Некоммерческое акционерное общество
АЛМАТИНСКИЙ УНИВЕРСИТЕТ ЭНЕРГЕТИКИ И СВЯЗИ
Кафедра Иностранные языки
Методические указания по развитию навыков написания эссе
для магистрантов всех специальностей
СОСТАВИТЕЛЬ: Л.Я Коробейникова. Методические указания по развитию навыков написания эссе для магистрантов всех специальностей – Алматы: АУЭС, 2010 –38 стр.
Методические указания предназначены прежде всего для приобретения, расширения и закрепления общих навыков письменной речи, проведения информационного поиска, анализа и оценки научной информации, организации и оформления текстового материала, правил использования оригинальных источников с одновременным обогащением лексико-грамматической базы.
Рецензент: канд. фил. наук Х.А. Нурходжаева
Печатается по плану издания Алматинского института энергетики и связи на 2009-2010 г.
Ó НАО Алматинский университет энергетики и связи, 2010 г.
Прежде всего мы хотим извиниться перед пользователями этого издания за то, что написано оно на двух языках, полагая, что это никак не повредит его полезности и методологической значимости, более того, этот труд поможет вам, дорогие студенты, в освоении весьма непростого искусства написания эссе. Понятие “essay” определяется в словарях как «прозаическое сочинение небольшого объема и свободной композиции на частную тему, “a short piece of writing by a student on a particular subject” (Hornby, С.И. Ожегов, Macmillan English dictionary (2005) и др.), добавим, что “essay” представляет собой сущностный элемент более широкого понятия ‘academic writing’, or writing for academic purposes in the process of study in a university (наряду с рефератами, обзорами, служебными записками, деловыми письмами и т.д.). Эта подборка, предположительно, предназначена как для студентов, так и для преподавателей, и будет содержать раскрытие и толкование основных терминов, принципов, структурных элементов и рекомендаций, а также практических заданий, отвечающих современным требованиям, принятым в высших учебных заведениях США, Европы и стран СНГ. Вы сможете ознакомиться с примерными образцами написания параграфов и эссе и проверить уровень своего прогресса освоении иностранного языка и умения излагать свои мысли в письменном виде. Кроме того, большинство упражнений направлено на развитие навыков оценки и анализа письменной информации. Welcome!
Основные понятия и общие требования
В нашем учебном заведении предполагается, что эссе, написанное вне классных условий, должно быть объемом не менее двух страниц, а для аудиторного письма объем текста может составлять 150-250 слов. Существует множество типов и приемов написания эссе. В мировой университетской практике известны “descriptive”, “narrative”, “discursive”, “contrast and comparison”, ”cause and effect”, “problem and solution”, “argumentative” и другие. Мы не ограничиваем вашей фантазии, полагая, что вы сможете избрать ту форму изложения материала, которая будет более всего соответствовать цели повествования и вашему творческому замыслу. Скорее всего, ваш преподаватель будет ожидать от вас написания “discursive”, contrast and comparison” или “problem and solution” эссе.
Чтобы написать эссе надо:
– выбрать тему;
– осуществить поиск информации в библиотеках, учебниках, “Интернете” и написать библиографию (составить перечень использованной литературы, список источников информации);
– написать план (Outlining). План должен в включать: тему, введение (thesis statement), заголовки параграфов (topic sentences, supporting ideas and, possibly, argumentation), а также предположительное заключение (возможно, сжатый вывод о результатах исследования и предложения о необходимости дальнейших действий);
– написать черновой вариант (writing a draft);
– проверить ошибки и внести исправления (proof reading, editing and eliminating errors);
– подготовить окончательный вариант (writing a final draft).
Письменные работы должны соответствовать формату APA (APA style) либо Типовым правилам документирования и управления документацией в государственных организациях Республики Казахстан (2003), шрифт 14, Times New Roman, поля: верхнее 2,0 см, левое и нижнее – 2,5 cм, правое – 1,8 см).
– не следует отвлекаться от главной идеи;
– сопровождайте свое изложение аргументами и примерами (правильно ссылайтесь на источники информации);
– заключение должно связывать воедино все мысли, изложенные в вашем эссе;
– пишите так, чтобы читающему можно было вас понять (старайтесь строить английские предложения правильно);
– используйте только релевантную информацию (в плане ее относимости, надежности и достоверности);
– ни в коем случае не допускайте плагиата (не выдавайте чужие идеи и слова за свои собственные (for citing and referencing we recommend the APA style – consult the Internet).
Lesson 1 Understanding Process Writing and Pre-Writing:
Getting Ready to Write
1.1 These words are important for understanding the writing process. Match each word with the correct definition.
a. step 1. to check a piece of writing for errors
b. topic 2. a group of related sentences
c. gather 3. one thing in a series of things you do
d. organize 4. subject: what the piece is about
e. paragraph 5. to change or correct a piece of writing
f. essay 6. a short piece of writing, at least three paragraphs long
g. proofread 7. to arrange in a clear, logical way
h. edit 8. to find and collect together
Choosing and narrowing a topic
What is pre-writing?
Before you begin writing, you decide what you are going to write about. Then you plan what you are going to write. This process is called pre-writing.
Before you write, you must choose a topic for your paragraph or essay. A paragraph is a group of five to ten sentences that give information about a topic. Any paragraph can be developed into an essay.
Note: Although you are sometimes able to choose your own topic, more often you will be given a general assignment, which you must narrow to a topic that suits your purpose and audience. От выбора темы многое зависит. Преподаватель может дать общую тему для эссе (параграфа), которую нужно сузить, конкретизировать. The topic for a paragraph or essay shouldn’t be too narrow or too broad (general).
Do you think, the following topic”The ages of my brothers and sisters” is
a) too narrow b) too general. Why?
Do you think, the following topic :” Schools” is
a) too narrow b) too general. Why?
A narrow topic will not have enough ideas to write about. The ages of my brothers and sisters is too narrow. You can't write very much about it.
Schools is too general. There are thousands of things you could say about it. A student could narrow this topic by choosing one aspect of schools to discuss.
Schools – secondary schools in my country; popular school clubs; university entrance exams.
1.2 Choose three topics from this list. Narrow each of the three down to a paragraph topic. Then compare with a partner.
c. my country
Brainstorming (метод мозговой атаки)
Brainstorming is a way of gathering ideas about a topic. Think of a storm: thousands of drops of rain, all coming down together. Now, imagine thousands of ideas 'raining' down onto your paper! When you brainstorm, write down every idea that comes to you. Don't worry now about whether the ideas are good or silly, useful or not. You can decide that later. Right now, you are gathering as many ideas as you can.
1.3 Complete the list of ideas about France using the following topic areas and examples:
skiing in the Alps; economy; coal; the Atlantic Ocean; Spain; 1789; tourism; French; Euro Disney…
1. Attractions: a) Paris (Louvre, Eiffel Tower,__________); b)_______.
2. Natural resources: a) water; b)____________.
3. ______________: a) farming; b) car manufacture; c)_______.
4. Languages: a)_________.
5. Important dates: a)_________(the French Revolution).
6. Geography: a) in Europe; b) long coastline on the Mediterranean Sea and ____________; c) borders with Germany, Belgium, Switzerland, Italy, Andorra, Luxembourg, and____________.
1.4 Complete the paragraph about France. Use information from the list in the exercise above.
France is a large country in1 ______. It has2 ______with many countries, including Germany, Italy, and Spain. It was ruled by a king. However, after the revolution in3 ______, it became a republic. France has good natural resources, such as water and4___________.
