Некоммерческое акционерное общество


Кафедра «Иностранные языки»






Английский язык 1, Английский язык 2. Методические указания для подготовки к экзаменам по выполнению лексико-грамматических тестов для студентов всех специальностей




Алматы  2011

СОСТАВИТЕЛЬ: К.Е. Молдабаева. Английский язык 1, Английский язык 2 Методические указания для подготовки к экзаменам по выполнению лексико-грамматических тестов для студентов всех специальностей 


Данные методические указания предназначены для подготовки к экзаменам по выполнению лексико-грамматических тестов для студентов всех специальностей. В методической разработке содержатся лексико-грамматические тесты, которые могут помочь студенту закрепить основной учебный материал при обучении иностранного языка.  


Рецензент: ст. преподаватель М.Д. Курманбекова 


Печатается по плану издания некоммерческого акционерного общества «Алматинский университет энергетики и связи» на 2011г.



© НАО «Алматинский университет энергетики и связи», 2011г.


                                                                                Сводный план 2011г., поз. 284



Английский язык 1, Английский язык 2 Методические указания для подготовки к экзаменам по выполнению лексико-грамматических тестов для студентов всех специальностей (составитель Молдабаева К.Е)

Данные методические указания предназначены для подготовки к экзаменам по выполнению лексико-грамматических тестов для студентов всех специальностей. В методической разработке содержатся лексико-грамматические тесты, которые могут помочь студенту закрепить основной учебный материал при обучении иностранного языка.      


Ст. преподаватель                                            М.Д. Курманбекова



Unit 1


     1.1 Complete the sentences. Use am, is, was or are


1.                 Computers ___ now essential in many areas of Life.

2.                 Repetition ___ good for learning English.

3.                 There ___ no national system of Higher Education in USA.

4.                 I___ a student ten years ago.

5.                 There ___ a great number of Libraries in our University.


    1.2 Complete the sentences. Use Present, Past and Future Simples


1. My friend ____ at the University. (study).

2. I____ English. (not speak).

3. ___ you ___ a technical Institute last year? (enter).

4. They ___ a new computer yesterday. (buy).

5. ___ you ___ far from your Institute? (live).

6. When ___ he ___ to our home? (arrive).

7. I ___ my parents on Sunday. (not visit).

8. We ___ three lessons tomorrow. (have).

9. You ___ mathematics next year. (not study).

10. They ___ a new house this summer. (build).


            1.3 Complete the sentences. Use the Passive Voice


1. The article ___ at the lesson. (discuss).

2. This magazine ___ in the bookshop near my home. (buy).

3. Next year my brother ___ to a new subsidiary of our company. (send).

4. This book ___by Auesov. (write).


           1.4 Complete the Text with the words given below


Enter, concentrate, secondary education, knowledge, junior high school, elementary school.



Most Americans start to school at the age of five when they ___ kindergarten. Children do not really study at this time. They only attend for half the day and learn what school is like. Children attend ____for next six years. They learn to read and write and work with numbers. They also study the world and its people. After they leave elementary school, children go to ____for three years and senior high school for another three years. This is called____. In some places the children go to elementary school for eight years and high school for four. At any rate, elementary and secondary education together takes twelve years to complete excluding kindergarten.

   In their secondary schooling children get more advanced ___and begin to ____on their special interests. They usually study further in history, geography, government and English language and literature.



2.Unit 2


2.2.1 Complete the sentences. Use the construction some, any


2.1. There are ___ magazines in the shelf.

2.2. There aren’t ___ students in the classroom.

2.3. Are there ___ pictures on the wall?

2.4. There are ___ oranges on the table.



2.2.2 Complete the sentences. Use Continuous Passive, Active


2.1.  What __ you __ on TV tonight? (watch).

2.She ___ a supper, when they arrived. ( have).

2.It ___ hot now. (get).

2.What __ he __, when the telephone rang?

2.I ___ a car, when two cars crashed. (drive).


2.2.3 Complete the sentences. Use the comparison or degrees of adjectives


2.1. This group studies __ than that one. (good).

2.2. The days in summer are ___ than in winter. (long).

2.The history is ___ subject for me. (difficult).

2.Abay  street is one of the ____ streets in our city.(beautiful).

2.Today I got up ___ than yesterday. (early).

2.Our new flat is ___ to my work than old one. (near).


