Некоммерческое акционерное общество
АЛМАТИНСКИЙ УНИВЕРСИТЕТ ЭНЕРГЕТИКИ И СВЯЗИ
Кафедра «Иностранные языки»
Методические указания по развитию умений выступления
с презентацией (для магистрантов всех специальностей)
СОСТАВИТЕЛЬ: Л.Я. Коробейникова. Английский язык. Методические указания по развитию умений выступления с презентацией (для магистрантов всех специальностей)– Алматы: АУЭС, 2011 – стр.
Методические указания предназначены для приобретения, расширения и закрепления общих навыков монологической устной речи, публичного выступления, обработки научно-публицистических материалов с одновременным развитием всех четырех видов языковой подготовки – говорения, аудирования, чтения и письма.
Рецензент: канд. фил. наук Х.А. Нурходжаева
Печатается по плану издания некоммерческого акционерного общества «Алматинский университет энергетики и связи» на 2011г.
© НАО «Алматинский университет энергетики и связи», 2011г.
Сводный план 2011 г., поз.289
A presentation is “a formal talk in which you describe or explain something to a group of people”
(Macmillan English Dictionary)
Данные методические указания, предназначенные для студентов магистратуры АУЭС, не имеют выраженной специфической профессиональной направленности по специализациям. Образованный человек, обладающий общими представлениями и навыками подготовки и проведения презентаций, сможет подготовить публичное выступление на любую близкую ему тему. Это очень не просто - выступать перед аудиторией, но если хорошо владеешь материалом, можешь в доступной форме убедительно изложить его на понятном и грамотном (в нашем случае – английском) языке и соблюдаешь некоторые основные правила, то задача становится вполне решаемой.
Наши методические указания – это, по сути, учебное пособие небольшого формата с методическими рекомендациями по использованию устоявшихся академических правил, примерами, упражнениями и т.д. И кроме того, работа снабжена ценным материалом для аудирования.
All presentations have a common objective. People give presentations because they want to communicate in order to:
a) inform, b) train, c) persuade, d) sell.
A successful presentation is one of the most effective ways of communicating your message. And because English is so widely used in international business, a working knowledge of the vocabulary and techniques used in an English language presentation is a valuable asset.
Вам предстоит сделать презентацию, но вы не знаете, что это такое. О чем вы думаете?
Int.1 Choose three of the ten statements which you think are mostly true to you. Compare and discuss your choices in pairs (groups). Each statement is followed by a piece of good advice for you to remember.
1. Most people feel nervous about having to do a presentation. (Two things can help: being well prepared and knowing what relaxation techniques work for you).
2. Most people think they won’t be any good at giving a presentation. (Remember that everyone wants you to succeed; the audience will be there to support you).
3. Being able to do a good presentation is a really good skill to have. (It is! It can form part of your assessment. Besides, giving a presentation can help build self-confidence, and confidence with the facts and ideas you are working with).
4. My handwriting is too messy to write on a whiteboard or a flipchart. (Write things in advance).
5. When I’m nervous I forget how to spell common words. (This is common and understandable. Try for an easier alternantive or make a list of words that might crop up).
6. How can I do a presentation when I don’t know enough about anything? (Giving a presentation is one of the best ways to learn. If you’ve been given a presentation title, you’ll find that your understanding of the information and issues will be far better than through reading or note-taking alone).
7. I’d rather read from my notes, so that I don’t leave out anything important. (It might seem boring for the audience).
8. I’ve done a presentation before and learnt most from my mistakes. (You have excellent self-evaluation techniques. Did you find that the bits that went well made you feel good?)
9. I like talking, so I won’t have much to prepare. (It’s always good to be prepared).
Int. 2 Work with a partner. Ask the questions below and make a note of the answers. Then tell the group what you found out and discuss.
1. How often do you give presentations in your job?
2. Who do you normally present to (colleagues, customers, other firms, etc.) ?
3. When was the last time you gave a presentation in English? Was it a success? If yes, why? If not, why not? Explain your answer.
4. How do you feel about presenting in a foreign language?
5. Think of an excellent (or terrible) presentation that you have attended. What made it good (or bad)?
UNIT I. Подготовка (Guidelines for Developing an Oral Presentation)
Ознакомимся с самыми общими рекомендациями
В возможных будущих ситуациях вам придется делать презентации, основанные на личном опыте работы и собственных исследованиях, и неизбежно возникнут вопросы, связанные с содержанием и организацией презентации. Вот несколько полезных идей.
1. Оценка ситуации (find out what you need to do):
- уточните, конкретизируйте тему (topic); вы должны четко представлять, чего от вас ожидают. Select your subject ( Whatever you like or you know. Eeasiest way is to choose your research work);
- определите продолжительность вашей презентации;
- подумайте и решите, какой материал может оказаться новым, полезным и интересным для вашей аудитории;
- если это учебная презентация – ознакомьтесь с критериями оценки;
- narrow your subject to a topic (“Radio Engineering” or “Telecommunicatons”- these subjects positively have to be narrowed).
2. Первичная разработка темы (Explore your topic, brainstorm ideas)
- составьте список проблем для исследования, идей, имеющих отношение к предмету;
- посмотрите, как ваши идеи связаны между собой, сгруппируйте их, выберите то, что может представлять интрес для аудитории, отсортируйте лишнее.
3. Разработайте план вашей презентации (Organize your ideas):
- brainstorm more ideas to provide strong support: explanations, examples, personal experience, concrete details, reasons, consequences.
4. Gather any additional information you may need
- reorganize ideas or change the focus of the presentation, if necessary;
- write a final outline;
- pay special attention to sources of information. And please, avoid plagiarizing – this will surely be followed by lower evaluation marks.
5. Practise …
- to make sure you know your content well;
- to check the time of the presentation;
- to develop your confidence;
- to anticipate some of the questions people might ask;
- to make sure that your presentation does justice to all the hard work you have put into preparing it.
- review your outline;
- write brief presentation notes on note cards;
- use a dictionary or teacher assistance to check on the pronunciation of any new or unfamiliar vocabulary words;
- practice giving your presentation in advance to check timing and gain confidence.
Notes: You should not read your presentation! Reading a text is boring! Reading a text will make your audience go to sleep! Use notes (Some people make notes on small cards, having written down just the title of each section of their talk). You can write down keywords to remind them. But when you are prepared you may not even need them!
Rehearsal is a vital part of preparation. You should leave time to practise your presentation two or three times.
Prepare, prepare, prepare! Prepare everything: words, visual aids, timing, equipment. Rehearse your presentation several times and time it.
UNIT II. Introduction (Starting a presentation)
The purpose of the introduction is not only to tell the audience who you are, what the talk is about, and why it is relevant to them; you also want to tell the audience (briefly) how the talk is structured.
The introduction is a very important - perhaps the most important - part of your presentation. This is the first impression that your audience have of you.
Get the audience's attention and signal the beginning.
Right. Well. OK. Erm. Let's begin.Good. Fine. Great. Can we start?
Shall we start?Let's get down to business.
Greet the audience.
It is important to greet the audience by saying something like:
Hello, ladies and gentlemen.Good morning, members of the jury.
Good afternoon, esteemed guests.Good evening, members of the board.
Fellow colleagues, Mr. Chairman/Chairwoman.Thank you for your kind introduction.
Introduce oneself, (name, position, and company).
Do this not only to give important information so people can identify you but also to establish your authority on the subject and to allow the audience to see your point of view on the subject (you are a student, researcher, responsible for, director of, etc.).
Good afternoon, ladies and gentlemen, let me introduce myself.Good morning everyone, I'd like to start by introducing myself.My name is... I am a student at the... I am a doctoral candidate. I'm the manager of…I am a researcher from … I've been working on the subject now for X years...I've had wide experience in the field of ...
Good morning, my name is ... I am a student of… and I would like to talk to you today about some of my findings in a study I did on…
Sometimes, especially when invited to speak, the host introduces the guest,
gives the same information as above and then gives the floor to the guest speaker.
I am very pleased and proud to introduce …who is…. He/she is
known for… Now I'll turn the floor over to today's speaker. (to take the floor,
to have the floor, to give the floor to someone.)
Give title and introduce subject.
What exactly are you going to speak about? Situate the subject in time and
place, in relation to the audience and/or its importance. Give a rough idea or a working definition of the subject.
I plan to speak about...Today I'm going to talk about... The subject of my presentation is...The theme of my talk is... I've been asked to give you an overview of...
Why are you going to speak about it?
I have chosen to speak about this because... I was asked to speak about X because...
Have you set any limits on the scope of your talk?
I will not speak about...I have limited my speech to…My talk will last about 15 minutes, I will speak for 15 minutes.
Conclusion: the shorter the better!
Somehow try to determine the attitude and knowledge of the audience. How do they feel about the subject?
Have you ever heard of...?You may already know…I feel sure that some of you…
Every day you encounter...You've probably seen countless times...You may have wondered...