Farming, car manufacturing, and 5 __________are other important parts of its economy. The capital of France is Paris, which lies on the River Seine. Many tourists stay in the city to see the6 ______________Tower, or to visit the world-famous Louvre Museum and many other attractions.
There are also lots of other things to do outside Paris. You can go skiing in the7_______, visit8 ____________ , or go swimming in the Mediterranean.
Although the official language is French, many people speak a little English. So, whatever your interests and wherever you come from, France has something for you.
Study skill: Linking ideas
Linking ideas in a clear and logical way is part of good writing. Use but, however, and although to contrast two ideas.
Look at sentences a) and b). Compare the way but, however, and although are used to link them. What differences are there?
a) The official language is French.
b) Many people speak a little English.
The official language is French, but many people speak a little English.
The official language is French, however, many people speak a little English.
Although the official language is French, many people speak a little English.
The official language is French, although many people speak a little English.
1.5 With a partner, quickly brainstorm ideas about your country. Write your ideas on a diagram or make a list. Use the next topic areas: languages, attractions, geography, important dates, economy.
1.6 Link the pairs of sentences using the word in brackets.
1. Many people think that Sydney is the capital of Australia. Canberra is really the capital. (but)
2. The Amazon is the longest river in South America. The Nile is the longest river in the world. (however)
3. Mount Everest is the highest mountain in the world. It is not the most difficult to climb. (although)
4. It is very hot in the Sahara during the day. It can be very cold at night. (although)
1.7 Write a paragraph of about 150 words describing your country. Use any ideas from the above exercises. Link them using but, however, and although (you may also use other appropriate linking words you know. (To do the exercise read more about the writing process below and use other sources)
Lesson 2 The Structure of a Paragraph
What is a paragraph?
A paragraph is a group of sentences about a single topic. Together the sentences of the paragraph explain the writer's main idea (most important idea) about the topic. In academic writing, a paragraph is between five and ten sentences long but it can be longer or shorter depending on the topic. The first sentence of a paragraph is usually indented (moved in) a few spaces.
Understanding a paragraph
2.1 Read this paragraph. It is the beginning of an article about Switzerland in a student newspaper. Then answer the questions.
Switzerland — Something Interesting at Every Turn
By Ken Jones
If you dream of travelling to a country with beautiful mountains, delicious food, wonderful places to go sightseeing and polite people, you should visit Switzerland. If you look at the map, the first thing you notice is that Switzerland has many mountains, including some of the highest in Europe. Climbing or skiing down the mountains is great fun. Another thing you will notice is that Switzerland shares its borders with five different countries: France, Germany, Italy, Austria and Liechtenstein. In fact, there are four official languages in Switzerland: German, French, Italian and Romansch. All these groups of people make Swiss culture very interesting. Finally, Switzerland has many cities and interesting places to visit. Cities such as Bern have modern buildings like the Paul Klee Zentrum, yet the traditional alpine refuges in the mountains show that the country's old traditions are still alive. Аll the people, places and things to see definitely make Switzerland a great place for a holiday.
1. What is the topic of the paragraph?_________________________________
2. What is the main idea about the topic?_______________________________
3. What ideas help to explain the main idea?_____________________________
Each paragraph has three basic parts:
l. The topic sentence. This is the main idea of the paragraph. It is usually the first sentence of the paragraph, and it is the most general sentence of the Paragraph.
2. The supporting sentences. These are sentences that talk about or explain the topic sentence. They me more detailed ideas that follow the topic sentence.
3. The concluding sentence. This may be found as the last sentence of a paragraph. It can finish a paragraph by repeating the main idea or just giving a final comment about the topic.
2.2 Read the paragraph about Switzerland again. Circle the topic sentence, put one line under the supporting sentences, and put two lines under the concluding sentence.
Every good paragraph has a topic sentence, which clearly states the topic and the controlling idea of the paragraph. It is a complete sentence. It is usually (but not always) the first sentence in the paragraph.
A topic sentence is the most important sentence in a paragraph. It briefly indicates what the paragraph is going to discuss. For this reason, the topic sentence is a helpful guide to both the writer and the reader. The writer can see what information to include (and what information to exclude). The reader can see what the paragraph is going to be about and is, therefore, better prepared to understand it. There are three important points to remember about a topic sentence.
1. A topic sentence is a complete sentence; that is, it contains a subject, a verb, and (usually) a complement. The following are not complete sentences:
Driving on freeways.
The importance of gold.
2. A topic sentence contains both a topic and a controlling idea. It names the topic and then limits the topic to a specific area to be discussed in the space of a single paragraph. The following examples show how a topic sentence states both the topic and the controlling idea in a complete sentence:
Driving on freeways requires skill and alertness.
Gold, a precious metal, is prized for two important characteristics.
3. The concluding sentence signals the end of the paragraph and leaves the reader with important points to remember:
In conclusion, gold is treasured not only for its beauty, but also for its utility.
2.3 Copy the sentences. Circle the topic of the sentence. Underline the main idea about the topic.
a. (Switzerland) is a very interesting country to visit.
b. Dogs make excellent pets.
c. A really good place to study is the library at my school.
d. Learning a foreign language creates job opportunities.
e. Football is my favourite sport because it is exciting to watch.
f. One of the most valuable tools for students is the computer.
My sister and I have very different personalities.
h. Summer is the best time to travel in my country.
i. My hometown is a friendly place to live.
Technology Today: Innovations
2.4 Scan the text “The Silent Plane”. Pay attention to topic sentences only. Are the statesments true (T) or faulse (F)?
1. Maybe one day planes won’t make a noise.
2. Noise is being reduced in two ways.
3. The project to build the plane hasn’t begun yet.
The Silent Plane
Annoyance from aeroplane noise could be a thing of the past as plans are announced to design a silent aircraft. The aim is to reduce the noise from a plane so that city-dwellers will no longer hear it passing overhead once it has left the airport.
This noise reduction will be achieved in three main ways. Firstly, the plane is being designed as a single, wide wing. Secondly, the engines will be placed above the wing, inside the plane, rather than under the wings and outside, and thirdly the airplane will be flown differently, for example at a reduced speed when it is near the airport.
The aircraft is just a design concept at the moment and many technological challenges will have to be met before we have silent planes overhead.
2.5 Read the summaries a-d of the paragraphs in the article “The Car that Drives Itself” (2.6). Match them with topic sentences 1-4.
a. describing how the car works
b. predicting future developments
c. outlining some problems
d. introducing the subject.
1. A car manufacture has designed and built a car that drives itself.
2. Despite these disadvantages, car manufacturers see driverless cars as the future.
3. However, there are still two main drawbacks.
4. The car works using two main devices.
2.6 Skim the article to match topic sentences from ex.2.5 to paragraphs A-D.
Use the summaries to help.
The Car that Drives Itself
A___________________ It can steer itself and control its speed. This is the
latest development in the long history of the automobile industry.
B___________________ The first is a radar sensor in the front of the car. It
scans the road in front of the car, looking for other vehicles. It then speeds the car up or slows it down according to the traffic conditions. The second device is a camera below the rear-view mirror which watches the white lines in the road. It uses these lines as a guide to steering the car.
C____________ _________Firstly, the system can only work on motorways,
and secondly, they still need a driver. If the driver doesn't touch the steering wheel every 10 seconds, the devices can stop working.
D__________________ They are already working on new models that will
be able to drive on city roads. So, perhaps one day soon, we will be able to jump into our cars and sleep or read a book as we are driven to work!
