Коммерциялық емес акционерлік қоғам
АЛМАТЫ ЭНЕРГЕТИКА ЖӘНЕ БАЙЛАНЫС УНИВЕРСИТЕТІ
«Шетел тілдері» кафедрасы
Техникалық мәтіндерді ағылшын тілінен қазақ тіліне аударуға арналған әдістемелік құрал.
(5В071800,5В071700 мамандықтарының студенттеріне арналған)
Құрастырушы: К.Е. Молдабаева. Ағылшын тілі. Техникалық мәтіндерді ағылшын тілінен қазақ тіліне аударуға арналған әдістемелік құрал (5В071800, 5В071700 мамандықтарының студенттеріне арналған)- Алматы, АЭжБУ,- 18 бет
Берілген әдістемелік құрал 5В071800, 5В071700 мамандықтарының студенттеріне арналған.Әдістемелік құралда техникалық мәтіндерді ағылшын тілінен қазақ тіліне аударуға арналған жаттығулар мен мәтіндер берілген. Әдістемелік құралдың мақсаты студенттердің мамандандырылған тақырыптарға байланысты сөздік қорын молайту болып табылады
Рецензент: аға оқытушы М.Д. Курманбекова
Коммерциялық емес акционерлік қоғам «Алматы энергеика және байланыс университетінің» 2011 жылға арналған шығарылым жоспары бойынша басылып отыр.
© «Алматы энергеика және байланыс университетінің», КЕАҚ 2011ж..
Жоспар 2011ж., 285
Құрастырушы: К.Е. Молдабаева. Ағылшын тілі. Техникалық мәтіндерді ағылшын тілінен қазақ тіліне аударуға арналған әдістемелік құрал.
(5В071800,5В071700 мамандықтарының студенттеріне арналған)
Берілген әдістемелік құрал 5В071800,5В071700 мамандықтарының студенттеріне арналған.Әдістемелік құралда техникалық мәтіндерді ағылшын тілінен қазақ тіліне аударуға арналған жаттығулар мен мәтіндер берілген. Әдістемелік құралдың мақсаты студенттердің мамандандырылған тақырыптарға байланысты сөздік қорын молайту болып табылады
Аға оқытушы М.Д. Курманбекова
1.1 Find out the translation of the words
Consumption, output, favorable, renewable energy sunlight, energy production, wind, rain, tides, replenish, contribute, geothermal heat.
1.2 Define the object or phenomenon
_____ are fossil source fuels, that is, hydrocarbons found within the top layer of the Earth’s crust.
_____ is any material that is burned or altered in order to obtain energy.
_____ is a rotary engine that extracts energy from a fluid flow.
_____is energy which comes from natural resources such as sunlight, wind, rain, tides and geothermal heat.
_____ is the conversion of wind energy into a useful form of energy, such as using wind turbines to make electricity, windmills for mechanical power, wind pumps for water pumping or drainage, or sails to propel ships.
1.3 Read the text and translate it
Renewable energy is energy which comes from natural resources such as sunlight, wind, rain, tides, and geothermal heat, which are renewable (naturally replenished). In 2008, about 19% of global final energy consumption came from renewables, with 13% coming from traditional biomass, which is mainly used for heating, and 3.2% from hydroelectricity. New sources of renewable energy (small hydro, modern biomass, wind, solar, geothermal, and biofuels) accounted for another 2.7% and are growing very rapidly. The share of renewables in electricity generation is around 18%, with 15% of global electricity coming from hydroelectricity and 3% from new renewables.
1.4 Answer the questions
What is renewable energy?
What is renewable energy mainly used for?
What are the new forms of renewable energy?
1.5 Make the annotation to the text
1.6 Read the text and put the words given below in correct place
Speed, output, energy, commercial, greater, installed, potential, contribute, locations, wind.
Airflows can be used to run ---turbines. Modern wind turbines range from around 600 kW to 5 MW of rated power, although turbines with rated ---- of 1.5–3 MW have become the most common for ---- use; the power output of a turbine is a function of the cube of the wind speed, so as wind ----increases, power output increases dramatically. Areas where winds are stronger and more constant, such as offshore and high altitude sites are preferred ----for wind farms.
Typical capacity factors are 20-40%, with values at the upper end of the range in particularly favorable sites. Globally, the long-term technical ----of wind energy is believed to be five times total current global ----production, or 40 times current electricity demand. This could require wind turbines to be---- over large areas, particularly in areas of higher wind resources. Offshore resources experience mean wind speeds of ~90% ------ than that of land, so offshore resources could ----substantially more energy.