Give your objectives (purpose, aim, goals)
The main purpose of an informative speech is to have the audience understand and remember a certain amount of information. You should therefore have two purposes: a general purpose and a specific one. The former is to inform: to give an overview, to present, to summarize, to outline; to discuss the current situation or to explain how to do something or how something is done. The latter is what you want the audience to take away with them after listening to you, what you want them to do, what they should remember.
My purpose in doing this paper is to give you a solid background on the subject of oral presentation skills so that in the future you can deliver a successful speech in front of a group.What I would like to do today is to explain…to illustrate...to give you the essential background information on...to outline...to have a look at...What I want my listeners to get out of my speech is... If there is one thing I'd like to get across to you today it is that…
Once you have established your specific objectives you may go on to formulate your content.
Announce your outline.
You want to keep the outline simple, so 2 or 3 main points are usually enough.
Concerning grammar the headings of the outline should be of the same grammatical form. Here are some useful phrases to talk about the structure.
I've divided my presentation into three (main) parts: x, y, and z.
In my presentation I'll focus on three major issues.
First (of all), I'll be looking at..., second..., and third...
I'll begin/start off by explaining…
Then/Next/After that I'll go on to …
Finally, I'll offer some solutions …
Change the purpose of the speech (or the time, place and audience) to see how the outline changes.
In the first part I‘ll give a few basic definitions. In the next section I will explain…
In part three, I am going to show... In the last part I would like/want to give a practical example...
Questions and comments from the audience.
You should also let the audience know at some point in the introduction when and whether they may ask questions.
I'd ask you to save your questions for the end.There will be plenty of time at the end of my speech for a discussion. You may interrupt me at any moment to ask questions or make comments. Please stop me if you don't understand anything I say but could you keep any specific questions until after I've finished.
Make a transition between the introduction and the body.
You should refer to your transparency or outline.
Now let us turn to point one. Let us now move on to the second part, which is, as I said earlier….
Notice the variety of ways of indicating parts (in the first part, section, part three, the last place) and variety of grammar, i.e. verbal forms that follow.
Note: The most common way to structure a presentation is to have three
main parts, and then subdivide them into (three) smaller sections.
2.1 Listen to the opening of the three presentations (CD EFP 2-4) and complete the table.
Presentation 1 Presentation 2 Presentation 3
Topic of presentation
Who is the presentation for?
2.2 Which presentation is formal and which less formal?
2.3 Listen to the openings again(CD EFP 2-4) and complete the sentences.
1. _______________, let me thank you all for being here today.
2. Let me________________myself. My name is…
3. I’m here today to __________________our new semi-autimatic shelving system.
4. My talk is__________________ relevant to those of you who____________for the different parts we supply.
5. I’m happy that so many of you could______________today at such short__________.
6. As you can see on the________________, our______________today is project documentation.
7. This is extremely________________for al of us who are directly__________ in international project management, right?
8. I’m___________that you all have very tight_____________, so I appreciate you taking time to come here today.
9. As you____________know, my name is…., I’m the new___________ manager here at Weston Ltd.
10.Today’s topic will be very important for you as_____________since____________ your help to evaluate and select candidates for training.
2.4 Match these less formal phrases with the more formal phrases below.
a)What I want to do today is…// b) I know you are all very busy…//
c) As you know, I’m…// d) OK, shall we get started?// e) Hi, everyone.//
f) It’s good to see you all here…// g) Today I’m going to talk about…//
h) In my talk I’ll tell you about…
More formal Less formal
1. Good afternoon, ladies and gentlemen…
2. Today I would like to..
3. Let me just start by introducing myself. My name is…
4. It’s a pleasure to welcome you today..
5. In my presentation I would like to report on…
6. The topic of today’spresentation is…
7. I suggest that we begin now…
8. I’m aware that you all have very tight schedules…
2.5 Complete sentences 1-8 with the correct form of the verb and a sentence ending:
a) you on the proposed training project; b) you up
to date on SEKO's investment plans; c) you how the database works; d) at
business opportunities in Asia; e )
you an overview of our present market
position; f) on our financial targets for the
telling you about what Jane's group is working on; h)
about EU tax reform.
1. give Today I'd like to give you an overview of our present market position
2. show I'll be showing___________________________________ .
3. talk During the next two hours we'll be____________________ .
4. bring I'd like to______________________________________ .
5. report This afternoon I'm going to _________________________ .
6. update Today I'd like to________________________________.
7. look This morning we'll be____________________________.
8. begin Today I'll ____________________________________ __.
2.6 Complete the sentences with the words:
after; all; areas; divided; finally; start; then; third.
1. I'll be talking to you today about the after-sale service plans we offer.
I'll______________ 1 by describing the various packages in detail.
__________ 2 I'll go on to show you some case studies. ________3, I'll discuss how you can choose the best plan to meet your customers' needs.
2. I've _______4 my talk into three main parts. First of ______5, I'll tell you something about the history of our company._____________ 6 that I'll describe how the company is structured and finally, I'll give you some details about our range of products and services.
3. I'd like to update you on what we've been working on over the last year. I'll focus on three main_________7: first, our joint venture in Asia; second, the new plant in Charleston. And ________________ 8, our redevelopment project.
2.7 Complete the sentences with the prepositions:
about; at; for; into; of; on; to; with.
1. Thank you___coming all this way.
2. I've divided my presentation_____ three parts.
5. In the first part of my presentation I'll focus____the current project status
Note: This flow chart might be helpful for the opening (introduction).
W I S E:
Welcome the audience
Say what the topic is
Explain why audience will be interested
UNIT III. The body (middle, main part)
Most presentations are divided into 3 main parts (+ questions):
The body is the 'real' presentation. If the introduction was well prepared and delivered, you will now be 'in control'. You will be relaxed and confident. The body should be well structured, divided up logically, with plenty of carefully spaced visuals.
Look at the template presentation outline in Unit VII (checklist). Analyse recommendations for the body part. Use it when preparing your own presentation.
Remember these key points while delivering the body of your presentation:
do not hurry; be enthusiastic; give time on visuals; maintain eye contact; modulate your voice; look friendly; keep to your structure; use your notes; signpost throughout; remain polite when dealing with difficult questions.
What information should you give in your speech? All your information should support your purpose. In most cases you will have to limit the content, as time is usually precious!
How much information should you give? Enough to clearly develop your ideas.
Don’t forget to illustrate through examples.
Sequencing your ideas.
Here are a few possibilities for organizing your ideas: logical; chronological
order; from general to specific; from known to unknown; from accepted to
controversial; cause/effect; problem/solution. Whatever sequencing you choose, the headings should be all of the same grammatical form.
Keeping the audience's attention.
The beginning and the end or the first and last parts of a talk are what listeners
will remember best. Think of ways you can keep the audience's attention throughout the rest of the speech.
Signposting or signaling where you are.
Just as when you are driving along a road that you don't know very well, you depend on signs to guide you, you need to guide the listener by using expressions to tell him/her where you are going. That is to say, first announce what you are going to say (give an example, reformulate etc.) and then say what you want to say. This is very like verbal punctuation. Indicate when you have finished one point and then go on to the next one. It is redundant in text but very useful in oral presentations. Experienced presenters will also clearly pause, change their stance and the pitch of their voice as they move from one part of a presentation to another.
Linking ideas, sections/making transitions.
Indicate the end of one section and the beginning of the next.
That's all I would like to say about... (subject of part A) and now let us turn to…
Now that we've seen... let us turn to…
Transitions are words that connect the steps in a paragraph. Transition words and phrases show the relationships between the ideas in a paragraph. They are not used between every sentence, but are used often enough to make the order clear. Here are some common transition words and phrases that show time order or the order of steps:
first, second, third, etc.; next; then; after, after that finally; the last step; before; while….
3.1 Add other transition words you know to the list above.
3.2 Underline the correct words in this presentation about robotics .
(1) First of all/After all I'd like to thank Keiko Ishida for her kind words of introduction, and for inviting me here to speak to you this morning. The title of my talk is ‘The Age of the Robot', and I'll be talking today about robotics, and (2) anyway /in particular their commercial exploitation. (3) Especially/Clearly there's huge interest in the subject, as can be seen by the number of people in the audience today, and this is not surprising as we predict that over the next decade robotics is going to be one of the world's fastest growing industries. (4) To give an example/However, we predict that health-care robots in Japan alone will be a $1 billion market by 2010. They'll be present in hospitals and nursing homes, reminding patients to take medicines, delivering food trays, cleaning, supporting patients who have problems walking, and doing almost everything else (5) except for/instead of peeling the grapes! (6) As far as the general public is concerned/Concerning the general public, Sony Corporation thinks that the best place to launch the robot revolution is home entertainment, because singing and dancing robots don't do anything essential and it's OK if they make a mistake sometimes. (7) Especially/Furthermore, home entertainment is likely to be the biggest market (8) eventually/at last, with some households having two or three robots, just like they have PCs today. (9) As a matter of fact/Moving on all the leading players (10 )such as/for example Matsushita, NEC and Omron are investing tens of millions of dollars in the development of personal robots. (11) I mean/As a result progress has been rapid, and scientists now understand the technology necessary for complex actions like walking on two feet without falling over. (12) On the other hand/At the end, it's clear that the development of 'robo sapiens' with something that approximates human intelligence will take longer, (13) especially/or rather a lot longer. (14) Nevertheless/In general it's clear that in terms of competition between countries Japan leads in robotics at the moment, (15) although/apart from the Americans are trying hard to catch up. And Japan does urgently need a whole new area of products to sell to the world as profit margin in other areas of consumer electronics gets smaller.