2.7 Write good topic sentences for the following paragraphs in the spaces provided. Remember to include both a topic and a controlling idea.
Americans relaxing at home, for example, may put on kimonos, which is a Japanese word. Americans who live in a warm climate may take an afternoon siesta on an outdoor patio without even realizing that these are Spanish words. In their gardens, they may enjoy the fragrance of jasmine flowers, a word that comes into English from Persian. They may even relax on a chaise longue while sipping a drink made with vodka, words of French and Russian origin, respectively.
In European universities, students are not required to attend classes. In fact, professors in Germany generally do not know the names of the students enrolled in their courses. In the United States, however, students are required to attend all classes and may be penalized if they don’t. Furthermore, in the European system there is usually just one comprehensive examination at the end of the students’ entire four or five years of study. In the American system, on the other hand, there are usually numerous quizzes, tests, and homework assignments, and there is almost always a final examination in each course at the end of the semester.
For example, the Eskimos, living in a treeless region of snow and ice, sometimes build temporary homes out of thick blocks of ice. People who live in deserts, on the other hand, use the most available material, mud or clay, which provides good insulation from the heat. In Northern Europe, Russia, and other areas of the world where forests are plentiful, people usually construct their homes out of wood. In the islands of the South Pacific, where there is a plentiful supply of bamboo and palm, people use these tough, fibrous plants to build their homes.
2.9 Recognizing topic sentences
(Remember, the topic sentence indicates the main idea of a paragraph and is the most general statement in the paragraph).
STEP 1. Decide which of the following sentences is the topic sentence of the
STEP 2. Write TS on the line next to that sentence.
STEP 3. Decide the order of the supporting sentences and number them SSI, SS2, SS3, and so on (Put the sentences in order to make a paragraph)
______a. It enables customers to do several banking transactions twenty-four hours a day.
______b. In addition, a customer can transfer funds between accounts or get a cash advance on a credit card.
______c. An automated teller machine (ATM) is a convenient miniature bank.
______d. For example, a customer can use an ATM to deposit money and withdraw a limited amount of cash.
______a. After an attack by a great white, 463 stitches were required to sew up an Australian scuba diver.
_______b. With their razor-sharp teeth and strong jaws, great white sharks are very dangerous.
_______c. Nevertheless, one did just that near a public beach In Australia in 1988.
_______d. Even when they attack humans, however, great whites do not usually eat them.
_______e. It bit in half and totally devoured a young female swimmer.
_______f. Great whites do not usually attack humans, but when they do, they always cause serious injury and even death.
_______a. Another important change was that people had the freedom to live and work wherever they wanted.
______b. The earliest significant change was for farming families, who were no longer isolated.
______c. The final major change brought by the automobile was the building of superhighways, suburbs, huge shopping centers, and many theme parks such as Disney World in Florida.
______d. The automobile revolutionized the American way of life.
______e. The automobile enabled them to drive to towns and cities comfortably and conveniently.
______f. In fact, people could work in a busy metropolitan city and drive home to the quiet suburbs.
______a. In time, this melted part rises as a magma.
______b. The formation of the volcanic eruption is a dramatic series of events.
______c. As the plate sinks, friction and the earth’s heat cause part of it to melt.
______d. The magma produces heat, steam, and pressure.
______e. First of all, most volcanoes are formed where two plates collide.
______f. Then one of the plates is formed under the other and sinks.
______g. When the heat, steam, and pressure from the magma finally reach the surface of the Earth, a volcanic eruption occurs.
Lesson 3 Gerneral ideas about the structure of an essay (the three main parts)
1. The introduction. This is the first paragraph of an essay. It explains the topic with general ideas. It also has a thesis statement. This is a sentence that gives the main idea. It usually comes at of near the end of the paragraph.
2. The main body. These are the paragraphs that explain and support the thesis statement and come between the introduction and the conclusion.
3. The conclusion. This is the final paragraph of an essay. It usually summarizes, evaluates or repeats words and phrases from the thesis statement.
3.1 Writing any essay involves a number of different stages. Decide on a logical order for these stages:
a. Write the essay.
b. Note down a rough essay plan organized by paragraph headings.
c. Analyze the question.
d. Check for errors.
e. Read the instructions and question carefully.
f. Brainstorm ideas.
Рассмотрим далее несколько популярных в мире подходов и аспектов написания эссе на примере темы “Culture shock”. При выполнении упражнений проанализируйте структурные элементы эссе и традиционные правила академического письма.
What is culture shock?
“Culture shock” describes the impact of moving from a familiar culture to one which is unfamiliar. It is the experience described by people who have travelled abroad to work, live or study. It includes the shock of a new environment, meeting lots of new people and learning the ways of a different country. It also includes the shock of being separated from the important people in your life, maybe family, friends, colleagues, teachers: people you would normally talk to at times of uncertainty, people who give you support and guidance.
3.2 (Understanding the topic and the task). Answer these questions
Settling into a new culture can be extremely difficult. Although some 'culture shock' is inevitable, there are a number of ways to make living overseas much easier. Discuss.
3.2.1 What is the main topic?
A. Visiting foreign countries and new cultures.
В. The difficulties of studying overseas.
С. Adapting to life in a new country.
3.2.2 What is the task?
A. Suggest ways to reduce the effects of 'culture shock'.
В. Write about the advantages of living overseas.
С. Give reasons why living in the UK is more difficult than living in other countries.
3.3 Look at the question about settling into a new culture (3.2). Then decide where to put the items in the table. The first one has been done for you as an example.
keep in contact with
friends / family people
language culture and
lifestyle accommodation find out about the place before you
try and meet/speak to local people food and drink religion
join a club or
society sample local food observe / respect local customs
miss friends / family
learn the language
Problems of living overseas Ways to make living overseas easier
_________________________________________________________________ language learn the language
3.4 Can you add one more point to each column in the table?
3.5 Now decide which you think are the three greatest difficulties when settling
into a new culture.
Remember: A useful guideline to follow is to write an introduction of approximately 50 words, the main body of 170 words or more and a conclusion of 30-40 words. However, for out-of-class writing these amounts are not enough.
3.6 Which would be the best overall structure for this question?
Settling into a new culture can be extremely difficult. Although some ‘culture shock' is inevitable, there are a number of ways to make living overseas much easier. Discuss.
Para. 1 – Intro: main difficulties of living overseas
Para. 2 – Examples of inevitable culture shock
Para. 3 – Suggestions on how to reduce culture shock
Para. 4 – Summary/ conclusion of points above
Para. 1 – Intro: living and working overseas
Para. 2– Examples of positive points of living overseas
Para. 3 – Examples of negative points of living overseas
Para. 4 – Summary of your opinion
Para. 1– Intro: why you enjoy living overseas
Para. 2 – Reasons why people live overseas
Para. 3 – Suggestions on best places to live and study overseas
The Introduction. Aim and contents
A good introduction includes a general statement about the topic and says what the purpose of the essay is.
It may also include the initial views of the writer on this subject - views that will be developed later.
An introduction must be clear and relevant.
Remember: Don't copy out the question. You will not gain marks for this.
The introduction needs to be relevant to the question.
Write in an impersonal, academic style.
3.7 Which of the introductions below is most appropriate for this question. Why?
Settling into a new culture can be extremely difficult. Although some 'culture shock' is inevitable, there are a number of ways to make living overseas much easier. Discuss.