2.2.4 Correct the grammar mistakes in sentences


2.1. It taked ages to get home.

2.2. Where bought you that bag.

2.3. You come not to the club last night.

2.4. We pass a post office minute ago.

2.5. They have wonderful dinner last night.


2.             2.5 Complete the Text with the words given below


2.         Plants, surroundings, destroying, environmental problems, animals.


2.Early civilizations may have killed themselves off by plundering local ___and____. New archeological findings suggest that far from living in perfect

2.harmony with nature, prehistoric civilization dealt major and sometimes fatal blow to natural____. Many investigators now question the idea that ___began only with the industrial revolution in the 19th century.

2.            Long before the appearance of industrial civilization prehistoric societies were _____forests, plants, animals and farmland. Such destruction sometimes destroyed them in turn.



2.       Unit 3


2.       3.1 Complete the sentences. Use since, for


2.1. They’ve lived here ___ two years.

2.2. I haven’t seen my sister ___ May.

2.3. We’ve studied here __ 2005.

2.4. The world has enjoyed his pictures ___ nearly 100 years.

2.5. My friend has been playing chess __ last three hours.


2.       3.2 Complete the sentences. Use Perfect Tenses


2.1. You are out of breath. _____?  (run).

2.It_____. The garden is all white. (snow).

2.I love this city. I___ here all my life. (live).

2.The child started to cry. He ___ his toy. (lose).

2.___ your tasks yet? (do).


2.     3.3 Complete the sentences. Use a, an or the


2.1. There is __ library in our Institute.

2.___ air in our city has been polluted by traffic.

2.The generator is __ compact source of energy.

2.He has __ difficult idea.

2.___ dinner is ready.


2.      3.4 Exchange the sentences from Active voice to Passive


2.1. I don’t agree with you.

2.The manager answered the phone.

2.I will meet you at the statue.

2.He seems very happy today.

2.We are writing the report at the moment.




2.         3.5 Complete the Text with the words given below


2.        Electricity, reactors, Nuclear power, catastrophe, industry.


2.Although nuclear reactors have generated ____commercially for more than 40 years and nearly 400 now in operation, two major accidents – in the US in 1979 and Chernobyl in the USSR in 1986 – have put the ___under a radioactive cloud. In the popular imagination, ___are nuclear bombs; even if they don’t explode, they go on accumulating waste that will finally cause a global____.

2.      As a result, an energy source once considered as the fuel of the future became questionable. But not everywhere. ____ provides nearly a quarter of the electricity generated in the industrialized Western world by the 24- member countries of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development.





2.4.1 Complete the sentences. Use sequence of sentences


2.1. He asked which book she (read) at the moment.

2.2. She says that she (want) to be a doctor.

2.3. We (study) English next summer.

2.4. He said that he (think) about it later.

2.5. Bob asked me if I (know) where Kate was living.


2.4.2 Correct the sentences


2.1.  He asked him whom he wants.

2.We were told that our parents will be coming back tomorrow.

2.I know that he lived in Tula.

2.The engineer said that he is busy.

2.He asks if I can stay with them.



2.4.3 Complete the sentences. Use say or tell                


2.1.  The doctor ___ that I should rest for at least a week.

2.He couldn’t help me. He ___ me to ask her.

2.Don’t anybody what I __.

2.Can you ___ me what happened?

2.He ___ me that he was fed up with his job.




2.4.4 Make the Reported speech


2.1. He said, “What is your native language”

2.He wants to know ____.

2.Bob asked, “When will the final decision be made?”

2.Bob wants to know ___.

2.He asked, “When does the film begin?”

2.He wants to know____.

2.She said to me, “How can I help you?”

2.He wants to know ___.

2.Ron said to Bob, “What’s the problem?”

2.Ron asked Bob____.


2.4.5 Complete the Text with the words given below


2.Received, postmaster, distribute, post office, delivery.


2.      The first travelling ___in the United States was Abraham Lincoln’s hat. That was a strange place, indeed, for mail; but that is where it was kept. Lincoln was appointed ___of New Salem, a small Western town, about the year 1833. The postman visited the place once a week and brought the mail – a dozen letters, perhaps, and two or three newspapers – in his saddle bags. He was always met by Postmaster Lincoln who put the letters into his hat for safe keeping. Lincoln was the clerk in the country store, so he had a good opportunity to ____the mail. But if people did not come for it, he put on his hat and delivered it. So New Salem was the first town in the US to have rural free___, even though the postmaster ___very small pay for his work.