So, (16) in fact/to sum up, I've tried to show you how I believe we're entering a new age, the age of the robot, and it's an age that's full of business opportunities.
To be clear and concrete use examples, rephrasing, summaries etc.:
To give an example:
Now let's take an example.
An example of this can be found...
To illustrate this…
Let's see this through an example.
For example, (e.g.)
To sum up,
Let me summarize by saying
So that concludes my overview
What I've tried to show in this part...
To recap what we've seen so far...
To refer to what you have said previously:
As I have already said earlier...
As we saw in part one...
To repeat what I've said already…
Let me rephrase that,
In other words
Another way of saying the same thing is
That is to say (i.e.)
What is very significant is...
What is important to remember...
I'd like to emphasize the fact that...
I’d like to stress the importance of...
What I tried to bring out...
What we need to focus on...
To refer to what you will say:
We will see this a little later on.
We will go into more detail on that later.
For now, suffice to say...
To refer to what an expert says:
I quote the words of ...
In the words of…
Here I'd like to quote…
As Mr. X says in his book...
There is a famous quotation that goes...
To refer to common knowledge:
As you all may well know...
It is generally accepted that...
As you are probably aware (of)...
3.3 (CD EFP 5) The Project manager of a construction company is giving a presentation to his colleagues. Put the sentences in the right order. Then listen and check.
( )A This morning I'd like to update you on the current status of work at the construction site. The information I give you today should help you with planning your next steps.
( )B For those of you who don't know me, my name is Gordon Selfridge. Let me just write that down for you. OK. I'm the project manager in charge of the Bak Tower building project in Dubai.
( )C I've divided my presentation into three parts.
(1)D Hello, everyone.
( )E Then I'll move on to the problems we're facing with our local suppliers.
( )F First of all, let me thank you for coming here today. I'm aware that you're all busy preparing for the annual meeting this week, so I really appreciate you taking the time to be here.
( )G I'll start off by showing you some photos of the building site and discussing the progress we've made since January.
( )H My talk should take about 30 minutes. Please feel free to interrupt me at any time with questions.
( )I I'll end with some ideas for reducing labour costs that we've been looking into.
( )J Oh, and don't worry about taking notes. I'll be handing out copies of the PowerPoint slides.
3.4 Now put these points in the order in which Gordon mentions them.
a) reducing labor costs; __________________
b) welcome & introduction; _______________
c) 30 minutes for presentation; _______________
d) update on current status; _______________
e) handout after presentation; ________________
f) progress made since January; ______________
g) problems with local suppliers; _____________
h) questions during presentation OK; ___________
i) three main parts_______________
3.5 Match the two parts to make typical sentences from the introduction.
For those of you who don't know me,
to take notes. Everything is on the handout.
Feel free to
about 10 minutes.
This won't take more
I'm Bob Kay in charge of the software division.
I'll be passing out
ask questions at any time.
This part of the presentation will take
for questions after my talk.
I'll start off by giving you
an overview of our product range.
There's no need
handouts in a few minutes.
There will be time
than 20 minutes of your time.
3.6 (CD EFP 6-9). Listen to the beginnings of four presentations. Which one starts with:
A a rhetorical question? С an anecdote (a story)?
B an interesting fact? D a problem to think about?
3.7 (CD EFP 6-9). Listen again and complete the sentences.
1._______ , I was sitting in the waiting room at the dentist's the other day when I__________something very interesting in one of the________ that was lying there.
2.____________ you worked in a small to medium-sized company and were_________for making people in your company aware of health and safety issues. How would you___________?
3.________ that the number of possible ways of playing the first four moves per side in a game of chess is ...?
4. So, let me start by_________ . Why should we introduce a double quality check here at Auto Spares & Parts ...? Well, I'm here today to__________.
3.8 (CD EFP 10-13). Listen to these excerpts from four different presentations.
short-time work____; insurance market____ ; handbooks____;
3.9 Now decide in which presentation(s) the presenter is:
3.10 (CD EFP 10-13). Listen again to how the presenters talk about the purpose of their talks. Complete the sentences.
1. What________1today is to make some suggestions on how we can make our handbooks more user-friendly.
2. The_________2of my talk is to provide you with information on the_______3
in the insurance market in the last few months.
3. What I___________ 4this morning is to show you how we could reorganize our working hours.
4.The_____________ 5is to bring you up to date with the latest changes which will be introduced on January 1.
3.11 Use the notes to write sentences which can be used to state the purpose of a presentation. (Put in prepositions and other words where necessary.)
1. purpose of talk today/update you/new developments/R&D
2.what I want to do/present alternatives/existing booking procedures
3. my aim/show/how cut costs/IT support
4. objective of presentation/give overview/British job market
5. our goal/determine/sales targets/next year
6. here today/report/company's investment plans
3.12 (CD EFP 14). An expert is talking about the Traffic Support Centre (TSC) in her city. Listen to the talk and put the points below in the order she mentions them.
a) what the TSC does (main activities)
b) how traffic data is collected
c) why the TSC was started
d) how motorists benefit from the system
e) how traffic information is given to motorists
3.13(CD EFP 14). Now listen to the presentation again and complete the sentences:
OK,___________ 1 the background and the reason we developed the program.
Any questions? OK. So,____________ 2 to the next point and take a closer look at the Traffic Support Centre itself. ______________ 3 the TSC was set up in 2001 to help traffic flew more smoothly, and basically to make the lives of motorists easier. In this part of my presentation_____________4 you about the centre's activities, how we work exactly and how motorists benefit from our services.
So, _______________5a brief overview of the TSC's activities. Our main activities are to collect, analyze, and communicate traffic information. After collecting traffic data from a number of different sources, we analyze them and then we inform the media, the police, or other authorities, and - last but not least - the motorists. (...)This now leads us to________________6. How does the TSC collect data? Traffic-monitoring equipment has been installed across the main traffic routes, which helps us gather real-time information on traffic speed and traffic flow. Additionally, we use variable traffic sensors and cameras. We also work together with other partners and authorities, for example the police, traffic officers, and the media. Let me show you a few examples of how this works. (...) ______ ______________7 collecting data.
________________8 to the next issue. How do we communicate information to motorists?
We do this in a number of ways: by using electronic road signs, the Internet and radio, and state-of- the-art telephone technology. (...)
Let me now come back to_______ 9. The TSC wants to make the lives of
motorists easier. So, in what ways does the motorist benefit? Well,... first:
through real-time information about the traffic situation. Second, through better advice about alternative routes. Third, through safer roads and less driver stress.
'Signposting' phrases are used to help guide the audience through a presentation.
3.14 Complete this box of useful phrases with suitable phrases from the presentation in the above exercise.
Saying what is coming
1.In this part of my presentation. I'd like to tell you about...
Moving on to the next point
This leads directly to the next part of my talk.
Indicating the end of a section
This brings me to the end of my second point.
As I mentioned before....
Let’s go back to what we were discussing earlier.
Summarizing a point
I'd like to sum up the main points/
Let me briefly summarize what I've said so far.
3.15 Complete the sentences with words from the box:
back ; covered; discussing; inform; leads; main points; sum up; wanted.
1. Let me now summarize the_______ .
2. We will be_________ our sales targets today.
3. In my talk I'll_________ you about new marketing techniques.
4. Before I move on, let me just______ what I've said so far.
5. I think we have_________ everything for today.
6. OK, that's all I_________ to say about time management.
7. This__________ directly to my second point.
8. Let's go__________ to what I said at the beginning of my presentation
UNIT IV. Conclusion (the end)
The end of a talk should never come as a surprise to an audience; it needs
Use the conclusion to:
- sum up;
- give recommendations (if appropriate);
- thank your audience;
- invite questions.
The following table shows examples of language for each of these functions.
1 Summing up
Now, to sum up...
So let me summarise/recap what I've said.
Finally, may I remind you of some of the main points we've considered.
4 Inviting questions
Now I'll try to answer any questions you may have.
Can I answer any questions?
Are there any questions?
Do you have any questions?
Are there any final questions?
2 Giving recommendations
In conclusion, my recommendations are...
I therefore suggest/propose/recommend the following strategy.
3 Thanking your audience
Many thanks for your attention.
May I thank you all for being such an attentive audience.