1. Settling into а new culture can be very difficult. Although some 'culture shock' is inevitable, there are many ways to make living abroad easier.
2. I really enjoy living abroad but sometimes it is very hard and I miss my friends and family. I have been living in the UK for two years now and the best thing about it is learning English. However; the weather is awful and I really hate the food!
3. People move overseas to live, study or work for many different reasons.
Although this can be a very positive experience there will often be difficulties to
overcome. These problems might include getting used to living in a different culture, not knowing the language or simply missing friends and family.
The main body. Aim and contents
This is the main part of your essay and will develop the key ideas and topic mentioned in the introduction.
This section will consist of two or three paragraphs.
This section must be related to the opening and closing paragraphs.
Remember: Paragraphs and topic sentences give your writing structure and
provide links between sections.
3.8 Read the question again. Then rearrange the sentences A-F below to make a clear paragraph. Consider:
1 Which is the topic sentence (the sentence that gives the main idea of this paragraph)?
2 Which sentences provide supporting evidence for the main idea?
3 Which sentence provides the link with the next paragraph?
Settling into a new culture can be extremely difficult. Although some 'culture shock' is inevitable, there are a number of ways to make living overseas much easier. Discuss.
A. Not being able to speak the language very well can make life even more difficult.
В. However, there are a number of ways to reduce the difficulties.
С. Adjusting to a new culture can often take weeks or months.
D. In addition, other problems may arise from different lifestyles, types of food or accommodation.
E. During this period it is not uncommon for people to feel very homesick and really miss their friends and family.
F. There is no doubt that living overseas can be very difficult at times.
3.9 Now write the first paragraph of the main body of your answer using sentences A-F above.
Remember: Use linking words to give your writing cohesion.
3.10 Put the linking words in the box in the appropriate place in the table. Then add one more word for each column.
in addition because
secondly therefore finally besides however despite
this so although firstly moreover as a
Sequencers Reason or result Contrast Extra information
firstly as a result however in addition
………. …………… …………. …………
3.11 Choose an appropriate linking word from the box to complete the paragraph.
(1) ....... ……, it is a good idea to find as much information as possible before you move to another country by reading books or searching the Internet. (2) ......................, speak to other people who have lived abroad and discuss their experiences. (3)........……, it is important to learn the language and (4). ……………
.......... taking lessons is advisable. When you are living in a new country, if possible, try and make friends with local people (5) ....................... you do not become lonely or isolated. (6)…………, it is useful to keep in contact with people from your own country too. (7)…………….. aim to be open-minded about the whole experience.
3.12 What are the four suggestions given in this paragraph about how to reduce 'culture shock’?
3.13 Improve the information by using an appropriate linking word.
Model: The city centre flat was very expensive. A lot of traffic noise could be heard. (Extra information)
- The city centre flat was very expensive. In addition/Moreover, a lot of traffic noise could be heard.
1 Many women have successful careers nowadays. Compared to men, not many women have senior positions. (Contrast)
2 In England I live with a host family. My spoken English has improved rapidly. (Result)
3 Many students go overseas to study. They believe the quality of education is higher. (Reason)
The concluding paragraph sums up the key points covered in the essay. The conclusion must refer back to the points made in the essay. Don't include new information. The conclusion can sum up your views but should be written in an impersonal, academic style.
3.14 Read the question again and choose the best conclusion for it from A-C below. Give your reasons.
A. Last but not least, living abroad is very difficult.
В. Although living abroad results in inevitable problems, it is clear that a number of strategies could be useful in preventing many of these difficulties. If this advice is taken, the experience is likely to be far more positive.
С. To sum up, here's my advice to you. Try and learn a language, speak to local people and follow local habits and traditions. I'm sure if you do this you'll be fine and everything will be great. That's all.
3.15 Use the words below to write a different conclusion for this question.
In / conclusion / settling / new / country / cause / problems
Some / difficulties / cannot / avoided / example ...
However / there / solutions / such as ...
Living / abroad / often / positive / experience / enjoy / possible
3.16 Follow the stages mentioned in 3.1 and in the introduction (введение к данному пособию), and write the essay about culture shock
Study skill: Organizing Ideas
Writing an essay where you have to give two sides of an argument you should:
– organize your ideas into arguments for and arguments against, and give some examples;
– write a paragraph for, and a paragraph against, giving your ideas in a logical order.
– write an introduction and a conclusion. Give your personal opinion in the conclusion.
Technology – Good or Bad?
3.17 Brainstorm arguments for and against mobile phones.
___________ for against
Can mаkе a call at any time, anywhere. Annoying in a public place, e.g. in a
restaurant. ______________________________ ____________________________
3.18 Read the essay. Do you have the same ideas?
A. Mobile phones are now part of our everyday lives. Most people find them essential and could not manage without them. However, there are also some drawbacks to owning and using a mobile phone.
B. There are three main advantages to having mobile phones. Firstly, there is the convenience of being able to make or receive a phone call at any time and in any place. Secondly, they are essential for keeping in touch with family and friends. Parents worried about their children can always ring them to check they are safe, and children can let their family know if they are going to be late home. Finally, mobile phones can save lives. For example, if there is an accident, help can be called immediately, wherever the accident takes place.
C. On the other hand, there are significant problems with the use of mobile phones. In the first place, using mobile phones can cause accidents, for instance, when people are driving and using their phone at the same time. In addition, the loud use of mobile phones in public places such as restaurants and cinemas is rude and can be very irritating for other people. Lastly, there has been an increase in street crime directly related to mobile phones. People have been attacked and their phones stolen from them.
D. In conclusion, I believe that, despite the disadvantages, mobile phones are essential to modern life and that the advantages to owning one are far greater than the disadvantages.
3.19 Consider the purpose of each paragraph. Which paragraph А, В, C, or D... ?
– says why mobile phone use can be a good thing.
– introduces the subject.
– concludes and gives the writer's opinion.
– says why mobile phone use can be a bad thing.
To help the reader understand your writing and follow your ideas, link short, simple ideas. Use:
– firstly, secondly,... for more than one argument or idea
– however, on the other hand, despite... for a contrast between two ideas
– for instance, for example,... for an example to illustrate an idea
– in conclusion, to sum up,... for the final comment
3.20 Go back through the essay. Underline 12 more linking words and phrases. Continue the examples in Sequence, Contrast, Examples, Endings :
Sequence – firstly, …
Contrast – in spite of …
Examples – e.g. …
Endings – to conclude, ….
3.21 Read the essay title. Do you agree or disagree with it? Discuss with a partner.
Access to satellite and Internet television does more harm than good.
3.22 Divide arguments 1-6 into those that support the essay title (against satellite /Internet TV), and those that disagree with it (for satellite/Internet TV). Add one more argument to each list. Write a paragraph on the topic (your opinion in 5-10 sentences)
1. People (especially children) have access to programmes with unsuitable content.
2. It gives people access to programmes around the world – the opportunity to learn
about other cultures.
3. A huge choice of programmes is available - something for every interest, for
example sport, music, film, documentary channels.
4. More access to TV encourages people (especially children) to watch more TV, so
there is less time for hobbies or family.
5. Programmes in other languages, for example English, can support language
programmes available may not be culturally appropriate.
for satellite TV against satellite TV
…………………. The programmes available may not be
Lesson 4 Interpreting meaning. Paraphrasing and summarizing.
Writing a summary
Most academic and scientific articles express facts (what happened), and speculate (guess). It is important to be able to distinguish uncertainty and speculation from fact.