2.Unit 5


2.5.1 Complete the sentences with prepositions about, in, on, by, of, at, from, for


2.1.  She looks very good ___ this photo.

2.Our team will play __ football match.

2.The TV is __ corner ___ the room.

2.She is suspected __ telling lies.

2.I want to arrive ___ work ___ time.

2.In this hospital many people suffer ___ cancer.

2.I went to Cuba ___ business last year.

2.She was very nervous ___ exam.

2.In most shops you can pay ___ credit card.

2.There is a car accident. One car collided ___ another one.


5.2 Find out the correct translation


1. Do all operations simultaneously:


a)     делать все операций вместе;

b)    делать все операций одновременно;

c)     делать все операций последовательно;

d)                делать все операций поочередно.


2. Integrated circuit:


a) интегральная схема;

b) интегральная цепь;

c) зашифрованная цепь;

d) зашифрованная схема.


3. To be in general usage:


a) основное использование;

b) являться общеупотребительной;

c) быть основным в использований;

d) использованный.


4. Most sophisticated invention of man:


a) самое последнее изобретение человечества;

b) самое трудное изобретение человечества;

c) самое современное изобретение человечества;

d) самое устаревшее изобретение человечества.


5.3 Find out synonyms


1. By means of:


a) where as;

                        by the way;

                        with the help of;



2. Tiny:


a) signal;

b)    small;

c)     speed;

d)    number.


3. Sophisticated:


a) intensive;

b) complex;

c)     reactive;

d)    natural.


4. Conduct:


a) consider;

b) expense;

c)     carry out;

d)                create.


5.4 Complete the Text with the words given below


Computer, pathway, information, transistors, circuits, switches.


       Transistors are miniature electronic____. They are the building blocks of the microprocessor which is the brain of the____. Similar to a basic light switch, transistors have two operating positions, on and off. This on/off function enables the processing of information in a computer.

       The only _____computers understand are electrical signals that are switched on and off. To understand how ____work, it is necessary to have an understanding of how a switched electronic circuit works. Switched electronic ___consist of several parts. One is the circuit pathway where the electrical current flows- typically through a wire. Another is the switch, a device that starts and stops the flow of electrical current by either completing or breaking the circuit’s ____.


Unit 6


6.1 Choose the correct modal verb


1.___ you speak any foreign languages?


a) could;

b)    might;

c)     can;

d)                must.


2. The phone rang but I didn’t hear it.

    I ___ have been asleep.


a) could;

b)    might;

c)     may;

d)                must.


3. She is a very nice person. You ___ meet her.


a) can;

                        are able;


                        have to.


4. Why did she miss meeting

 She ___ have known about it.


a) should;

b)    should not;

c)     must;

d)                might not.


5. It was a great party last night, you ___ have come.


a) should;

b) could;

c) must;

d) might.


6.2   Make sentences


 1. Don’t phone him now.

   (He must/ have/lunch).


 2. Why did you go home so early?

   (You / needn’t go/ home so early).


3.  Why didn’t you ask me to help you?

   (I would / help/you).


4. I ate too much. Now I feel sick.

(I shouldn’t / eat/ so much).


5. What’s he doing?

(She may / watch/ TV).


          6.3 Choose the correct word. Use the words nobody, anybody, nothing, anything, somebody, something


1. What/s in that box?

___ it’s empty.

2. My task is very easy. ___ could do it.

3. I don’t know about chemistry.

4. The accident was very serious, but fortunately ___ was injured.

5. She felt ___ touch her on the shoulder.

6. I saw him doing ___.

7. Can you smell ___ burning?

8. I heard ___ shouting.


6.4 Complete the Text with the words given below


Piece of steel, malleable, cut, metals, thin, car panel.


        A ____is made of three methods. First, sheet steel is made. This is done by pushing a _____between two rollers, which squeeze the metal and make it longer and thinner. This method is called rolling. Not all _____can be rolled. For example, iron can not be rolled because it is too brittle. But steel can be rolled because it is tough and _____enough.

       Next, the steel is cut into a flat shape. This is done by placing the sheet onto a die, and then cutting a hole in it with a punch. The method is called punching. The steel can be ____ easily because it is very thin.