4.1 Look at these final statements from different conclusions. Which ones do you find most effective? Work with a partner to rank them (1 = most effective, 8 = least effective).
a) Thank you very much for your attention.
b) In conclusion, I'd like to highlight our company's highly innovative products.
c) So, to put it in the words of the famous H. Gordon Selfridge, 'The customer is always right.'
d) Well, I don't know whether this was helpful but I'd like to leave it here.
e) We have all the facts. Let's get to work now!
f) The one last thing I'd like to say is: it's your choice.
g) So, that's all I have to say. I hope you haven't all fallen asleep!
h) To conclude, I want to come back to that story I told you at the start of
my presentation and say one word: apple pie!
4.2 What do the presenters try to achieve with different endings?
4.3 (CD EFP 32) Listen to the conclusion of a presentation and answer the questions.
1. What was the brief? 3. What is the best solution?
2. What are the options? 4. What does the presenter recommend?
1. How are we going to solve/deal/tackle with delivery problems?
2. I don't think we can cope/tackle/take care with fewer people.
3. We think it's important to identify/deal/cope the problems now.
4. Who will take care/deal/tackle of our business clients?
5. We have been trying to cope/solve/take care the software problem.
6. Before we go on, let's identify/clarify/solve this question.
4.5.Complete the sentences with the words:
according to; apart from; concerns; moreover; regarding; with regard.
a) I'll give you an overview of some figures _______to car exports.
b) ______, I'd like to tell you something about the new software.
c) Let's now turn to the next question which___ customer service.
d) _______a few spelling mistakes, the new brochure is very good.
e) Let me give you some details______ our Chinese factory.
f)________the handbook, the scanner is user-friendly.
a) move now to point next let's on the
b) all topic as today is you know our globalization
c) inform is to aim about my latest you the developments
d) be additionally figures discussing most will we the important
e) said brief give I you earlier a I'll as overview
f) study customers according with this it satisfied to our are
Summary of the Previous Material
To give a successful presentation and at the same time a good image of yourself or your firm, careful preparation and organization are required. You need to take into consideration who you are speaking to, when, where, and why, as all of these details will have an impact on your structure and content. A well-structured speech with a step-by-step approach is one that is easy to follow. Besides structure, it is also necessary to be relatively repetitive.
A good 'rule' is announce what you are going to say, say it and finally, say what you've said.
Be careful with the figures. Pronunciation (proper names, cognates, numbers) and presentation are important, practice beforehand! This is equally important for the key words of your presentation. It is particularly annoying for the audience to hear the same word mispronounced repeatedly.
In addition to careful preparation - good structure and vocabulary – and
organization, a message passes in other ways. According to experts 55% of the
message is non-verbal. Using images (visuals); body language and voice are extremely important.
UNIT V. Visuals
5.1 Do you know the English names of these media and tools used in presentations?Match with pictures: a) flip chart; b)OHP (overhead projector); c) whiteboard;d) microphone; e) markers; f) screen; g) pointer; h) transparency;i) data projector; j) pin board.
5.2 When, if ever, do you use these (or some other) media and tools in presentations? Which do you find the most effective? Why?
5.3 (CD EFP 26-28) Listen to excerpts from three presentations and say what visuals are used.
5.4 Now listen again (CD EFP 26-28) and complete the sentences.
2. You can see that the biggest________ (...) indicates the______ of employees in the age group 30 to 50.
2. The key in the bottom_____ corner shows you which color______ which area.
3. OK, so I'd like to first________ your attention to the sales figures for France - that's the blue line here.
2. If you look at the___________ on the________ , you will see that the highest increase was in 2001 with a rise of 2____.
Talking about visuals
The first rule of preparing effective visuals is that they should be clear and easy for the audience to follow. However, sometimes it is necessary to explain a more complicated visual and it is always necessary to point out the most important information.
Explaining a visual
Let's now look at the next slide which shows ...
Fist, let me quickly explain the graph. You can see that different colors have been used to indicate...
The key in the bottom left-hand corner shows you ...
I'd like to start by drawing your attention to .. .
What I'd like to point out here is ...
I think you'll be surprised to see ...
I'd like you to focus your attention on ...
Let's look more closely at...
5.5 Match the two parts to make sentences used to talk about visuals.
1. Let's now have a look… a) shows our revenues since 2004.
2. The black line gives us… b) the next pie chart.
3. Each line on the graph indicates… c) at how the new division will be structured.
4. In the upper right-hand corner… d) attention to the figures in the left-hand
5. The graph on the following slide… e) you can see the specifications for the TP
6. Now I'd like you to take… f) the sales figures for the VW Fox.
7. The names of the new models g) table on the right.
8. You can see the test results in the… h) a look at the next slide.
9. This aspect of the problem is i) the production output of a different
illustrated in … product.
10. I'd Ike to draw your… j) across the top
Saying numbers (describing visuals)
It is often better to use approximate numbers in presentations as they are easier for the audience to understand and remember.
5.6 Put the following words in the correct column in the table.
a little less than; about; almost; approximately; around; just over; just under; nearly; roughly; well over.
+/-(about the same)
5.7 Rewrite the sentences replacing the exact numbers with approximate ones using words from the table. Give at least two alternatives for each.
1. Last year we sold 90.083 mobile phones in Italy.
Last year we sold a little more than /just over 90,000 mobile phones in Italy.
2. 14.8% of the people asked said they were unhappy with the new design.
3. We will be spending 61.98m on this technology.
4. Our laboratory says the ideal temperature is 18.1°C.
5. It will cost $3.97 to produce this item.
6. The new office is 389 m2.
5.8 Look at this short excerpt from a presentation and the two examples of PowerPoint slides. Which slide is more effective?
“Let's look at the biggest car manufacturer in China, SAIC.
The next slide shows some figures for 2007. SAIC manages a network of 55 subsidiaries and 63 joint ventures for cars and parts. The group employs more than 60,000 people and produced 800,000 vehicles in 2007, generating sales of about $12 billion.”
The rule of six
When presenting text on overheads or PowerPoint slides, it is a good idea to use the rule of six which means:
- a maximum of six lines per slide
- a maximum of six words per line
If you stick to this rule, you won't risk overloading your bullet charts with too much information.
5.9 (CD EFP 23-24). Listen to the two short excerpts from presentations. Complete the slides and find headlines.
5.10 Now listen again(CD EFP 23-24) and complete the sentences below.
1. Let's now________________________ which is...
2._______to three new design features.
3.__________________is that customers can change the color panels...
4.What____________________? Well, I think you'll agree that the
results are___________________ .
5._________________nearly 35 per cent said ...
6. So,___________ ?
5.11 Complete the sentences with the correct adverb-adjective construction:
extremely dangerous; absolutely safe; incredibly cheap; highly interesting;. absolutely necessary; surprisingly good; completely useless.
1. What we should remember is that this chemical process is...____________.
2. It's__________________to improve the quality of our products if we want to win new customers.
3.This is a______________________ point.
4.You will be pleased to hear that our turnover last month was____________. 5.Unfortunately, we found that some of the test results are _______________.
6. I'm pleased to say that the crash test shows that this system is_______.
7. Right now this item only costs $1.50 - I think that's _______________.
5.12 (CD EFP 25) First complete this excerpt from a presentation with these words. Then listen and check.
let's talk about; draw your attention; have a look; it's quite remarkable;
on the other hand; the figures also show that; you'll see; can we explain
I'd now like to ___________1to the regions where poverty has been reduced. If you look at the bar chart on the left,____________ 2 that the proportion of
global population living on less than $1 a day has dropped.
_______ 3 in South Asia the proportion of extremely poor people has been
reduced from 41 to 31%. _____ 4 how much progress has been made by China___ 5, poverty has increased in many parts of Africa, Latin America, and Eastern Europe. How__________ 6 this uneven development?
To answer this question, we'll___________ 7 at the latest study from the World Bank.
First,_______________ 8 the figures that indicate global progress.
5.13 Are these words and expressions used to make contrasts or describe results? Put them into the correct category.
on the other hand; thus; although; however; consequently; therefore;
whereas; as a result; despite; while; nevertheless.
Making contrasts ………. Describing results………..
5.14 Now choose the correct word to fit the sentences.
1. Online banking is mainly used by our younger customers. Many of our older customers consequently/however/therefore find it difficult to handle modern computer technology.
2. However/Whereas/Although the euro is quite strong, we managed to increase our exports to the US.
3. Whereas/Therefore/Despite we made a profit of $240,000 last year, this year's profit is only $110,000.
4. On the other hand/Despite/Although the growing demand, we didn't sell more cars than the year before.
5. We have to pay more for oil and gas. Consequently/However/Despite our products have become more expensive.
5.15 (CD EFP 29-30) Two presenters are describing graphs. Listen and complete the graphs.
5.16 Complete these sentences from the two excerpts with the given words. Then listen again to check (CD EFP 29-30).
decline; fall; fluctuated; picking up; reached; rose; slumped.