2.1 Find out the translation of the words
Harness, stream, swell, yield, installations, remote-area, solar, lighting, purpose, capture, distribute, convert.
2.2 Define the Object or phenomenon
------is another renewable energy source, where the energy from the sun is harnessed in order to produce energy.
-----is the chemical element with atomic number 1. It is represented by the symbol H. At standard temperature and pressure.
____is obvious as daylight when the Sun is above the horizon.
____is designed to collect heat by absorbing sunlight.
Solar energy is the energy derived from the sun through the form of solar radiation. Solar powered electrical generation relies on photovoltaic’s and heat engines. A partial list of other solar applications includes space heating and cooling through solar architecture, day lighting, and solar hot water, solar cooking, and high temperature process heat for industrial purposes.
Solar technologies are broadly characterized as either passive solar or active solar depending on the way they capture, convert and distribute solar energy. Active solar techniques include the use of photovoltaic panels and solar thermal collectors to harness the energy. Passive solar techniques include orienting a building to the Sun, selecting materials with favorable thermal mass or light dispersing properties, and designing spaces that naturally circulate air.
2.3 Answer the questions
Where can be solar energy derived from?
What do active solar techniques include?
What do passive solar techniques include?
2.5 Make the annotation to the text
2.6 Read the text and put the words given below in correct place
Forms, hydroelectric, installations, power supply, to harness, kinetic energy, tidal.
Energy in water can be harnessed and used. Since water is about 800 times denser than air, even a slow flowing stream of water, or moderate sea swell, can yield considerable amounts of energy. There are many ----of water energy: Hydroelectric energy is a term usually reserved for large-scale ----dams. Examples are the Grand Coulee Dam in Washington State and the Akosombo Dam in Ghana. Micro hydro systems are hydroelectric power -----that typically produces up to 100 kW of power. They are often used in water rich areas as a remote-area ----- (RAPS).
There are many of these installations around the world, including several delivering around 50 kW in the Solomon Islands. Run-of-the-river hydroelectricity systems derive -----from rivers and oceans without using a dam. Ocean energy describes all the technologies -----energy from the ocean and the sea. This includes marine current power, ocean thermal energy conversion, and----- power.
3.1 Find out the translation of the words
Biomass, bioalcohols, bioethanol, biodiesel, landfill gas, synthetic gas, starch crop, cellulosic biomass, additive, carbon monoxide, transesterification.
3.2 Define the Object or phenomenon
-----is defined as solid, liquid or gas fuel derived from recently dead biological material and is distinguished from fossil fuels, which are derived from long dead biological material.
---- is a chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a single carbon atom.
--------- is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas which is slightly lighter than air. It is highly toxic to humans and animals in higher quantities, although it is also produced in normal animal metabolism in low quantities, and is thought to have some normal biological functions.
-----(also called biogasoline) is often claimed to provide a direct replacement for gasoline, because it can be used directly in a gasoline engine (in a similar way to biodiesel in diesel engines).
-----is the name given to a gas mixture that contains varying amounts of carbon monoxide and hydrogen. Examples of production methods include steam reforming of natural gas or liquid hydrocarbons to produce hydrogen, the gasification of coal, biomass, and in some types of waste-to-energy gasification facilities.
----is a biofuel produced from wood, grasses, or the non-edible parts of plants.
3.3 Read the text and translate it
Biofuels include a wide range of fuels which are derived from biomass. The term covers solid biomass, liquid fuels and various biogases. Liquid biofuels include bioalcohols, such as bioethanol, and oils, such as biodiesel. Gaseous biofuels include biogas, landfill gas and synthetic gas.
Bioethanol is an alcohol made by fermenting the sugar components of plant materials and it is made mostly from sugar and starch crops. With advanced technology being developed, cellulosic biomass, such as trees and grasses, are also used as feedstocks for ethanol production. Ethanol can be used as a fuel for vehicles in its pure form, but it is usually used as a gasoline additive to increase octane and improve vehicle emissions. Bioethanol is widely used in the USA and in Brazil.