Uncertainty and speculation can be expressed using:
– may, could, might before the main verb, e.g.
(Air pollution may be a much greater danger to our health ...
Polluted air could lead to three times as many... problems);
– verbs such as believe, claim, think, hope, seem, e.g.
(Dr Razia... believes there is a connection between the number of particles in the air and health);
– words and phrases, e.g. possibly, probably, it is possible
4.1 Are these statements expressed as fact (F) or speculation (S)?
1 Growing car use is causing the most damage. (F)
2 More pollution in big cities has resulted in more studies being done.
3 Polluted air is more dangerous than people thought.
4 Small particles in dirty air cause three times as many health problems.
5 The results of the Canadian studies prove there is a link between a child living close to traffic and getting asthma.
6 All these studies show that it is important to reduce air pollution for the next generation.
You often need to use other sources, for example other people's work, in your own essays and reports.
This can be done by:
– paraphrasing information, that is, rewriting information in your own words. Use synonyms wherever possible.
– summarizing the information, that is, linking the main points in your own words.
Note: You may quote directly from the piece of work, but it is essential to give the source of the quote and its author, e.g.
... Dr G. Bennett, the author of the study, concluded (2006, p.l91) 'Poor eating habits in early childhood can lead to health problems in later life.' The author, the source and publication data must be mentioned in the bibliography (list of works cited).
Advice and Suggestion for Writing Summaries
At the beginning write the title of the book/journal, the author and article, publisher and date.
Quickly read (skim) the text to get an overall idea of it.
Then read it carefully, identifying the main points.
As you read, make brief notes of the main points – note for the key words and topic sentences (I.e. the main ones) – in your own words as far as possible, using synonyms where appropriate (i.e. paraphrase).
If certain sentences or phrases are important and may be useful to quote in the essay etc., copy them exactly, word by word, and put them in inverted commas (quotation marks).
Remove examples and details, including dates (unless vitally important, e.g. an invention, a change of process/procedure).
Ensure that your summary is accurate and neutral, i.e. do not add your own views to it.
As far as possible condense the points into straightforward statements and rewrite in your own words where possible.
Write clearly, concisely, coherently and logically.
The following phrases may also be used when writing a summary:
(При выполнении самостоятельных работ студентам обычно предлагается написать аннотацию. Воспользуйтесь этими советами)
As the title suggests, this article/ the author deals with…
The main point/s of the article is / are…
There are three main points discussed in the article…
The article refers to…
Then this article looks at…
So, the article reports that…
The article also gives statistics from a magazine survey of 2,000 people…
According to the article…
The article then goes on to say that…
Finally, the article argues that…
So, the author reports on some interesting…
The author argues that…
In my view, the article does not…
The article doesn’t mention…
4.2 Read the text “Scientists on the decline” Write sentences in your own words using your notes. A good example of how to paraphrase and summarize is given just after the text (in italics).
Scientists on the decline
As science becomes increasingly important in our daily lives, so the shortage of scientists gets greater. The number of students going to university to study pure and applied sciences is decreasing by about five per cent each year. This, in turn, leads to a drop in the number of people able to be science teachers in schools. This shortage of science teachers, unsurprisingly, leads to fewer school children studying science, and even fewer going on to university. Prominent scientists believe that one of the reasons is that science is undervalued in society: people do not discuss the latest scientific breakthrough in the same way they would discuss the latest bestseller. It could also be because scientists starting their professional lives are often poorly paid. However, some scientists think that the reason is a distrust of scientists because of the claims for 'breakthroughs' and 'cures' for diseases which do not actually happen. Whatever the reason, young people must be encouraged to study science The world needs scientists.
Example: There is an annual fall of around five per cent in the number of people studying science in higher education. …
To connect ideas that show the cause and result, use linking words and phrases.
– For cause, use because, as, since:
People in some parts of the world cannot afford computers since/as/because they are too expensive,
– For result, use as a result, consequently, therefore.
He didn't have an antivirus program, and as a result virus attacked his computer.
Computer scientists have tried hard to stop spam. Consequently, the senders of spam have become more sophisticated.
TV in the UK will be digital in 2012. Therefore, everyone will have to buy a digital receiver.
Batteries are too expensive, so the computer is powered by solar energy.
4.3 Link the sentences using the words and phrases in brackets.
1 Many people do not back up their computer files. They lose a lot of data (so)
2 Many users don't empty their mailboxes. They may have problems downloading their mail. (as a result)
3 There is a serious threat from viruses. Many people install an anti-virus program (because)
4 Many employees do not know how to use basic programs effectively. Many companies offer IT training. (consequently)
5 People use copies of programs. Manufacturers put in secret codes to detect copies (since)
4.4 Link the pairs of sentences using a cause or result word or phrase.
1 Children are learning to use computers at school.
Many young people are better at computers than their parents.
2 Many people have a password to open programs on their computers.
They don't want other people to see their data.
3 Receiving spam can cause problems. People install anti-spam programs.
4 Most businesses want their employees to be able to use computers.
There has been an increase in the number of computer courses available.
5 Computer chips are smaller and more powerful than ever before.
Computers can be smaller but faster.
There are many common abbreviations that are used in academic and technical texts. Understanding their meaning will help you to understand the text itself better.
Some abbreviations are said as individual letters, e.g. BBC. Some are acronyms, that is, said as words, e.g. OPEC. Check in your dictionary how to say the abbreviations.
4.5 Match abbreviations 1-8 with their meanings a-h
Check your answers in a dictionary.
1. e.g. a. and more the same
2. c. or ca. b. for example
3. cf. c. page or pages
4. i.e. d. make a note/remember
5. ibid e. that is
6. N.B. f. about/approximately
7. p. or pp. g. compare this with…
8. etc. h. a reference to a source (book or website) referred to previously
4.6 Use a dictionary or the Internet to find out what the computer abbreviations stand for. Write how to say each abbreviation.
1. CPU - central processing unit /si: pi:’ju:/
10. user ID_____________________________
Lesson 5 Discursive essay writing
The aim of a discursive essay is to set out the key issues (for and against), not to argue a personal opinion. The essay can, however, look at how a person presents his/her views on the theme.
Discursive essay structure. Introductory paragraph
– Explain what the issue is that you are going to discuss
– Explain why it is important to discuss this issue
– Highlight the differing opinions people have about the issue (your thesis statement)
Main body paragraphs: Paragraph 1, Paragraph 2
These two main body paragraphs provide clear understanding of your position in relation to the topic and present your first and second arguments with supporting evidence
The first sentence of each of the two paragraphs (paragraph leaders) should clearly state one reason why people believe that …
You should then support each of the two reasons with an example from your sources (articles). The evidence can come in the form of quotes, description of actions or a mixture of both.
The last (concluding) sentence of the paragraph discusses in more details how the evidence you have provided supports the point you made in the paragraph leader. Be careful not just repeat what you have said in the paragraph leader!
This paragraph indicates that there is another side to your argument, with some ideas of the points likely to be made for the view which are opposite to your own.
The first sentence (paragraph leader) should clearly state a reason why some people believe that something should not be done.
You should then support this reason with details from your sources (articles). The evidence can come in the form of quotes, description of actions or a mixture of both.
The last (concluding) sentence of the paragraph discusses in more details how the evidence you have provided supports the point you made in the paragraph leader. Be careful not just repeat what you have said in the paragraph leader!
Make a statement that again strongly emphasizes the importance of discussing this issue. Try to word it differently to the way you did in your introductory paragraph.