1. As you can see here, passenger numbers_____________ between 2.1 and 2.3 million in the first four months.
2. They even________ moderately in May...
3. In June you'll notice a sharp ___________in passenger numbers.
4. Passenger traffic_______ to to about 1.5 million - a _________of almost 40%.
5. As a result, ticket sales started___________in July.
6. By the end of September passenger numbers had _______ just over 2 million.
increase; rocketed; rose; stood; went down
1) The figure__________by about 50,000 in the following year.
2) In 2005, however, sales_______to 1 million…
3) 2006 even saw a further_________ in sales to 1.3 million ...
4) As expected, sales ________again in 2007 and_________ at just over a million at the end of the year.
Climb; decline; decrease; double; drop; expand; fall; fluctuate; go down; go up; grow; hit a low; increase; pick up; plunge; reach a high; recover; remain stable; rise; stabilize; stay the same.
Upward Downward Other
2. Start by telling your audience what the graph/chart illustrates.
5.18 What advice would you give someone who has to describe trends on graphs and charts? Work with a partner to make a list of tips. Then read what advice James & Gillham, an international firm providing financial services, give on their intranet.
1. Think about the number of visuals you want to use - don't overdo it!
Remember: less is often more!
2. Before showing the graph or chart, prepare the audience for it.
Say something which makes them interested in what they will see.
This technique is called ‘media teasing’.
3. Give the audience time to understand what they see before you start explaining the details.
4. If the movement you want to describe is very complex, simplify it. Divide the graph into two or three parts and summarize the main developments.
5. Provide an interpretation of the graph's movement. The audience wants to know why there are ups and downs in the graph, what they mean, and what consequences they have.
6. Use the TTT method when presenting graphics: touch (or point to) a detail on the projection, then turn to the audience, and finally, talk to them.
7. Use interesting and varied language to describe trends. You need alternative expressions to describe similar developments.
5.19 Which of the tips above were on your list? Which are new? Which of the tips do you think are the most useful? How often do you have to describe charts or graphs in English? Which types of visuals do you use most frequently in your presentations?
UNIT VI. Looks, manners, voice, etc…
The golden rule is "Be natural and relax!"
What is body language?
Eye contact, facial expressions, posture, movements, gestures.
It is a natural part of communication:
- to clarify meaning; it is very visual;
- to vent nervousness;
- to maintain interest;
- to emphasize and regulate.
‘A research guide for students’ (http://www.aresearchguide.com/3tips.html) suggests the following…
Presentation tips for public speaking.
Don’t underestimate the power of
body language. When you are standing in front of a group of people, your body
is communicating a message to them. How you sit, stand or project your voice
can reinforce or sabotage your message. If you are using strong, powerful words
but your body is communicating that you are weak and unsure, your audience will
not accept what you are saying as well as if you were using strong body language.
Stand tall. Look confident.
Maintain eye contact with your audience.
If you are using a podium, stand back a little so that you don’t bend your head to read your text.
Keep your arms by your sides but bend them from the elbow to gesture.
Use natural, conversational gestures. Remember you are talking to your audience.
Move around, but between your key points.
Don’t cross your arms or put them behind your back.
Don’t fidget. Don’t scratch your nose, jiggle things in your pocket or shuffle from foot to foot.
Don’t point at anyone in your audience, even when you invite them to answer a question.
Don’t force your smile. Let it come naturally.
Speak with conviction to show you really believe in what you are saying. Persuade your audience effectively. The material you present orally should have the same ingredients as that which are required for a written research paper, i.e. a logical progression from introduction (Thesis statement) to body (strong supporting arguments, accurate and up-to-date information) to conclusion (re-state thesis, summary, and logical conclusion).
Do not read from notes for any extended length of time although it is quite acceptable to glance at your notes infrequently. Speak loudly and clearly. Sound confident. Do not mumble. If you made an error, correct it, and continue. No need to make excuses or apologize profusely.
Maintain sincere eye contact with your audience. Use the 3-second method, e.g. look straight into the eyes of a person in the audience for 3 seconds at a time. Have direct eye contact with a number of people in the audience, and every now and then glance at the whole audience while speaking. Use your eye contact to make everyone in your audience feel involved.
Speak to your audience, listen to their questions, respond to their reactions, adjust and adapt. If what you have prepared is obviously not getting across to your audience, change your strategy mid-stream if you are well prepared to do so. Remember that communication is the key to a successful presentation. If you are short of time, know what can be safely left out. If you have extra time, know what could be effectively added. Always be prepared for the unexpected.
Pause. Allow yourself and your audience a little time to reflect and think. Don't race through your presentation and leave your audience, as well as yourself, feeling out of breath.
Add humor whenever appropriate and possible. Keep audience interested throughout your entire presentation. Remember that an interesting speech makes time fly, but a boring speech is always too long to endure even if the presentation time is the same.
When using audio-visual aids to enhance your presentation, be sure all necessary equipment is set up and in good working order prior to the presentation. If possible, have an emergency backup system readily available. Check out the location ahead of time to ensure seating arrangements for audience, whiteboard, blackboard, lighting, location of projection screen, sound system, etc. are suitable for your presentation.
Have handouts ready and give them out at the appropriate time. Tell audience ahead of time that you will be giving out an outline of your presentation so that they will not waste time taking unnecessary notes during your presentation.
Know when to stop talking. Use a timer or the microwave oven clock to time your presentation when preparing it at home. Just as you don't use unnecessary words in your written paper, you don't bore your audience with repetitious or unnecessary words in your oral presentation. To end your presentation, summarize your main points in the same way as you normally do in the conclusion of a written paper. Remember, however, that there is a difference between spoken words appropriate for the ear and formally written words intended for reading. Terminate your presentation with an interesting remark or an appropriate punch line. Leave your listeners with a positive impression and a sense of completion. Do not belabor your closing remarks. Thank your audience and sit down.
Correct pronunciation is important if one is to be understood correctly. Incorrect
pronunciation is perhaps the first cause of communication breakdown. If the listener is not accostomed to the speaker’s native, he/she will not understand a mispronounced word. Mispronunciation also tires the listener’s ear and he/she will perhaps even stop trying to understand the speaker if it becomes too difficult.
Make sure you know how to correctly pronounce at least the key
technical words or words that your repeat over and over again in your speech.
The voice, or more precisely the qualities of the voice, should be used to its/their fullest. Qualities include loudness, speed (fast or slow), variety, pitch (high or low), silent moments or pauses. The voice is important:
- to indicate importance, meaning;
- to create atmosphere and to avoid sounding monotonous and putting the audience to sleep!
Now attention! Here comes “A Brief Introduction to Presenting in English” by David Harper from Madrid.
6.1 (CD DH 1) Try to anticipate the correct answers to the following questions and then check listening to David Harper’s talk. (also, see transcripts)
6.1.1 What can being able to present professionally in English give your career?
a It can give your career a boost.
b It can give your career a new job.
c It can propel your career up the corporate ladder.
6.1.2 According to David Harper, what is the most important thing to do in order to capture and then keep an audience's attention?
a The most important thing is how you talk.
b The most important thing is what you say.
c The most important thing is to look good and move your body well.
6.1.3 What is the first thing you have to do before you give a presentation?
a You have to put your hands in your pockets and keep them on their toes.
b You have to look at your Powerpoint presentation when you're speaking.
c You have to buy a new outfit at El Corte Inglés.
6.1.4 How should you talk in presentations?
a Talk quietly, slowly and don't say much.
b Talk quickly, loudly and say a lot.
c Talk about the background context, differentiate the speed of your speaking and lie like a politician.
6.1.5 What should you bear in mind in order to get your next presentation off on the right foot?
a The rhetorical questions that the audience is likely to ask itself.
b What actor John Wayne once said.
c The way politicians speak.
6.2 (CD DH 2) Try to anticipate the correct answers to the following questions and then check listening to David Harper’s “A Brief Introduction to Presenting in English”(also see transcripts)
6.2.1 What parts will your presentation include?
a Parts which will allow the audience to understand its structure and to follow its logical flow.
b A summary of what you are going to say and of what you said.
c An introduction, a main part and a conclusion.
6.2.2 What information will the introduction of your presentation include?
a It will include a summary of what you said.
b It will be divided into sections or topic areas. Each of these sections should also include a brief introduction and conclusion.
c It will include a summary of what you are going to say.
6.2.3 What information will the conclusion of your presentation include?
a It will include a summary of what you said.
b It will include a summary of what you are going to say.
c It will be divided into sections or topic areas. Each of these sections should also include a brief introduction and conclusion.
6.2.4 What information will the main part of your presentation include?
a It will be divided into sections or topic areas. Each of these sections should also include a brief introduction and conclusion.
b It will include a summary of what you are going to say.
c It will include a summary of what you said.
6.2.5 Why should you organize your presentation as David Harper has suggested?
a It will be invaluable for non-native English speakers preparing presentations in English
b This will allow the audience to understand the structure of the presentation and to follow its logical flow.
c Each of these sections should also include a brief introduction and conclusion.
