
But saving money is only the first step. If people see that they can make money from the Internet, commercial use of this network will drastically increase. For example, some western architecture companies and garment centers already transmit their basic designs and concepts over the Internet into China, where they are reworked and refined by skilled - but inexpensive -Chinese computer-aided-design specialists.
However, some problems remain. The most important is security. When you send an e-mail message to somebody, this message can travel through many different networks and computers. The data is constantly being directed towards its destination by special computers called routers. Because of this, it is possible to get into any of computers along the route, intercept and even change the data being sent over the Internet. In spite of the fact that there are many strong encoding programs available, nearly all the information being sent over the Internet is transmitted without any form of encoding, i. e. "in the clear". But when it becomes necessary to send important information over the network, these encoding programs may be useful. Some American banks and companies even conduct transactions over the Internet. However, there are still both commercial and technical problems, which will take time to be resolved.
(2680 t. an.)
A bold plunge into the digital youth market
Samsung Electronics is keen to make a big splash in the Information Technology (IT) world. It has a number of new digital consumer products and has plans for more. Many of them — incorporating multimedia, Internet and e-mail functions in small portable devices - are aimed at the young, whom the company regards as its market of the new future in the compressed timescale of the Internet age.
Samsung talks enthusiastically about generation Y (the 13 to 25 year-olds) and generation N (Internet consumers). Today's children, teenagers and stadents are the customers of the future, says Mt. Chin, chief technology officer and executive vice-president of Samsung Electronics. "When they grow up, they will really use our products. So we are actually searching for the needs, habits and tastes of this younger generation".
Mr. Chin sees the time when the PC will play a smaller role. "There will be an embedded computer somewhere. Internet connectivity can be achieved with many other products - mobile phones, PDAs (personal digital assistants), digital TVs. Even a microwave oven can be connected to the Internet".
Among the latest and planned offerings, mostly using Samsung's digital Smart Media card, area portable digital audio player using MP3 compression technology, as well as one for downloading music and videos; a digital photo album; a web pad for easy Internet and e-mail access; a web video phone, an e-diary with wireless access to the Internet; and the world's first watch phone. The new products represent, as Mr. Chin says, "a basic shift in strategy, demonstrating our deep conviction that digital connectivity is the future of our industry".
(Information Technology, Financial Times Review, 2000)
Text 4. Elements of Electric and Radio Circuits
An electric circuit is a path along which electricity can flow. An electric circuit consists of a source of energy or power source, a receiver of energy and two conductors connecting the receiver and the power source terminals. The electric source produces the necessary electromotive force (e. m. f.) required for the flow of current through the circuit. The circuit should be complete; otherwise no electric current can flow through it. If the circuit is broken or "opened", the Fundamentally, two types of circuits are possible, according to the way in which the circuit elements are joined. To understand the difference between the circuit connections is not difficult. When electrical devices are connected one after another so that the current flows successively through each element, we say they are connected in series. Under such conditions the current flow is the same in all parts of the circuit, as there is only a single path along which it may flow. The electric bell circuit is a typical example of a series circuit.
The parallel circuit provides two or more paths for electric current. The parallel circuit elements are connected side by side in such a way that the total current flowing through the circuit is the sum of currents flowing tlirough each circuit element individually. The lamps in your room are generally connected in parallel.
Any radio circuit is an electric circuit including radioelements. Radio differs from other means of communication in the means used to connect the transmitting and receiving points. The basic elements of any radio system are a transmitter used for generating radio frequency, a modulator used for impressing intelligence upon the carrier, and a transmitting antenna used for radiating the modulated carrier wave. At the receiving end there must be a receiving antenna, a receiver and a loudspeaker.
side by side – рядом – жанында
in such a way – таким образом – осындай жолмен
Text 6. Radar
The word "radar" is an abbreviation for the phrase "radio detection and ranging', that is, the use of radio waves to detect the presence and determine the precise position of any stationary or moving object capable of reflecting them. Radio waves can be reflected by large solid objects in much the same manner as light. They are, however, able to travel greater distances than light in the Earth's atmosphere, because they are not reflected or diffused by small dust particles in the atmosphere. Radar works on the so-called "echo" principle. It sends out radio waves and then measures the amount of time that it takes the waves to return.
Radar set includes a transmitter and a receiver. If a transmitter sends out a beam of waves, an adjacent receiver operating like a television receiver translates the echoed radio waves into a kind of picture. These radio waves can penetrate clouds and sea depths. They continue to move out in a straight line from a transmitter until they strike something solid. Then they are reflected back. The reflected waves moving back to the radar set are received and translated into a tiny spot on the cathode-ray-tube screen or display. The display may resemble a map of the surroundings and the objects are as bright spots on a dark background.
The most important uses of radar are known to be in ship and air navigation. Radar set on board a ship can provide the captain with complete information about the objects around the ship. It will show the distances and positions of other ships, islands or land so that a safe course can be steered.
There are many types of radar intended for use on ships and planes. The electrical features of radar for use in airplanes are similar to those used on ships. Special types of radar provide air-traffic control, "blond landing" and ground-controlled approach.> Radar provides information for meteorology and astronomy, such as detecting meteors and studying cosmic environments.
(1634 t. та.)
1 Macmillan English dictionary for advanced learners, China 2006.
2 Oxford advanced learner`s dictionary of current English as Hornby Hong Kong, 1980.
3 English-Russian dictionary of computers and programming, A.Б. Борковский Москва «Русский язык» 1987.
4 Русско-казахский словарь, Алматы Дайк-пресс 2005.
5 Upgrading and repairing Pcs., 17th Edition by Scott Mueller, Март 24, 2006.
Unit I 3
Unit II 9
Unit III 17
Unit IV 26
Тексты для дополнительного чтения 35
Список литературы 41