5.1 Try to write an essay (about 150 words for in-class writing, and no less than
250 words if you do it out of class).
Variant A. Access to satellite and Internet television does more harm than good.
Paragraph 1– Introduction
Many people have strong feelings about the value of television, especially now that programmes are available through satellite and over the Internet. There are those who suggest that increased access to these programmes does more harm than good. However, there are those who insist that it is a good thing.
Paragraph 2 satellite and Internet TV does harm + examples
Paragraph 3 satellite and Internet TV is good + examples
Paragraph 4 conclusion and your opinion Science and our world
5.2 Read the essay and comments below to analyze this sample essay. Pay attention to highlighted (underlined) words and phrases.
of a discursive essay (borrowed from FREE Michigan Test Writing publication)
“The internet provides only useless information.” Do you agree? Why or why not? Provide explanations and examples to support your answer.
Many people believe that the internet is essential for communication in our modern society. On the other hand, there are those who hold the view that the internet contains worthless or offensive information. This essay will show that although the internet needs to be used cautiously in some circumstances, it also contains some helpful educational materials and factual data.
It is true that internet usage needs to be approached vigilantly on certain occasions. For example, parents with children often worry about them accessing websites that contain violent, illegal, or sexual materials. This, in turn, could negatively influence the child during the formative years of their personality development. In addition, so-called “information” on the internet needs to be read with a critical mind. Since anyone can set up a website, the qualifications of the site owner, as well as the accuracy and quality of the information on the site need to be perused skeptically.
In spite of these caveats, the internet is also practical for our daily lives. First of all, it makes some daily tasks more convenient. For instance, a person can now book airline tickets and make travel arrangements in the comfort of his or her living room with the click of a mouse. There are also websites that contain indispensable factual information. Consider the case of someone who wants to quit smoking. He or she can use any search engine to find webpages that offer help and advice with this situation. In addition, many of these types of websites are established by governmental agencies or charitable organizations, so the user can be confident that the information contained on these webpages is trustworthy.
To sum up, there are of course some situations in which users of the World Wide Web need to be prudent. Yet, there are also many helpful and accurate websites as well. It is up to each adult individual or parent, in the case of children, to decide which websites they are going to access.
Sample Essay Comments:
The essay above is high level for four main reasons:
1) It demonstrates excellent topic development. Each paragraph contains reasons and examples to support the student's point of view.
2) It is well organized. Notice the words and phrases in bold underlined, which the student uses to make the essay flow well.
3) The essay is grammatically correct. Notice that opinion essays usually require verbs in the simple present or present perfect tenses. These tenses are needed because you will be asked to write about a topic of recent importance.
4) The essay contains high-level academic vocabulary. Please notice the words in bold cursive. Try to learn these words if you don't know them already!
A Sample of introductory and concluding paragraphs
(a discursive essay about car use)
We have become extremely dependent on cars: there were 580 million worldwide in 1990 and it is estimated that this figure will grow to 816 million by 2010. Clearly cars are so popular because they are both convenient and efficient. On the other hand, there are powerful arguments against car use. Firstly, they damage the environment. Secondly, they kill and maim large numbers of people. Thirdly, some people argue that they contribute to the frantic, unhealthy pace of modern life.
In conclusion, car ownership has several negative effects, including stress, road accidents and destruction of the natural environment. Nevertheless, we have become very dependent on cars because of the comfort and freedom they offer. A total ban seems out of the question, but for the sake of our own health and the health of the planet, we must aim to reduce car use – for example, by improving public transport system and introducing car pooling scheme.
5.3 Write two missing body paragraphs.
5.4 Read this sample discursive essay and suggest a title.
Our environment is becoming severely damaged. Outline some of the ways in which this is happening and explain what measures you think should be taken to prevent it.
It is generally agreed that the environment is under threat, and that unless governments take action, the consequences could be severe. Already we are seeing the effects of global warming, as ice caps melt and the temperature rises. The cities where we live, meanwhile, are becoming dangerous to our health. There are solutions, but they will only work if we all become involved.
It is now quite certain that the earth’s temperature is rising due to the greenhouse effect. The polar ice caps are melting and, as a result, sea levels continue to rise and are causing flooding. Elsewhere, rainfall is decreasing and the land is turning to desert.
One of the major causes of this global warming is the burning of fossil fuels. It is thus essential that we switch to renewable energy such as wind, wave and solar power, and also reduce greenhouse gasses.
Another threat to the environment comes from toxic waste. Tankers dump illegal waste in the sea, causing pollution and killing marine life. It appears that the only way to make them stop is by monitoring their activities and imposing heavy fines on those owners who break the law.
Finally, we must consider the harm done by cars. Everywhere governments are building new roads, but this only leads to the destruction of the countryside. The obvious solution here is to use public transport. This will reduce the volume of traffic and also some of the smog which car fumes produce.
These are just a few ways in which the environment is being damaged, and some ways in which we can provide solutions. It is clear that they will only succeed if we all work together, people and governments. The consequences of not acting could be catastrophic.
Lesson 6 Comparing and Contrasting
Comparing and Contrasting is a common and useful method of essay organization. The only important rule to observe is to compare or contrast things of like nature, or else the comparison or contrast will not be valid. (Сравнивать можно только предметы и явления одного класса.) In other words, you can compare and contrast apples and bananas, but you can't compare apples and typewriters.
When you make a comparison, you show how certain aspects of one item are similar to the same aspects of another item in the same general class. A comparison answers the question, "What features do X and Y have in common?' or "How are X and Y similar?"
When you contrast two things, you point out the differences between them; i.e., you point out how they are not alike. A contrast answers the question, "What are the differences between X and Y?" or "How are X and Y different?"
As with every other kind of writing, there are specific techniques you need to learn in order to write good comparison and contrast essays.
Comparison Structure Words
Similarly; as; and; like (+ noun); likewise; just as; also; too; just like (+ noun); similar to (+ noun); (be) similar to; (be) the same as; (be) alike; not only ... but also; both ... and; to compare to (with)
In contrastive structures use: however; in contrast; in (by) comparison; on the other hand; on the contrary; while; whereas; but; to be different from; to differ from; to compare with; to be dissimilar; to be unlike…
– Human workers can detect malfunctions in machinery; likewise/similarly,
a robot can be programmed to detect equipment malfunctions.
– Human workers can detect malfunctions in machinery; a robot can also.
Human workers can detect malfunctions in machinery; a robot can, too.
– Robots can detect malfunctions in machinery just as human workers can.
– Robots and human workers can detect malfunctions in machinery.
– Robots, like human workers, can detect malfunctions in machinery.
– Robots are similar to/ just like human workers because they can both detect malfunctions in machinery.
– Robots and humans are similar because they can both detect
malfunctions in machinery.
– Robots are the same as human workers in that they can both detect
malfunctions in machinery.
– Robots and human workers are alike in that they can both detect
malfunctions in machinery.
– Robots and humans are alike in their ability to detect malfunctions
– (Both…and) Not only human workers but also robots can detect malfunctions in machinery.
– Robots can be compared to/ be compared with robots in their ability to detect malfunctions in machinery.
Comparing and contrasting: The UK education system
A By law in the UK, all children between 5 and 16 years of age must receive a full-time education. The vast majority, over 90%, of these сhildren attend state schools. The education systems in Wales, Northern Ireland, and England are similar, whereas the education system in Scotland differs in a number of ways. This description will generally refer to the English state system.