Biodiesel is made from vegetable oils, animal fats or recycled greases. Biodiesel can be used as a fuel for vehicles in its pure form, but it is usually used as a diesel additive to reduce levels of particulates, carbon monoxide, and hydrocarbons from diesel-powered vehicles. Biodiesel is produced from oils or fats using transesterification and is the most common biofuel in Europe.
Biofuels provided 1.8% of the world's transport fuel in 2008. According to the International Energy Agency, biofuels have the potential to meet more than a quarter of world demand for transportation fuels by 2050.
3.4 Make the annotation to the text
3.5 Read the text and put the words given below in correct place
A renewable energy source, release, photosynthesis, soils, energy production, battery, storing, approaches.
Biomass (plant material) is ----- because the energy it contains comes from the sun. Through the process of -----, plants capture the sun's energy. When the plants are burnt, they ----the sun's energy they contain. In this way, biomass functions as a sort of natural battery for ----- solar energy. As long as biomass is produced sustainably, with only as much used as is grown, the ---- will last indefinitely. In general there are two main ---- to using plants for---: growing plants specifically for energy use, and using the residues from plants that are used for other things. The best approaches vary from region to region according to climate, ----- and geography.
4.1 Find out the translation of the words
Tapping, locations, shallow depths, a power station, geothermal energy, to drive a turbine, the condensed steam, to inject.
4.2 Define the Object or phenomenon
---- is thermal energy generated and stored in the Earth.
--- is a central heating and/or cooling system that pumps heat to or from the ground. It uses the earth as a heat source (in the winter) or a heat sink (in the summer).
---- is a power plant in which the prime mover is steam driven.
---- is energy transferred from one place in a body or thermodynamic system to another place, or beyond the boundary of one system to another one due to thermal contact even when the systems are at different temperatures.
--- is the technical term for the invisible water vapor, the gaseous phase of water formed when water is boiled.
4.3 Read the text and translate it
Geothermal energy is energy obtained by tapping the heat of the earth itself, both from kilometers deep into the Earth's crust in volcanically active locations of the globe or from shallow depths, as in geothermal heat pumps in most locations of the planet. It is expensive to build a power station but operating costs are low resulting in low energy costs for suitable sites. Ultimately, this energy derives from heat in the Earth's core.
Three types of power plants are used to generate power from geothermal energy: dry steam, flash, and binary. Dry steam plants take steam out of fractures in the ground and use it to directly drive a turbine that spins a generator. Flash plants take hot water, usually at temperatures over 200 °C, out of the ground, and allows it to boil as it rises to the surface then separates the steam phase in steam/water separators and then runs the steam through a turbine.
In binary plants, the hot water flows through heat exchangers, boiling an organic fluid that spins the turbine. The condensed steam and remaining geothermal fluid from all three types of plants are injected back into the hot rock to pick up more heat.
4.4 Make the annotation to the text
4.5 Read the text and put the words given below in correct place
A power plant, steam driven, turns, a steam turbine, a condenser, electrical power, fuel sources, electricity, to reduce these.
A thermal power station is -----in which the prime mover is-----. Water is heated, ---- into steam and spins -----which drives an electrical generator. After it passes through the turbine, the steam is condensed in ---- and recycled to where it was heated; this is known as a Rankin cycle.
The greatest variation in the design of thermal power stations is due to the different----. Some prefer to use the term energy center because such facilities convert forms of heat energy into---- . Some thermal power plants also deliver heat energy for industrial purposes, for district heating, or for desalination of water as well as delivering-----.
A large part of human CO2 emissions comes from fossil fueled thermal power plants; efforts -----these outputs are various and widespread.
5.1 Find out the translation of the words
Steam turbine generator
The turbine generator, interconnected, pressure, to expand, emergency lighting, the boiler, the condenser.
5.2 Define the Object or phenomenon
----- is a mechanical device that extracts thermal energy from pressurized steam, and converts it into rotary motion.
----- is the force per unit area applied in a direction perpendicular to the surface of an object.
----is a device or unit used to condense a substance from its gaseous to its liquid state, typically by cooling it.
---- is a closed vessel in which water or other fluid is heated. The heated or vaporized fluid exits in it for use in various processes or heating applications.
---- a device that converts mechanical energy to electrical energy.
5.3 Read the text and translate it
The turbine generator consists of a series of steam turbines interconnected to each other and a generator on a common shaft. There is a high pressure turbine at one end, followed by an intermediate pressure turbine, two low pressure turbines, and the generator. As steam moves through the system and loses pressure and thermal energy it expands in volume, requiring increasing diameter and longer blades at each succeeding stage to extract the remaining energy.