6.2.6 What does David Harper recommed that you do to prepare the presentation?
a You should memorize the main part of the presentation beforehand, but improvise the introduction and conclusion.
b You should memorize the introduction and conclusion beforehand, but improvise the main part of the presentation.
c You should memorize the complete presentation beforehand, but improvise the main part of the presentation
6.2.7 So, why is planning important for your presentation in English?
a Because in the next part of the series David Harper gets down to business: the performance itself.
b Because it will ensure that during the most important stages of the presentation (the beginning and the end) you will say what you
planned to say.
c Because it is the professional way to do things and will give you the best chance of giving an effective talk.
6.3 (CD DH 1,2,3) Listen to the whole talk once or twice, take notes, and be prepared to discuss your impression in class.
Summary of what we have just learnt
In presentations, there is a golden rule:
Say what you are going to say,
then say what you have just said.
UNIT VII. Presentation Assessment Guidelines
1. Appropriate use of signposts and language signals.
2. Proper use of the English Grammar.
3. Proper use of the English Vocabulary.
4. Brief use of notes.
5. Appropriate body language/eye contact.
6. Good time management.
7. Effective use of visual aids.
1. Pronunciation was clear.
2. Spoke fluently, without too much hesitation or repetition.
3. Grammar and vocabulary choices were reasonably accurate.
1. Fulfilled assignment.
2. Met time limit.
3. Developed topic with sufficient reasons, examples, and details.
4. Chose a topic that was appropriate for the audience.
1. Presence of clear and distinctive:
- logical development of ideas (two or more main points, and examples/supporting points);
- clear transitions;
- effective conclusion.
And over to you: another checklist to compare and make use of.
7.1 Choose a topic and prepare your presentation (outline, written text, bibliography, visuals). Then exchange with your partner for a piece of good advise.
Checklist - Organisation
Length & time for talk:_________________
Questions at end? If yes, length of time for questions:_____________
(Is it available?________________ Does it work?____________)
Number of people: 1-5 6-15 16-30 over 30
How much do they know about the topic? (nothing______; a bit______; a lot_______)
How well do I know them? (not at all______; a little______; quite well______)
How formal? (very formal______; formal______; informal_______)
Handouts (no___; yes: before talk___; at end of talk___; later –intranet, e-mail___)
Purpose of talk (What do I want to do?)
Three main points:
Inform the audience
Train the audience
Sell sth. To the audience
Persuade the audience to do sth.
Importance to audience:___________________________
What do I want audience to know by the end of talk?_________________
How many visuals will I have?__________
Do they say (or show) what I want to say?_________
Are the clear and simple to understand?___________
Will the audience be able to read them (font size and colors)?_____
Do they have effective headlines?________
Is there as little text as possible?________
Have I remembered the rule of six?_______
Introduce yourself ( name, position, function).
State your topic.
Say why your topic is important for the audience.
Tip: Remember how to make effective openings: start with rhetorical question, a story or an amazing fact, or give the audience a problem to think about.
Describe the structure of your talk (the main point and you will be dealing with them).
Say how long the talk will be.
Say when you will answer questions.
Say whether there are handouts.
Briefly state your topic and objective(s) again.
Then introduce your three (or two?) main points and give details.
Main point 1:_____________ (Remember to: signal the beginning of each part; talk about your topic; signal the end of each part; highlight the main points; summurize the main ideas).
Main point 2:____________(Bullet charts?- refer to points in the same order; - use the same key words and phrases as in your bullet charts).
Main point 3:___________(Graphs, tables, pie charts, etc.?-start by telling your audience what the visual illustrates; - explain it if necessary; - highlight the key pints; - say why these points are important and explain the cause or effect).
Signal the end of the main part.
Signal the end of your talk.
Summarize the key points.
Highlight one important point.
Explain the significance.
Make your final statement.
(Remember how to make effective conclusions: end with a question or a quotefrom a famous person, finish a story you started at the beginning of your talk or the audience to action).
Dealing with questions
What questions can I expect?
How can I answer them?
(Remember, when answeringqestions during or after your talk: - listen carefully and make sure you have understood the question correctly; - reformulate the question if necessary; - if you want to postpone the question, say why politely; - if you don’t know the answer, say so and offer to find out; -answer irrelevant questions politely but briwfly; -check that the questioner is satisfied with your answer).
Checklist Feedback. Use this checklist after a practice talk or an actual talk to evaluate your own performance).
Was my presentation the right length? (too long; too short; just right).
Was there time for questions at the end (if relevant)? (too long; too short; just right).
How was my body language? (good;___ bad;___ Why?___).
How well did I deal with nervousness?( well;___ not well;___Why?).
Did the audience understand me? (yes, all the time; most of the time;some of the time; no)
What were some words or phrases I needed but I didn’t know? (Look them up!)
Parts of the presentation
Did I tell the audience the purpose of my talk?
Did I explain the structureof my talk?
Did I tell the audience why the talk was relevant to them?
How can I improve the introduction?__________________________
Did I state my main points clearly?
Did I use effective signposting?
Did I emphasize key points?
Did I summurize key pints after each section?
Did I present my visuals well?
How can I improve the main part?________________________
Did I summarize the key points?
Did I tell the audience what to do (call to action)?
Did I leave a lasting impression?
How can I improve the conclusion?_________
How well did I deal with questions? (Why?)
What questions were asked that I didn’t anticipate?
How can I improve the way I deal with questions?
Presentation 1 (CD EFP 2)
Good morning, ladies and gentlemen. First of all, let me thank you all for being here today. I'm glad that so many of you could come, especially since I know that this time of the year is probably the busiest for you. Let me introduce myself. My name is Don Taylor. I'm the head of logistics here at Air Spares. Logistics is a centre of competency dedicated to providing you with the spare parts you need, precisely when you need them. I'm here today to present our new semiautomatic shelving system. My talk is particularly relevant to those of you who place orders for the different parts we supply.
Presentation 2 (CD EFP 3)
OK, shall we get started? Hello everyone. For those of you who don't know me, I'm Charlotte Best from IT. I'm a team leader. I'm happy that so many of you could make it today at such short notice. I know that you're all extremely busy at the moment, so I'd like to start with my presentation right away. As you can see on the screen, our topic today is project documentation. We're going to look closely at drafting, storing, archiving as well as accessing documents in our new SAP system. We'll also examine the much improved handling of all project documentation as well as user rights. This is extremely important for all of us who are directly involved in international project management, right? You don't need me to spell it out... if it isn't documented, it doesn't exist.
Presentation 3 (CD EFP 4)
Good afternoon. I'm aware that you all have very tight schedules, so I appreciate you taking the time to come here today. As you probably know, my name is Susan Webster. I’m the new human resources manager here at Weston Ltd. What I'd like to present to you today is my department's new concept for improving our in- company training and qualification programs. This is based on feedback from your departments. Today's topic will be very important for you as department heads, since I'll need your help to evaluate and select candidates for training.
(CD EFP 5) -3.3
(CD EFP 6)
You know, I was sitting in the waiting room at the dentist's the other day when I came across something very interesting in one of the magazines that was lying there. It said that chocolate is really a vegetable because we get it from cocoa and sugar, which come from cocoa beans and sugar cane - both plants, i.e. vegetables, right? Chocolate a health food? Ha! You know, it's all about the way things are presented and how we look at them. Image building, ladies and gentlemen, that is our business, and we're here today to...
(CD EFP 7)
Imagine you worked in a small to medium-sized company and were responsible for making people in your company aware of health and safety issues. How would you go about it? Would you have a meeting? Send everyone an email? Take a few moments to think about it.
(CD EFP 8)
Did you know that the number of possible ways of playing the first four moves per side in a game of chess is 318,979,564.000? Let me just write that number on the board: 318 billion, 979 million, and 564 thousand. Now, what does that have to do with our topic today, which, as you know, is project management? Well, let me tell you.
(CD EFP 9)
So, let me start by asking you a question. Why should we introduce a double quality check here at Auto Spares & Parts, one at goods-in and another at goods- out? After all, our products come from certified suppliers and we have an excellent track record for providing quick and competent service. So, why bother? Well, I'm here today to tell you why. For those of you who don't know me. my name is…
(CD EFP 10)
As you know. I've been asked to talk to you about the handbooks for our all-in-one systems for smaller businesses. Peter Collins from customer care has told me that they have been getting a lot of phone calls and emails from users who say that the set-up instructions are extremely complicated and don't match the sketches. What I'd like to do today is to make some suggestions on how we can make our handbooks more user-friendly.
(CD EFP 11)
I'd like to talk to you today about how globalization has changed the face of the insurance industry. The purpose of my talk is to provide you with information on the major developments in the insurance market in the last few months. I'd like to start with ...
(CD EFP 12)
OK, let's get started. We're here to discuss the introduction of short-time work in our company. As you know, our order books are not the fullest at the moment so we have to find ways to get through this crisis and at the same time keep jobs. What I want to do this morning is to show you how we could reorganize our working hours. Among other things, I'll be talking about...