       Finally, the sheet steel is bent and pressed into a rounded shape. This is done by putting the sheet around the die with a press. This method is called pressing. It is not difficult to press sheet steel because it is ___ and malleable.


Unit 7


7.1 Find out the correct variant


1. Please stop___ so loudly.


a) to speak;

b) speaking;

c) speak;

d) to be speaking.


2. After one hour we started____ a supper.


a) for having;

b) having;

c) have;

d) to have.


3. He went on ____ newspaper as if nothing had happened.


a) to read;

b) read;

c) reading;

d) in reading.


4. I like ____bills without delays.


a) paying;

b) to pay;

c) having paid;

d) pay.


5. Can you hear two men ___ an argument?


a) have;

b) having;

c) to have;

d) are having.


7.2 Remake the sentences. Use Participle


1. She was driving to work yesterday. She had an accident.

2. He bought his ticket. Then he went into theatre.

3. I was reading newspaper. I fell asleep.

4. I felt tired. So I went to bed.

5. He had spent all his money. So he couldn’t afford to buy a car.


7.3 Find out synonyms


1. Regulate:


a) innovate;

b) adjust;

c) navigate;

d) stimulate.


2. Traffic jam:


a) congestion;

b) rush hour;

c) buzzer;

d) accident.


3. Vehicle:


a) tank;

b) transport;

c) access;

d) route.


4. Aerial:


a) antenna;

b) coach;

c) detector;

d) generator.


5. Container:


a) tank;

b) brake;

c) ignition;

d) car.


7.4 Find out the right translation


1. How far one can drive?


a) cколько можно проехать?

b) eдинственный выход;

c) как можно проехать?

d) как далеко можно ехать?


2. In common use:


a) использовать вместе;

b) в повсеместном использовании;

c) частичная использование;

d) использовать полностью.


3. An automatic guidance system:


a) система управления;

b) автоматическая система управления;

c) система автоматического контроля;

d) управление автоматики.


4. Air pressure in tires:


a) воздушная давление в клапанах;

b) воздушная давление насоса;

c) воздушная давление в покрышках;

d) воздушная давление в шинах.


7.5 Complete the Text with the words given below

Blades, economical, furnace, filled, engines, useful.


Do you know what the first engine was like? It was called the “water wheel”. This was an ordinary wheel with blades fixed to it, and the current of a river turned it. These fist ____were used for irrigating fields.

Then a wind- powered engine was invented. This was a wheel, but a very small one. Long wide wooden ____were attached to it. The new engine was driven by the wind. Some of they are dependent in the country.

 Both of these, the water –and wind- operated engines are very___. They do not need fuel in order to function. But they are dependent on the weather. Many years passed and people invented a new engine, one operated by steam. In a steam engine, there is a _____and boiler. The furnace is ____ with wood or coal and then lit. The fire heats the water in the boiler and when it boils, it turns into steam which does some ____work.

Unit 8

8.1 Complete the sentences. Use the Gerund

1. I enjoy (listen) to music.

2. He tried to avoid (answer) the question.

3. I gave up (try) to find a job in our country.

4. Could you stop (make) so much noise?

5. Have you finished (use) the computer yet?

8.2 Choose the correct answer

1. I don’t appreciate ___ when I’m speaking.

a) interrupting;

b) being interrupting;

c) interrupted;

d) being interrupted.

2. The scuba divers are in danger of ___ by sharks.

a) killing;

b) being killed;

c) killed;

d) being killing.

3. She liked ___ food in bed when she wasn’t feeling well.

a) serving;

b) being served;

c) served;

d) serve.

4. His ___ a mistake has no influence on his job.

a) making;

b) having made;

c) made;

d) make.

5.___ from Los Angels to Tokyo will take hours.

a) fly;

b) flying;

c) flew;

d) flown.

8.3 Fulfill the sentences

1. It is not a good idea to travel during the rush hour. It’s better to avoid ___.

2. Please don’t interrupt me all the time. Would you mind ____?

3. Shall we do the task tomorrow instead of today? Shall we postpone ___ until ___?

4. Could you turn the radio down, please? Would you mind __?


8.4 Find the synonyms


1. aircraft:


a) helicopter;

b) plane;

c) vehicle;

d) coach.


2. substitute:


a) combine;

b) accommodating;

c) collaborate;

d) replace.