The entire rotating mass may be over 200 metric tons and 100 feet (30 m) long. It is so heavy that it must be kept turning slowly even when shut down so that the shaft will not bow even slightly and become unbalanced. This is so important that it is one of only five functions of blackout emergency power batteries on site. Other functions are emergency lighting, communication, station alarms and turbo generator lube oil.
Superheated steam from the boiler is delivered through 14–16-inch (360–410 mm) diameter piping to the high pressure turbine where it falls in pressure to 600 psi (4.1 MPa) and to 600 °F (320 °C) in temperature through the stage.
It exits via 24–26-inch (610–660 mm) diameter cold reheat lines and passes back into the boiler where the steam is reheated in special reheat pendant tubes back to 1,000 °F (500 °C). The hot reheat steam is conducted to the intermediate pressure turbine where it falls in both temperature and pressure and exits directly to the long-bladed low pressure turbines and finally exits to the condenser.
5.4 Make the annotation to the text
5.5 Read the text and put the words given below in correct place
The steam turbine generator, systems, the shaft, resistance, the bearing shells, to limit.
The steam turbine-driven generators have auxiliary ----- enabling them to work satisfactorily and safely. ------ being rotating equipment generally has a heavy, large diameter shaft. ----- Therefore requires not only supports but also has to be kept in position while running. To minimize the frictional ---- to the rotation, the shaft has a number of bearings. -----, in which the shaft rotates, are lined with a low friction material like Babbitt metal. Oil lubrication is provided to further reduce the friction between shaft and bearing surface and ---- the heat generated.
6.1 Find out the translation of the words
Fossil fuels, natural gas, petroleum, to convert, combustion, internal combustion engine, a cooling tower, the flue gas, nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides,
6.2 Define the object or phenomenon
--- describes the sum of potential energy and kinetic energy present in the components of a mechanical system. It is the energy associated with the motion or position of an object.
----is a mechanical device that extracts thermal energy from pressurized steam , and converts it into rotary motion.
---- is a secondary or incidental product deriving from a manufacturing process, a chemical reaction or a biochemical pathway, and is not the primary product or service being produced.
---- is gas that exits to the atmosphere via a flue, which is a pipe or channel for conveying exhaust gases from a fireplace, oven, furnace, boiler or steam generator.
----- is the chemical compound with the formula SO2. It is released by volcanoes and in various industrial processes.
6.3 Read the text and translate it
A fossil-fuel power station is a power station that burns fossil fuels such as coal, natural gas or petroleum (oil) to produce electricity. Central station fossil-fuel power plants are designed on a large scale for continuous operation. In many countries, such plants provide most of the electrical energy used.
Fossil fuel power stations (except for MHD generators) have some kind of rotating machinery to convert the heat energy of combustion into mechanical energy, which then operate an electrical generator. The prime mover may be a steam turbine, a gas turbine or, in small isolated plants, a reciprocating internal combustion engine. All plants use the drop between the high pressure and temperature of the steam or combusting fuel and the lower pressure of the atmosphere or condensing vapour in the steam turbine.
Byproducts of power thermal plant operation need to be considered in both the design and operation. Waste heat due to the finite efficiency of the power cycle must be released to the atmosphere, using a cooling tower, or river or lake water as a cooling medium.
The flue gas from combustion of the fossil fuels is discharged to the air; this contains carbon dioxide and water vapour, as well as other substances such as nitrogen, nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides, and (in the case of coal-fired plants) fly ash, mercury and traces of other metals. Solid waste ash from coal-fired boilers must also be removed. Some coal ash can be recycled for building materials.
6.4 Make the annotation to the text
6.5 Read the text and put the words given below in correct place
To boil, generates, burns, systems, boiler, the steam turbine, utilize, used, heat exchangers, steam sources, solids, an economizer, a boiling water reactor, safety valves, geothermal plants, the furnace.
Boiler and steam cycle
In fossil-fueled power plants, steam generator refers to a furnace that -----the fossil fuel---- water to generate steam. In the nuclear plant field, steam generator refers to a specific type of large heat exchanger---- in a pressurized water reactor (PWR) to thermally connect the primary (reactor plant) and secondary (steam plant)----, which ---- steam. In a nuclear reactor called ----(BWR), water is boiled to generate steam directly in the reactor itself and there are no units called steam generators.