В The school year runs from September to July and is usually divided into three terms of approximately 13 weeks each. Students attend school from about 9.00 am to 3.30 pm, Monday to Friday, with a morning break and a break for lunch. Some students eat lunch in the cafeteria, but many bring food from home.
С Most children in England go to primary school from the age of 5 to 11. These schools are largely co-educational, that is, boys and girls attend together. All schools follow the National Curriculum. The core, or main subjects are English, mathematics, and science. Other subjects include history, geography, physical education, music, and art. In Wales, the Welsh language is a subject in Welsh-speaking schools. In the same way, in Northern Ireland, the curriculum includes the Irish language in Irish-speaking schools.
D At the age of 11 students move to a secondary school. Most students go to large comprehensive schools which teach children of varying abilities. At the age of 16, most students take exams (GCSEs) in about ten different subjects. At this point, just under 50% leave school and start other training or work.
E Students who remain in education can choose to continue at their school for up to two years, or go to a special college. Wherever they study, students specialize in three or four subjects, and there are further exams, at the age of 17 (AS Levels) and again at 18 (A Levels). Good results in these are required to go to university.
Useful language: comparing and contrasting
6.1 Look at the underlined expressions in the sentences from the text.
Do they show that things are similar or different?
1. The education systems in Wales, Northern Ireland, and England are similar, whereas the education system in Scotland differs in a number of ways.
2. In Wales, the Welsh language is a subject in Welsh-speaking schools. In the same way, in Northern Ireland, the curriculum includes the Irish language in Irish-speaking schools.
6.2 Underline other words and phrases in the sentences which show a similarity or a difference.
1. The school year in the UK runs from September to July. In Australia, on the other hand, students go to school from late January to December.
2. Both Sweden and France have a compulsory national curriculum.
3. Japanese schools are different from schools in many other countries in that they usually have an entrance exam.
4. Malaysian schools have two terms a year. In contrast, Australian schools have four terms.
5. School students all over the world are similar in that they have to take exams.
6.3 Add the words and phrases which you have underlined in task 6.2 to the correct part of the table.
In the same way… …whereas…
6.4 Use a word or phrase from the table to complete the sentences.
1. ____ Wales____ Ireland include their own language in the curriculum.
2. State and private schools_________ __________ _________ _______all their
students take school-leaving exams.
3. Northern Ireland and Wales have a similar education system to England. Scotland,______ has its own system.
4. In the UK, education is compulsory for children until the age of 16, ______________ in Brazil children can leave school at 14.
5. Students in Japanese schools often eat school lunches. _________ _______
__________, students in France also often eat in school.
6.5. Complete the sentences with your own ideas.
1. Schools and universities are similar in that______ .
2. Both boys and girls_____________________________. .
3. Literature is an arts subject. In contrast, _______________________.
4. English students take A Levels, whereas students in my country_____________.
5. Primary school is different from___________in that_________________.
Education in Japan and England: a comparison
6.6 Write three things you remember about the UK education system. Are these things the same or different in your country? Discuss with a partner.
6.7 Look at the notes. Write a heading for each group of facts.
England Japan Your country
1 General information 1_________________
1.1 compulsory for 6-15 year olds. 1.1.compulsory for 5-16 year olds
1.2 90% + go to state schools 1.2.majority - state schools but
some private (25%)
2.1 September - July 2.1. April to March
2.2 3 terms - about 13 weeks each 2.2. 3 terms - about 35 weeks a year
2.3 Mon-Fri 9.00-3.30 pm 2.3. Mon-Fri 8.30-3.50
2.4. lunch break - cafeteria, packed 2.4. lunch break - most eat school lunches food
3_______________________ 3 Elementary school
3.1 ages 5-11 3.1. ages 6-12
3.2 co-educational 3.2 . co-educational
3.3 English, maths, science + others 3.3. Japanese, maths, science + others
4______________________ 4 High school
4.1 ages 11-16 and 17-18 4.1. junior high ages 12-15
4.2 comprehensive - all abilities 4.2. senior high ages 15-18
5.1 age 16 - GSCEs in 10 subjects 5.1. entrance exam to each school
5.2. age 17 - AS Levels in 3 or 4 subjects 5.2. entrance exam to each university
5.3 age 18 - A Levels in 3 subjects for
6.8 Write two or three questions for each heading.
Model: General information
2. What percentage of students go to state schools?
6.9 Work with a partner. Answer your questions about your country. Write your
answers in note form in the table.
6.10 Read the two long sentences from an essay comparing the education systems of Japan and England. Divide each sentence into two shorter ones.
By law, Japanese children have to attend school from the age of 6 to 15, on the other hand, English children start compulsory school at the age of 5 and continue until they are 16.
The Japanese and English education systems are similar in that it is necessary to take an exam to enter university however, Japan is different from England because each university sets its own entrance exam, whereas all English universities accept students with good A level results.
Study Skill: Checking your writing
Being accurate is very important in academic and professional writing. Check your first draft for:
– sentence length. Are your sentences too long or short?
– word order, linking words;
– words left out, e.g. articles, prepositions, and auxiliary verbs.
6.11 Read the pairs of short sentences from the essay. Rewrite each pair to make
one sentence, using words or phrases to show similarity or difference.
1. The Japanese school year starts in April. The English school year starts in September.
2. English schools have three terms. Japanese schools have three terms.
3. Japanese students eat a school lunch. Many English students take food to school for lunch.
6.12 Read the paragraph. Find and correct ...
1 two wrong uses of similarity and difference linking words and phrases
2 two missing prepositions
3 two examples of wrong word order
The school systems in Japan and England are different in that students have to take exams. However, Japan each school can set entrance exams. In the same way, English schools do usually not have entrance exams. At the end of their time school, students in both countries have to exams take to enter university. There are places for everyone with the right qualifications, but very good grades are required to get into the best universities in both countries. Although there are a number of significant differences between the systems, both countries share a commitment to high quality education for their young people.
6.13 Write an essay (150-200 words) comparing the education system in your country with either England or Japan, or Russia, or some other country you know.
In the last 20 years there have been many developments in the field of information technology (IT), for example the World Wide Web and communication by email. However, not all these advances have been positive.
What type of IT developments do you think are likely to occur in the future and what might the negative effects be?
You should write at least 250 words
7.1 Read the sample student answer to this question. Then answer the questions
a) Is the writing well-organized?
– Is there an introduction and a conclusion?
– Are the paragraphs linked? .........
b) Does the student copy phrases from the questions in the introduction?
c) Is the essay the right length? .....
d) Is the content relevant? Give examples.
e) Does the writer consider both sides of the argument? Give examples.
f) Has the writer used an academic style? Find three examples of an appropriate phrase.
Admittedly, information technology have improved dramatically and changed the way people live in the past two decades. However, some people believe that the future advance of this is more likely to have more unfavorable effects.
Internet is the greatest invention in information technology; it helps human beings connecting each other wherever you are in the world. However, it has some inevitable defects. First, some of the World Wide Web harms the development of young people because it is full of violence and pornography. Some people say that various crimes are caused by young people who see these websites. Secondly, some bad men utilize the Internet to deal in drugs, weapons and so on. Moreover, people's bank or credit card details could be revealed to criminals.
However, it is also an undeniable fact that the IT progress have led to life becoming better and better with more effective communication and it could even save a person's life. For instance, a story was reported that some despairing parents in China wanted to help their baby who had heart disease. If he had no operation for his heart, he wouldn't be able to live longer than five. His parents couldn't afford the huge amount of money and it couldn't be done in China. However, they found a doctor in USA on the Internet and after the operation the baby have cured.