3. velocity:


a) structure;

b) speed;

c) friction;

d) noise.


4. engine:


a) generator;

b) motor;

c) machine;



5. shape:


a) kind;

b) type;

c) craft;

d) fuel.


6. composite:


 a) different;

 b)  difficult;

 c) cryogenic;

 d) combined.


8.5 Complete the Text with the words given below


Facilities, airship, applications, aircraft, destination. 


Unlike other new dirigible projects the giant Cargo Lifter CL 160 is aimed at heavy- lift cargo_____, not at tourism or advertising. It will be beginning of a new era in freight transport.

The 260 – meter long, 65-meter-diameter semi-rigid _____will be capable of transporting 160 ton loads-equivalent to 36 standard 40-ft containers- to out-of-the-way construction sites 10,000 km away. With a cruise speed of just 80-129 km/hr the CL 160 would not get the load to its _____nearby as fast as a heavier the air craft such as Antonov An-124, but it would also not require the landing ____needed for the unusually large____.


Unit 9


9.1 Fulfill the Sentences


1. People (be) ___ able to fly, if they (have)___ feathers instead hair.

2. If I (have)___ wings, I (have to, not)___ take an airplane to fly home.

3. If I get this book, I (to be) ___ very happy.

4. If their dreams (realize), mankind (know) about the secrets of Oceans much earlier.

5. If research in this field continues to expand, the number of crafts (appear) very soon.

9.2 Fulfill the Sentences

1. It was a terrible film. I wish ___ to see it. (we/not/go).

2. You are always tired. I wish ___ to bed so late. (you/not/go).

3. I wish ___ here. She‘d be able to help us. (Ann/be).

4. I should have listened to you, I wish___ your advice. (I/take).

9.3 Choose the correct word. Use words unless, provided, if


 1. We should have no radio, telephone or computers ___ there were electricity.

 2. A pilot can get all the information he needs ___ he contacts a radio    navigation station.

3. Lets go to him tonight ___ you haven’t been there before.

4. ___ new composite materials are used; it will be possible to lighten aircraft     weight.

5. I’m not going to worry ___ she hasn’t called by midnight.

9.4 Choose the right variant

1. If you ___ to my advice, you wouldn’t be in this place.

a) listen;

b) will listen;

c) had listened;

d) have listened.

2. We ___ the game, if we’d had a much time.

a) could have won;

b) won;

c) had won;

d) will win.

3.___ interested in this subject, I would try to learn more about it.


 a) If I am;

 b) should I;

 c) I was;

d) were I.


 4. Unless you ___ all my tasks, I can’t do anything to help you.


 a) answered;

 b) answer;

 c) would answer;

 d)  will answer.


 5. Do you think there would be less conflict in the world, if the people ___ the same languages.


 a) speak;

 b) will speak;

 c) spoke;

 d) have spoken.


9.5 Complete the Text with the words given below


Underwater, surface, explorers, bottom, sea.


The dark depth of Gulf of Mexico once frequented by only the ___creatures, are now alive with human activity. Miniature submarines and robot like vehicles move around the ocean ____while divers make their way around incredible ____structure taller than New York City sky scrapers, but almost totally beneath the ____of the waves. Modern- day ____are using technology worth of Jules Verne and Jacques Cousteau to find fresh supplies of oil and natural gas.


Unit 10


10.1 Fulfill the sentences. Use preposition “to”


1. I didn’t mean hurt your feelings.

2. I promise not be late.

3. She wishes come with us.

4. I’m trying learn English.

5. I demand know who is responsible.

6. He agreed help us.

7. I forgot write a letter.

8. That dog seems be friendly.

9. She swore tell the truth.

10. He continued speak.


10.2 Find out the definitions of these words


1. Increasing something in strength. for. ex. Increasing the sound.

2. To come very near to something.

3. Building where electricity is produced.

4. Level of temperature, or making something hot.

5. Doing something very quickly

6. Time during which something lasts.

7. Power or ability.

8. Synonym of the word to complete.

9. Instrument that you hold in your hand and use for working on sth.

10. Sth. a gun, bomb or sword, used in fighting.


                        Complete the Text with the words given below


Access, transformed, multimedia, damaging, information.