In some industrial settings, there can also be steam-producing ----called heat recovery steam generators (HRSG) which ----heat from some industrial process. The steam generating boiler has to produce steam at the high purity, pressure and temperature required for ----- that drives the electrical generator.---- need no boiler since they use naturally occurring-----. Heat exchangers may be used where the geothermal steam is very corrosive or contains excessive suspended ----.
A fossil fuel steam generator includes ----, a steam drum, and ----- with its steam generating tubes and super heater coils. Necessary ----are located at suitable points to avoid excessive boiler pressure. The air and flue gas path equipment include: forced draft (FD) fan, Air Preheater (AP), boiler furnace, induced draft (ID) fan, fly ash collectors (electrostatic precipitator or bag house) and the flue gas stack.
7.1 Find out the translation of the words
Power station, generation, rotate, a conductor, to harness, to turn, operation, an engine, a customer.
7.2 Define the object or phenomenon
---- is an industrial facility for the generation of electric energy.
---- a rotating machine that converts mechanical energy into electrical energy by creating relative motion between a magnetic field and a conductor.
----- an American inventor, scientist, and businessman who developed many devices that greatly influenced life around the world, including the phonograph, the motion picture camera, and a long-lasting, practical electric light bulb.
-----is the process of generating electric energy from other forms of energy.
---- an English chemist and physicist (or natural philosopher, in the terminology of the time) who contributed to the fields of electromagnetism and electrochemistry.
---is a single, usually cylindrical, flexible strand or rod of metal
7.3 Read the text and translate it
At the center of nearly all power stations is a generator, a rotating machine that converts mechanical energy into electrical energy by creating relative motion between a magnetic field and a conductor.
The energy source harnessed to turn the generator varies widely. It depends chiefly on which fuels are easily available and on the types of technology that the power company has access to. The first power station was the Edison Electric Light Station, built in London at 57, Holborn Viaduct, which started operation in January 1882. This was an initiative of Thomas Edison that was organized and managed by his partner, Edward Johnson.
A Babcock and Wilcox boiler powered a 125 horsepower steam engine that drove a 27 ton generator called Jumbo, after the celebrated elephant. This supplied electricity to premises in the area that could be reached through the culverts of the viaduct without digging up the road, which was the monopoly of the gas companies. The customers included the City Temple and the Old Bailey.
Another important customer was the Telegraph Office of the General Post Office but this could not be reached though the culverts. Johnson arranged for the supply cable to be run overhead, via Holborn Tavern and Newgate.
7.4 Make the annotation to the text
7.5 Read the text and put the words given below in correct place
Electricity generation, geothermal sources, used, a loop of wire, technologies, geothermal power, electromechanical generators, water power, chemical combustion, solar energy, water, since.
The fundamental principles of -----were discovered during the 1820s and early 1830s by the British scientist Michael Faraday. His basic method is still ---- today: electricity is generated by the movement of-----, or disc of copper between the poles of a magnet.
Electricity is most often generated at a power station by ----- primarily driven by heat engines fueled by ---- or nuclear fission but also by other means such as the kinetic energy of flowing ----and wind. There are many other ----- that can be and are used to generate electricity such as solar photovoltaic’s and-----.Electricity has been generated at central stations ----1881.
The first power plants were run on ---- or coal, and today we rely mainly on coal, nuclear, natural gas, hydroelectric, and petroleum with a small amount from----, tidal harnesses, wind generators, and-----.
8.1 Find out the translation of the words
The flow of electrical current, electrical wire, electromagnetic induction, electromagnetic field, static electricity, by rubbing amber, fuel cell, solar cells, to rotate, tidal power, conversion.
8.2 Define the object or phenomenon
-----a property of some subatomic particles, which determines their electromagnetic interactions. Electrically charged matter is influenced by, and produces, electromagnetic fields.
------ a movement or flow of electrically charged particles, typically measured in amperes.
--------an influence produced by an electric charge on other charges in its vicinity.
------the capacity of an electric field to do work on an electric charge, typically measured in volts.
-------a fundamental interaction between the magnetic field and the presence and motion of an electric charge.
8.3 Read the text and translate it
Electricity is a general term encompassing a variety of phenomena resulting from the presence and flow of electric charge. These include many easily recognizable phenomena, such as lightning, static electricity, and the flow of electrical current in an electrical wire. In addition, electricity encompasses less familiar concepts such as the electromagnetic field and electromagnetic induction.