To conclude, although the Internet has some negative side-effects, we should agree that its advantages outweight its disadvantage. Therefore, we should use the law and other methods to handle it properly in order to make full use of information technology and to satisfy the needs of social development.
7.3 Consider how well they have answered the question by discussing your answers to exercise 1 with a partner.
Lesson 8 Упражнения и советы
Ключевое предложение и его место в абзаце
Упражнение 1. а) Автору письменного сочинения важно решить, какая информация имеет непосредственное отношение к теме, а какая может не упоминаться, как наименее важная. Например, необходимо решить, что является наиболее существенным в выборе будущей работы. Определите пять наиболее важных факторов и расположите их по степени важности.
flexible working hours
opportunity to travel
having amusing colleagues
close to home
good career and promotion prospects
long lunch breaks
normal hours of work
working with other people
б) Составьте максимально полный список факторов, вызывающих технологический прогресс. Проанализируйте его и определите пять приоритетных факторов. Объясните, что повлияло на ваш выбор.
Структура письменного текста
Упражнение 1. Проанализируйте следующие четыре абзаца и определите, какой из них может быть лучшим вступлением к эссе на тему "How to Live to Be a Hundred Years Old".
I. To begin with I would like to say that people have always wished to live as long as possible. Yet, they have always believed that their life is predetermined by fate. However, if we work out some recommendations for a healthy lifestyle and try to follow them we would avoid the ruinous effects of our stressful and strained life.
II. It is common knowledge that only one of every 300 people in the world live more than a hundred years. It is due to bad conditions of modern life - polluted atmosphere, bad food, and passive lifestyle. It is evident that we must do our best to eliminate the harmful consequences of such conditions. But how can we cope with the situation?
III. There are many factors that influence our life. Speaking about them I want to quote a well-known saying: "A sound mind is in a sound body" Everyone who wants to live to be a hundred should remember this saying.
IV. Nowadays human life has become very dangerous and it is very difficult to survive. Very few can live a century, but we must all learn how to do it. Can we say that the mankind will find a way to be immortal?
Логика изложения мысли в письменном сочинении
Упражнение 1. Для того чтобы данный абзац стал более логичным, необходимо переставить предложения. Обозначьте свой порядок предложений в абзаце.
The Prime Minister personally selects the ministers who are to form the Government. Most Government ministers are MPs, i.e., members of the House of Commons, but a minority are always members of the nnon-elective upper house, the House of Lords. The Cabinet, a committee of leading ministers, deals with the main lines of policy, exercises top-level control of the executive power and coordinates the work of the various ministers. The House of Lords is a non-elected second chamber. The growth in the power of the Cabinet is based on the development of the modern party system. The history of the House of Lords shows that it has consistently acted as safeguard for the interests of the wealthy.
Упражнение 2. а) Расположите абзацы в нужном порядке и отметьте правильный порядок абзацев в таблице.
(A) There are, however, some advantages. The pocket TV is very convenient. We can take it anywhere and never miss an important programme. Another good thing is that sports enthusiasts can watch important events whenever they wish. And one further benefit is the TV information services. These will be available at any time.
(B) Twenty years ago Walkmans did not exist. Now everyone has them. Will the pocket television, one of the latest inventions, be as popular in 20 years’ time?
(C) In my opinion, the most important factor is its convenience This will benefit society as long as we do not let it take over our lives.
(D) One major drawback of the pocket television is the tiny screen. It is so small that it may damage people's eyes. Another problem is that it is so convenient. People may watch one in meetings or at parties, perhaps even while driving. This is not acceptable and could be dangerous. A further advantage is that people may watch TV even more than they do now.
б) Выберите название для каждого абзаца (opinion, advantages, introduction, disadvantages).
Процесс написания сочинения
Если вы научитесь работать над сочинением поэтапно, вам удастся избежать многих ошибок и разочарований. Перед тем, как написать план сочинения, подумайте, что может относиться к данной теме. Набросайте на бумаге все мысли и идеи, приходящие вам в голову, и не опасайтесь, что они могут показаться абсурдными. После этого пронумеруйте ваши записи и составьте список, начиная с наиболее важных мыслей, — это будет система приоритетов.
Затем вам надо решить, что имеет прямое отношение к теме, а что является несущественным, и таким образом конкретизировать тему, которую вам надо обсудить. Чем конкретнее тема, тем тщательнее нужно отбирать материал, тем с большим числом идей вам придется расстаться.
Третьей стадией работы будет составление плана или смысловой схемы, которые будут для вас путеводителем, помогающим представить основную идею и отказаться от незначительной для вашего сочинения информации. Пункты плана целесообразно обозначать короткими номинативными предложениями и помнить, что вам следует начинать с более общего, а затем переходить к частностям. Например:
A part-time job for a college student:
1) helps to pay for college expenses;
2) provides students with vocational training;
3) develops student's character.
После того, как план составлен, можно приступать к написанию первого, чернового варианта сочинения. Затем необходимо проверить и исправить его и, наконец, написать окончательный вариант.
Упражнение 1. Вам необходимо объяснить, почему вам нравится та или иная книга. Просмотрите список различных факторов, влияющих на ваш выбор, и вычеркните те, которые несущественны
1. The characters are very real.
2. The plot is clever and original.
3. My sister likes reading too.
4. The picture on the cover is striking.
5. The descriptions are vivid.
6. The author uses the language in a simple and effective way.
7. The book is 200 pages long.
8. The story is set in France.
Упражнение 2. Приведенные ниже темы сочинений слишком пространны и не могут быть раскрыты полностью в одном сочинении. Выберите наиболее интересующие вас темы, разбейте каждую из них на три подтемы и напишите сочинение из 300 слов.
1. Ecology. 4. Problems of the Young.
2. Sports. 5. Education.
3. Hobbies. 6. The Use of Hi-Tech.
1. Акимова О.В. Международный экзамен по английскому языку.
Стратегия и тактика письма. Изд.КАРО, Санкт-Петербург, 2007.
2. APA Style Essentials
3. Gocsik, K. Dartmouth Writing Program. Copyright © 2004 Dartmouth College .-www.dartmouth.edu/~writing/materials/student/ac_paper/what.shtml
4. Pallant, A. English for Academic Study: Writing. University or Reading (2006)
5. Philpot, S. New Headway. Academic Skills: Reading, Writing, and Study Skills, Level 2. Oxford University Press, 2006.
6. Philpot, S. New Headway. Academic Skills: Reading, Writing, and Study Skills, Level 3. Oxford University Press, 2007.
7. Roberts, R., Gaconga, J., Preshous, A. IELTS Foundation: Macmillan Publishers Limited, 2004.
8. Roberts, R., Gaconga, J., Preshous, A. IELTS Foundation: Study Skills: a self-study course for all Academic Modules. Macmillan Publishers Limited, 2004.
9. Zeman, D. E., Rumisek, L. A. Academic Writing from Paragraph to Essay. Macmillan Publishers Limited, 2003.
10.Типовые правила документирования и управления документацией в государственных организациях Республики Казахстан (2003),
Lesson 1. Understanding Process Writing and Pre-Writing
Lesson 2. The Structure of a Paragraph
Lesson 3. Gerneral Ideas about the Structure of an Essay
Lesson 4. Paraphrasing and summarizing
Lesson 5. Discursive Essay Writing
Lesson 6. Comparing and Contrasting
Lesson 7. Evaluating an essay
Lesson 8. Упражнения и советы