(CD EFP 13)
As you can see from your handouts, we'll be looking at some new European transport regulations today. The objective is to bring you up to date with the latest changes which will be introduced on January 1. These changes will mainly affect transport companies in the EU but they will also...
(CD EFP 14) -3.13
(CD EFP 15)
Thanks. Jim. OK. As you probably know, we are currently having difficulties with our suggestions on how we can deal with the consequences.
So, let's start with our bottle supplier then .... We've been having serious difficulties with GSG, which is our main plastic bottle supplier, regarding both quantity and quality. We don't understand why, but they don't seem to be able to supply the quantities we order from them. In addition, the quality of the material is so poor that we have had to return about 40% of the bottles. We've been trying to cope with these problems - the delays, the poor quality - all along, but so far we've not been able to find ways to prevent them from happening again. It's dear we can no longer continue to accept these conditions. Moreover, we're now getting ready for the Christmas season. If we don't solve our supply problems within the next two weeks, we'll run into serious trouble with respect to our Christmas business.
Let's move on to distribution. Here the problem lies with...
(CD EFP 16)
Take a look at these figures. They clearly highlight how a combination of two significant external factors affected our business in the first two quarters of this year. One important factor is the oil price, the second the development of the euro against the dollar. In 2002 we exported nearly two-thirds of our products to the US and Canada. Since then oil has become much more expensive and so has the euro. Let me show you what this means for our export business. I'll just write some figures on the board and then we will go on to discuss the next point.
(CD EFP 17)
OK. Let's now have a look at our new magnetic ski rack Matterhorn which was launched in August. This system is more compact than the old one and also easier to handle. Another advantage is that it can also be used for snowboards. We hope to sell at least 5,000 of these systems within the next two months. On the next slide you will see an illustration of the Matterhorn X-15.
(CD EFP 18)
As I explained earlier, we've worked very hard to make our products more attractive for the customer. These are the sales figures for Europe for the first three quarters of this year. As you can see here, we've had a very successful year. We have sold about 21,000 fully automatic espresso machines and nearly 7,500 semiautomatic machines so far. To highlight our success even further, let's go back to the 2003 figures on the previous page. Let me just flip back to it. Ah yes, here it is.
(CD EFP 19) see p. 25 answer key on p.62
(CD EFP 20)
Let's look at the figures in this table more closely. As you can see in the first row, we sold 18,250 cars in Germany in the first quarter while in the same period we sold roughly 32,000 in the EU. Our non-EU market was still relatively small with sales of about 8,000 cars. Now if you look at the second quarter, you will see a dramatic change. Whereas our German business didn't increase much, sales in the other two areas developed very well. In the EU, 47,500 cars were sold and in non- EU countries sales went up to 17,300, which I'm sure you will agree is an extremely good result.
(CD EFP 21)
If you look at the next slide, you will see the layout of our new open-plan office in Hamburg. As you can see from the plan, it's 24.8 meters long and about 16 meters wide, for a total of just over 400 square meters. Our office will be on the 12th floor of the building, which has a total of 16 floors. We'll be moving to our new premises on 15 February if everything goes according to plan.
(CD EFP 22)
You can see the five most expensive cities for business travelers in this table. Venice leads the table with an average rate of €387. In Rome, the business traveler has to pay €239 and in Paris a room costs €226. In New York City the average room rate is €225 and in Milan it's €215 per night.
(CD EFP 23) So, we've seen that our new line of refrigerators is environmentally friendly. Let's now turn to the next point, which is their unique design. I'd like to draw your attention to three new design features. First, the refrigerators are more colorful. Apple started the trend of colorful computers in the office. We think that consumers want more color in their kitchens, too, and our refrigerators provide that. What's really interesting here is that customers can change the color panels - there are five colors to choose from - to match their home, their mood, the seasons, whatever. The second unique design feature is the circular shelving system. Each shelf can be rotated, so that all items of food are easy to reach and nothing gets lost in the back of the fridge again. And finally, the new refrigerator has a compact design. This means that it takes up less floor space while holding as much as a conventional refrigerator.
(CD EFP 24) About 1,000 businesses in the UK were asked if Britain should introduce the euro. What are the results of this survey? Well, I think you'll agree that the results are quite interesting. As you can see from this table, 49% said they wanted to ‘wait and see’. Only 13% said Britain should never join the euro zone. The good news is that nearly 35% said we should go in immediately. So, where do we go from here?
(CD EFP 25) - 5.8
(CD EFP 26)
The next chart shows the breakdown by age in our company. You can see that the biggest segment - almost 70% - indicates the percentage of employees in the age group 35 to 50. About 19% of our staff are between 51 and 60 years of age and 2% are above 60. The final ‘pie’ is the most interesting for our discussion today; it shows the percentage of employees under 35 years of age, which I think you'll be surprised to hear is currently only 9% of our total staff.
(CD EFP 27) Let's now have a look at the sales figures over the past five years. First, let me quickly explain the graph. You can see that different colors have been used to indicate each of our main sales areas. The key in the bottom left-hand corner shows you which color represents which area. The red line, for example, gives us the sales figures for Belgium, the green line is for Germany, and so on. OK, so I'd like to first draw your attention to the sales figures for France - that's the blue line here.
(CD EFP 28) Now I'd like you to take a look at this next slide which shows how the cost of living developed in Europe between 2003 and 2007. According to the European Economic Institute, living expenses rose by between 1.1 and 2% each year. If you look at the bar chart on the left, you will see that the highest increase was in 2005 with a rise of 2%.
(CD EFP 29) Presentation 1
First, I'd like you to look at this graph, which shows the ups and downs in our passenger volume over the past nine months. As you can see here, passenger numbers fluctuated between 2.1 and 2.3 million in the first four months. They even rose moderately in May, reaching just over 2.5 million at the end of the month. In June you'll notice a sharp fall in passenger numbers as a direct consequence of HLX's entry into the market. Now as you all know, HLX is a no-frills airline with direct flights to a most all major south east Asian cities. Passenger traffic slumped to about 1.5 million - a decline of almost 40%. In early July we introduced a new, more aggressive pricing system to boost sales. As a result, ticket sales started picking up in July. By the end of September passenger numbers had reached just over 2 million.
(CD EFP 30) Presentation 2
On the next graph you'll see the sales figures for Systex in the past five years. Let me now highlight the most important facts about our hay fever medication. Despite an intensive advertising campaign, we had a slow start in Europe in 2003, selling 500,000 units in the first twelve months. The figure rose by about 50.000 in the following year. In 2005, however, sales rocketed to 1 million following the problems at TC PHARMA, our main competitor in the anti-allergy sector. 2006 saw an even further increase in sales to 1.3 million due to the extremely warm and long summer. As expected, sales went down again in 2007 and stood at just over a million at the end of the year.
(CD EFP 32) Well, this brings me to the end of my presentation. Before I stop, let me go through my main points again. You gave us the brief to find out (a) whether we can reduce our air travel costs by using budget airlines and (b) if so, how we should proceed. So, to sum up... first question: is it really viable to use these no-frills airlines? Clear answer there! In some cases we can save as much as 60% compared to regular flights. The next question: how to proceed? In other words, who would be able to handle the online bookings most efficiently? I'll just run through the three different options we investigated again: option 1, we take on a part-time employee for this job; option 2, staff book their own flights; option 3, we outsource this function. So, what is the best solution for us? From a financial point of view our results are absolutely clear: option one. A part-timer would be the best, the cheapest, and least time-consuming solution. We'd therefore recommend that we recruit a part-time employee who could handle all our online bookings. The ideal candidate should either have some Internet experience or have previously worked for a travel agent. We'd suggest a limited contract to begin with. So, now it's up to you to decide where to go from here. I'm sure you'll make the right choice. Now I'll be happy to answer any questions you may have.
(CD EFP 33) Let me go back to the story I told at the start of my talk. Remember, the sales meeting in Vienna with the disappointed Japanese businessmen? Three days later we got an email saying they were going with us after all. So, this just shows you that knowing your entire product range is the key to success.
(CD EFP 34) So, to conclude, I'm convinced that ICM would be an excellent method to make better use of the knowledge we have. And it would strengthen our market position. So, do we really want to miss this opportunity to get ahead of our competitors?
(CD EFP 35)
Finally, let me highlight the key question once again: do we need a digital telephone system or can we upgrade the existing one? As I've shown in my brief presentation today, we must invest in the new system; an upgrade is just not feasible. I'd just like to finish with something former US president Bill Clinton once said: 'You can put wings on a pig, but you don't make it an eagle.'
(CD EFP 36)
Before I end my presentation today, I'd like to briefly recap the main reasons for doing business with us. We use state-of-the-art technology. We provide round-the- clock professional customer care. And, most important, we customize our products and services to give you what you need when you need it. So, the next step is yours. Set up an appointment with our project manager and our SAP consultant and we can work out the best practice solutions that suit your business.