The word is from the New Latin ēlectricus, "amber-like", coined in the year 1600 from the Greek ήλεκτρον (electron) meaning amber (hardened plant resin), because static electricity effects were produced classically by rubbing amber.
There are seven fundamental methods of directly transforming other forms of energy into electrical energy:
1. Static electricity, from the physical separation and transport of charge (examples: triboelectric effect and lightning).
2. Electromagnetic induction, where an electrical generator, dynamo or alternator transforms kinetic energy (energy of motion) into electricity.
3. Electrochemistry, the direct transformation of chemical energy into electricity, as in a battery, fuel cell or nerve impulse.
4. Photoelectric effect, the transformation of light into electrical energy, as in solar cells.
5. Thermoelectric effect, direct conversion of temperature differences to electricity, as in thermocouples, thermopiles, and Thermionic converters.
6. Piezoelectric effect, from the mechanical strain of electrically anisotropic molecules or crystals.
7. Nuclear transformation, the creation and acceleration of charged particles (examples: betavoltaics or alpha particle emission)
8.4 Make the annotation to the text
8.5 Read the text and put the words given below in correct place
Discovered, to increase, fossil fuels, heat engines, investigated, conversion, nuclear fission, heat engines, energy forces,beta decay, generates,modern devices, converts,to rotate, electromagnetic induction, to run, tidal power.
Static electricity was the first form ----and-----, and the electrostatic generator is still used even in ----such as the Van de Graaff generator and MHD generators. Electrons are mechanically separated and transported -----their electric potential.
Almost all commercial electrical generation is done using -----, in which mechanical ----an electrical generator-----. There are many different methods of developing the mechanical energy, including-----, hydro, wind and -----.
The direct -----of nuclear energy to electricity by ----is used only on a small scale. In a full-size nuclear power plant, the heat of a nuclear reaction is used ----a heat engine. This drives a generator, which mechanical energy into electricity by magnetic induction.Most electric generation is driven by----.
The combustion of ----supplies most of the heat to these engines, with a significant fraction from -----and some from renewable sources. The modern steam turbine (invented by Sir Charles Parsons in 1884) currently ---- about 80 percent of the electric power in the world using a variety of heat sources.
9.1 Find out the translation of the words
The pursuit, nuclear fission, steam, hand tools, water purifier resins, release.
9.2 Define the object or phenomenon
---- is the use of sustained nuclear fission to generate heat and do useful work.
----is a nuclear reaction in which the nucleus of an atom splits into smaller parts (lighter nuclei), often producing free neutrons and photons (in the form of gamma rays), and releasing a tremendous amount of energy.
-----is a term used to describe nuclear waste that does not fit into the categorical definitions for high-level waste (HLW), spent nuclear fuel (SNF), transuranic waste (TRU), or certain byproduct materials known as 11e(2) wastes, such as uranium mill tailings.
----a hydrocarbon secretion of many plants, particularly coniferous trees. It is valued for its chemical properties and associated uses, such as the production of varnishes, adhesives, and food glazing agents; as an important source of raw materials for organic synthesis; and as constituents of incense and perfume.
-----is a device for performing work on a material or a physical system using only hands.
9.3 Read the text and translate it
Nuclear power is the use of sustained nuclear fission to generate heat and do useful work. Nuclear Electric Plants, Nuclear Ships and Submarines use controlled nuclear energy to heat water and produce steam, while in space, nuclear energy decays naturally in a radioisotope thermoelectric generator.
Scientists are experimenting with fusion energy for future generation, but these experiments do not currently generate useful energy.
The nuclear industry also produces a large volume of low-level radioactive waste in the form of contaminated items like clothing, hand tools, water purifier resins, and (upon decommissioning) the materials of which the reactor itself is built.
In the United States, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission has repeatedly attempted to allow low-level materials to be handled as normal waste: land filled, recycled into consumer items. Most low-level waste releases very low levels of radioactivity and is only considered radioactive waste because of its history.
9.4 Make the annotation to the text
9.5 Read the text and put the words given below in correct place
Radioactive elements, nuclear energy, changed, short-lived, harnessing, mass–energy equivalence.
The pursuit of -----for electricity generation began soon after the discovery in the early 20th century that----, such as radium, released immense amounts of energy, according to the principle of-----.