Optical disks can store ____at much higher densities than magnetic disks. Thus, they are ideal for ____applications where images, animation and sound occupy a lot of disk space. Besides, they are not affected by magnetic fields. This means that they are secure and stable, e.g. they can be ___through airport metal detectors without ____the data. However, optical drives are slower than hard disks. While there are hard drives with an average ____time of 8 milliseconds, most CD-ROM drives have an access time of 150 to 20 ms.


Unit 11


11.1 Choose the correct word


1. There are several reasons which/why I don’t want to see him tonight.

2. This is the office which/where I work.

3. All the people to which /whom the e-mail was sent replied.

4. Isn’t that the Spot which / where the accident happened last night?

5. It is known what / that he is a good specialist.



11.2 Write these sentences in another way. Use the complex object


1. It is expected that the company will make a loss this year.

2. It is said that the building has been badly damaged by the fire.

3. It is thought that the man was driving at 110 miles an hour.

4. it is reported that  many people are homeless after the floods.

5. It is expected that the weather will be good tomorrow.


11.3 Complete the sentences with nether/ either, neither nor, either or


1.___ you apologize __ I’ll never speak to you again.

2.___ Chris __ Pat came to the party.

3. Is your friend British or American? ____. She is Australian.

4. Do you want tea or coffee? ___ . I don’t mind.


11.4 Write the sentences with both…and.../neither …nor/, either…. or.


1. It was a boring film. It was long too.

2. He was late. So was she.

3. He didn’t/t write and he didn’t phone.

4. We can leave today or we can leave tomorrow- whichever you prefer.



11.5      Complete the Text with the words given below


Solar, particles, wire, rises, density.


Marsalis are a form of ___sails that use a completely different type of physical interaction with the sun. Marsail is a simple loop of high- temperature superconducting ____carrying a persistent current. The charged ____in the solar wind are deflected by the magnetic field, producing thrust. Although the thrust ___in the solar ion wind flux is 5,000 times less than the thrust density in the solar photon flux, the mass of a solar sail goes directly with the area, whereas the mass of the magsail ___with the perimeter of the enclosed area.




12.1 Write sentences beginning I wish…


1. I can’t go to the party (I’d like to go).

2. She isn’t here (I need to see her).

3. Its hot (I hate hot weather).

4. I don’t have a mobile phone (I need one).

5. I live in a village. (I don’t like it).


12.2 Change the sentences. Use could


1. The story can be true, but I don’t think it is.

2. I’m so angry with him. I can kill him.

3. It is so nice here. I can stay here all day, but unfortunately I have to go.

4. The weather is nice now, but it can change later.

5. -Where is my bag. Have you seen it?

-No, but it can be in a car.


12.3 Write sentences; use “must have” and the words in brackets


1. The phone rang, but I didn’t hear it. (I/ asleep).

2. This bag is beautiful. (It/ very expensive).

3. There was a man standing outside the café. (he/ wait/for somebody).

4. I haven/t seen the people next door for ages. (they/go away).


12.4 Complete the sentences use would, should


 1.___ you like something to eat?

 2. ____ you please be quiet?

 3. Send him out of the room so that he ___ not hear what we talk about.

 4. She put the letter away lest her husband ___ see it.


12.5      Complete the Text with the words given below


Convert, engineering, computers, provided, screen.


Computer graphics are known to be pictures and drawings produced by____. A graphics program interprets the input ____by the user and transports it into images that can be displayed on the____, printed on paper or transferred to microfilm. In the process the computer uses hundreds of mathematical formulas to ____the bits of data into precise shapes and colors.

Graphics can be developed for a variety of uses including illustrations, architectural designs and detailed _____drawings.


Список литературы 

1. И.В. Орловская, Л.С. Самсонова, А.И. Скубриева  «Учебник английского языка для технических университетов и вузов».2004.

2. R. Murphy “English Grammar in Use” Cambridge University Press 2004.

3. V Evans “English Grammar book” 1994. 



Unit 1                                                                                                                         4                              

Unit 2                                                                                                                         5

Unit 3                                                                                                                         6

Unit 4                                                                                                                         7

Unit 5                                                                                                                         9

Unit 6                                                                                                                       11

Unit 7                                                                                                                       14

Unit 8                                                                                                                       16

Unit 9                                                                                                                       18

Unit 10                                                                                                                     19

Unit 11                                                                                                                     20

Unit 12                                                                                                                     21