(CD EFP 37)
(CD EFP 38)
A. And now I'll be happy to answer any questions you may have. Yes?
B. You were talking about software problems. What exactly do you mean by that? A. Well, I mentioned earlier that the new software is being tested at the moment. In the trial runs we've had more than 150 bugs so far and at the moment we're not sure how long it will take us to solve all these problems. Does that answer your question?
B. Yes, thank you.
(CD EFP 39)
A. Are there any more questions? Mr Lee?
C. Would you mind telling us whether the new software will help to improve our company's image?
A. I'm afraid I don't quite understand your question. Could you be a bit more specific?
B. Yes, I'd like to know whether we will also use the new software to make our company more attractive for the customer. I'm talking about a new website, interactive applications, and so on.
A. Oh, I see. Yes, well, as I said earlier...
(CD EFP 40)
B. I have another question. It's about the piloting stage. Which division will start piloting the software first?
A. If you don't mind, I'd prefer not to discuss that today. Actually, there will be a meeting next week where that will be decided.
(CD EFP 41)
A. Mr Martinez, you have a question?
D. Yes. You spoke about special training courses earlier. Could you tell us how they will be organized?
A. Sorry. I'm afraid that's not my field. But I'm sure Linda Cole from the training department could answer that question. I'll ask her to get in touch with you on that. Well, if there are no more questions, all that remains for me to do is to wish you a nice evening!
(CD EFP 43)
A. So, delivery of the units has been set for 15 May. That gives us three months to handle the production and packaging. I'd like to turn now to the ...
B. Ah, excuse me. Do you really think that's realistic? I mean, three months. What about our staff problems?
A. If I have understood you correctly, Louise, your question is how we can meet the delivery date as we are slightly under-staffed in production at the moment. Well, let me answer your question right away. First of all...
(CD EFP 44)
A. And talking of mergers, don't forget the successful German haircare company, Wella, which was taken over by Procter and Gamble only a few years ago. What we need to discuss is whether it's the right moment for us to consider a merger with Carter Financial Services.
B. Could you tell us what their turnover was last year?
A. Sorry, if you don't mind, I'd like to answer your question a bit later when we discuss the financial side of this merger. OK, I was just moving on to the timing of the merger and …
(CD EFP 45)
A. ... and this brings me to the most important topic of today's session. Due to our new European harmonization strategy, our complete sales, after- sales, and marketing departments will be relocated to Aberdeen by July next year. Now I know this may come as a shock to most of you but I can guarantee that all the staff affected will be fully supported every step of the way.
C. Excuse me, but may I ask how you propose to support those people who are tied to this location, for example those of us who care for elderly parents or whose children are in a special needs school for example?
A. Yes, that's a very valid question. Let me just repeat it so everybody can hear. You're concerned about staff members who will find it difficult to move away from Bristol due to family commitments. Yes, well, of course we will not force anyone to move and our works council is working very closely with HR to find the best solutions for everyone. If you look on our intranet ...
(CD EFP 46)
A. The main advantages of 'smart' credit cards are...
D. Sorry to interrupt, but could you explain what 'smart' means in this context?
A. Yes, sure. It means that the big credit card companies like Visa and Mastercard use special microchips instead of the usual magnetic strips on their cards. Does that answer your question?
D. Yes, thank you.
A. OK, so let's go back to the main advantages of 'smart' credit cards....
(CD DH -1, 2, 3)
A Brief Introduction to Presenting in English
Part 1 – Looks, Manner and Voice
Have you ever been asked to make a presentation in English? Being able to present professionally in English can give your career a boost and propel you up the corporate ladder.
Surveys have shown that to capture and then to keep an audience's attention the most important thing is how you look and how you move your body (body language); the second most important is how you talk; the third most important (in fact, the least important) is what you say. It is too easy to concentrate all your efforts on the content of your presentation neglecting the 'performance' aspect of it.
So, the first thing you have to do is to be smart. OK, that's easy, you just have to buy a new outfit at El Corte Inglés. Now, what about body language? Well, try to face the audience; don't look at your Powerpoint presentation when you're speaking; use your hands; move around; make eye contact with members of the audience. Don't put your hands in your pockets or look at the floor. Keep them on their toes.
Next thing. How you talk. Don't talk too quickly. Stress important words or phrases for emphasis and pause afterwards to ensure the audience understands the significance of the points and have time to absorb them. Use repetition and contrast opposing points again for emphasis. Ask rhetorical questions, the ones that you know the audience would likely want to ask themselves. This makes it easy for the audience to follow the presentation and to differentiate the main subject matter from background contextual content. Listen to the way that politicians speak.
The actor John Wayne once said: “talk low, talk slow and don't talk too much”. Bear this in mind when you are planning your presentation and you'll be starting off on the right foot.
A Brief Introduction to Presenting in English Part 2 – Planning and why all this Preparation is Important.
You may have noticed that in Part 1 all the advice could equally apply to giving a presentation in German, Chinese and even Spanish! So how will it give you any particular help when you present in English? Well, this part will also be applicable to any language but both will be invaluable for non-native English speakers preparing presentations in English. Just wait and see and all will become clear.
Your presentation will have an introduction, a main part and a conclusion. The introduction will include a summary of the main part (what you are going to say) and the conclusion will also include a summary of the main part (what you said). The main part will be divided into sections or topic areas. Each of these sections should also include a brief introduction and conclusion. This will allow the audience to understand the structure of the presentation and to follow its logical flow.
The majority of the presentation will be 'ad hoc' (or unscripted) in that you will be using your own words as you follow the pre-prepared plan. However, you should write a script for the first part of the introduction and the last part of the conclusion beforehand and learn both by heart. In addition, you should derive approximate timings for each part of the presentation as a help in estimating the duration of the talk and as a means of reviewing your progress as you speak.
You should print a copy of the scripts and the plan and keep them within reach as you make the presentation.
So, why are Looks, Manner and Voice (Part 1) and Planning (Part 2) important for your English presentation? First of all, it is the professional way to do things and will give you the best chance of giving an effective talk. Secondly, and most importantly, for non-native English speakers, it will give you time and help you conserve your mental energy. You need more time and energy (perhaps better described as concentration) to convert what you want to say into English words and sentences than you do in your native language.
So, by speaking more slowly and pausing you will give yourself time and you will conserve your energy. By memorising parts of your presentation, you will save the energy involved in producing 'ad hoc' language and you will ensure that during the most important stages of the presentation (the beginning and the end) you will say what you planned to say. By effective planning you will save on the concentration needed to navigate the talk giving yourself the opportunity to be more relaxed and natural.
In the next part of the series we get down to business – the performance itself.
A Brief Introduction to Presenting in English Part 3 – The Performance
The obvious problem when presenting in a language other than your own is nerves. However, by carefully planning your presentation we have reduced the amount of ´thinking on your feet’ that you will need to do. This will allow you to concentrate on the content of your talk, reducing the mental effort involved with navigating your way through the various stages of the presentation.
Furthermore, by preparing your introduction beforehand, you will be able to ease your way into the presentation allowing yourself to get over the most nerve-racking part of all; the first five minutes. Similarly, a pre-rehearsed ending to the presentation will ensure you don't forget to leave the audience with the important points clear in their minds.
As we mentioned before, talk precisely and clearly; use emphasis and pauses to ‘punctuate’ your points. Keep your hands above your waist and use movement and body language to complement your voice in putting across your message. Do not turn your back on the audience when referring to the screen and try not to read verbatim from the displayed text; don’t forget, your audience can read.
Keep your notes (with timings) in front of you and refer to them when you need to. Don’t forget it is important to check the progress of the presentation against the schedule, so make sure you have some kind of timer available. This could be a wall clock, mobile phone or watch but if you use a wrist watch, take it off and put it in front of you.
You will need to decide if you you prefer taking questions during the talk or leaving them until the end. We will cover this issue in the next episode.
1. Anderson, K., Maclean, J., Lynch, T., 2006. Study Speaking: A Course in spoken English for academic purposes. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
2. Dussendorf, M. English for Presentations, Oxford University Press, 2010
3. Gillett, A. Using English for Academic Purposes . A Guide for Students in Higher Education, 2011, www.UEFAP.com
4. Harper, D/ Presenting in English http://www.madridteacher.com/business/presenting-in-english.htm
5. Presentation Tips for Public Speaking. A Research Guide for Students, http://www.aresearchguide.com/3tips.html
6. Storz C. et al. Oral Presentation Skills , Evry: INT, France, Août 2002.
7. Слепович В.С. Деловой английский. Business communication: учеб/ пособие – Мн.: «ТетраСистемс», 2003
1. Введение (Introduction) 3-4
2. Unit I. Подготовка
(Guidelines for Developing an Oral Presentation) 4-6
3. Unit II. Introduction 6-10
4. Unit III. The body (middle, main part) 10-17
5. Unit IV. Conclusion (the end) 17-20
6. Unit V. Visuals 20-27
7. Unit VI. Looks, manners, voice, etc… 27-31
8. Unit VII. Presentation Assessment Guidelines 32-35
9. Transcripts 35-42
10. Список литературы 43