However, means of harnessing such energy was impractical, because intensely radioactive elements were, by their very nature, -----(high energy release is correlated with short half-lives).
However, the dream of ------"atomic energy" was quite strong, even it was dismissed by such fathers of nuclear physics like Ernest Rutherford as "moonshine." This situation, however, ------in the late 1930s, with the discovery of nuclear fission.
10.1 Find out the translation of the words
A property, a force, electric charge, a substance, to interact, a particle, to demonstrate.
10.2 Define the object or phenomenon
----- is a ratio of the degree to which an object opposes an electric current through it, measured in Ohms.
------is a network that has a closed loop, giving a return path for the current. A network is a connection of two or more components, and may not necessarily be a circuit.
------is the flow (movement) of electric charge. The SI unit of electric current is the ampere.
-----is the process of converting non-electrical energy to electricity.
10.3 Read the text and translate it
Electric charge is a physical property of matter which causes it to experience a force when near other electrically charged matter. Electric charge comes in two types, called positive and negative.
Two positively charged substances, or objects, experience a mutual repulsive force, as do two negatively charged objects. Positively charged objects and negatively charged objects experience an attractive force.
The SI unit of electric charge is the coulomb (C), although in electrical engineering it is also common to use the ampere-hour (Ah).
The study of how charged substances interact is classical electrodynamics, which is accurate insofar as quantum effects can be ignored.
The electric charge is a fundamental conserved property of some subatomic particles, which determines their electromagnetic interaction. Electrically charged matter is influenced by, and produces, electromagnetic fields.
The interaction between a moving charge and an electromagnetic field is the source of the electromagnetic force, which is one of the four fundamental forces.
10.4 Make the annotation to the text
10.5 Read the text and put the words given below in correct place
Direct current, a battery, a sinusoidal wave, a conductor, alternating current, household applications, energy, circuit, circuitry, electrical properties, direction.
In engineering or----, current is often described as being either----- (DC) or ------(AC). These terms refer to how the current varies in time.
Direct current, as produced by example from ----and required by most electronic devices, is a unidirectional flow from the positive part of a ---- to the negative. If, as is most common, this flow is carried by electrons, they will be travelling in the opposite------.
Alternating current is any current that reverses direction repeatedly; almost always this takes the form of------. Alternating current thus pulses back and forth within -----without the charge moving any net distance over time.
The time-averaged value of an alternating current is zero, but it delivers ----in first one direction, and then the reverse.
Alternating current is affected by -----that are not observed under steady state direct current, such as inductance and capacitance. These properties however can become important when---- is subjected to transients, such as when first energised.
11.1 Find out the translation of the words
Direct current, galvanic current, commutator, an alternating current, direction, to charge batteries.
11.2 Define the object or phenomenon
------is a physical property of matter which causes it to experience a force when near other electrically charged matter. It comes in two types, called positive and negative.
-----originally another name for an electrical generator, generally means a generator that produces direct current with the use of a commutator.
----is a material with electrical conductivity due to electron flow (as opposed to ionic conductivity) intermediate in magnitude between that of a conductor and an insulator.
---also called a dielectric, is a material that resists the flow of electric charge.
11.3 Read the text and translate it
Direct current (DC) is the unidirectional flow of electric charge. Direct current is produced by such sources as batteries, thermocouples, solar cells, and commutator-type electric machines of the dynamo type. Direct current may flow in a conductor such as a wire, but can also flow through semiconductors, insulators, or even through a vacuum as in electron or ion beams.
The electric charge flows in a constant direction, distinguishing it from alternating current (AC). A term formerly used for direct current was galvanic current.
Direct current may be obtained from an alternating current supply by use of a current-switching arrangement called a rectifier, which contains electronic elements (usually) or electromechanical elements (historically) that allow current to flow only in one direction.
Direct current may be made into alternating current with an inverter or a motor-generator set. Direct current is used to charge batteries, and in nearly all electronic systems, as the power supply.
Very large quantities of direct-current power are used in production of aluminum and other electrochemical processes. Direct current is used for some railway propulsion, especially in urban areas. High-voltage direct current is used to transmit large amounts of power from remote generation sites or to interconnect alternating current power grids.
11.4 Make the annotation to the text
Қолданылған Әдебиеттер тізімі
1. V Evans “English Grammar book” 1994.
2. Ресурсы Интернет
1. Renewable energy 3
2. Solar energy 5
3. Biofuel 7