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 Техникалық мәтіндерді талқылау дағдысы мен ағылшын тілінен қазақ тіліне аудару дағдысын қалыптастыратын әдістемелік нұсқаулар

(5В071700, 5В071800 мамандық студенттеріне арналған)



Алматы, 201

Құрастырушылар: С.А. Есенжолова., Билдебаева Д.А. Ағылшын тілі. Техникалық мәтіндерді талқылау дағдысы мен ағылшын тілінен қазақ тіліне аудару дағдысын қалыптастыратын әдістемелік нұсқаулар (5В071700, 5В071800 мамандық студенттеріне арналған) – Алматы: АЭжБУ, 2012. – 26б.


            Әдістемелік нұсқау 5В071700, 5В071800 мамандықтары студенттерінің техникалық мәтіндерді талқылау дағдысы мен ағылшын тілінен қазақ тіліне аудару дағдысын қалыптастыруын арттыруға арналған. Бұл нұсқауда арнайы іріктеліп алынған техникалық мәтіндер және сол мәтіндерді жан-жақты қарастыруға арналған жаттығулар берілген.


           Пікір беруші: фил.ғыл.канд., доцент В.С. Козлов


«Алматы энергетика және байланыс университеті» коммерциялық емес акционерлік қоғамының жоспары бойынша 2012 ж. басылған



                  © «Алматы энергетика және байланыс университеті» КЕАҚ, 2012ж.   

Жиын жоспар 201., реті - 261



Unit I. Michael Faraday (1791 - 1867)


Michael Faraday, one of the greatest men of science, had little chance to get an education. His father was a blacksmith, and Faraday was born to work with his hands too. When thirteen years of age, he went as apprentice to learn bookbinding. He read many of the books he had to bind. Once when binding an encyclopedia he ran across an article on electricity. It struck his imagination and aroused his interest. With the little money he could save, he bought a cheap and simple apparatus and set to make experiments. He attended the lectures of Humphrey Davy, an outstanding scientist and the most popular lecturer in London at that time. It was Davy who helped Faraday to become assistant at the laboratory of the Royal Institute and to get a profound knowledge of the subject. While still an assistant, he helped Davy create a safety lamp for miners. He learned chemistry, he was working on the problem of turning gases into liquids. An important discovery of Faraday was that of benzol which he separated from condensed oil gas, and which since then found world-wide application. For several years he is known to have been working at the problem of a perfect optical glass and to have made a glass that greatly improved the telescope.

Yet the problem of electricity and magnetism interested him above all. All the scientific world had known by that time that if a current is run through a copper wire wound around a piece of iron, the iron becomes a magnet. If electricity magnetizes, why won`t magnetism electrify? That was the question Faraday asked himself over and over. For a long time he tried different experiments to solve the problem. At least in 1831 he made his major discovery in the field of electricity – the electromagnetic induction.

Among a number of other discoveries he is also known to have measured electric current for the first time, and to have made several important observations on the conductivity of different materials.

Although Faraday enjoyed world-wide popularity, he remained a modest man, never wanting either to accept high titles or to get any money out of his numerous discoveries. He was one of those great men who made possible the age of electricity in which we live, all the marvels it brings us and all those it may bring to the future generations.



chance –  қолайлы жағдай

education – білім

blacksmith – ұста, темірші

apprentice – шәкірт

to bind – байланыстыру

bookbinding – кітапты түптеу

to run across – кездейсоқ кездесу

to strike – соққы беру, таң қалдыру

to arouse – ояту, шақыру

to save – үнемдеу, құтқару

to buy – сатып алу

to attend – қатысу

outstanding – атақты

profound – терең

benzol – жанармай

to condense – қоюлату, конденсациялау

application – қолданыс

to improve – жақсарту

to wind – орау

observation – қадағалау, байқау

conductivity – өткізгіштік, жылу өткізгіштік

to enjoy – қанағаттану

to accept – өткізу

title – аты

marvel – ғажайып

generation – ұрпақ

encyclopedia – энциклопедия

major – өте маңызды, ең бастысы

employment – қызмет


         Жиі қолданылатын сөздер:

         to bind, to run across, to struck, to arouse, to attend, profound, to condense, application, to improve, to wind, to enjoy, conductivity, to accept, generation, major, education.


         Сұрақтарға жауап беріңіз:

1)     Who was Michael Faraday?

2) Had Faraday any chance to get an education?

3) What was his first job?

4) What struck his imagination while working as a binder?

5) When did Faraday become interested in electricity?

6) Whose lectures did he attend?

7) What did he create together with Davy?

     8) What problems did he work at?

     9) What was his first important discovery?                                                      

     10) When did Faraday discover the electromagnetic induction?

     11) What problem interested him above all?

     12) Was Faraday the great man who made possible for us the age of electricity?


Төмендегі берілген мәтінді қазақшаға аударыңыз:  

Faraday made his greatest discovery a hundred years ago when there was no dynamo, no electric light, and no motors. Electricity was a plaything in the laboratory and had not the slightest connection with everyday life.

         When working on magnetism, Faraday is said to have carried in his pocket a piece of iron with a copper wire wound on it. Whenever he got a spare moment, he would take out that piece of iron and start experimenting. He made many experiments without any result but kept on trying. At last on October 17, 1831, Faraday tried the following experiment which led to the discovery of the electromagnetic induction. He wound 220 feet of copper wire on a hollow cylinder and connected the ends of the wire with a galvanometer. Holding a bar magnet in line with the hollow ore of a coil, he moved one pole of the magnet into the opening. The needle of the galvanometer made a sudden jump. Quickly he drew the magnet out and again the needle made a jump in the opposite direction. The magnet being moved into the coil, the wire of the coil cut the lines of magnetic force and an electromagnetic force was formed by induction. Thus, one of the world`s greatest discoveries in the field of electricity was made.


         Инфинитивтің сөйлемдегі қызметін анықтаңыз. Аударыңыз:

In the early youth Faraday had to save money to buy the apparatus necessary for his experiments.

We know him to have taken interest in many scientific and technical problems of his time.

He took part in the creation of a safety lamp to be used in mines.

To turn gases into liquids was one of the numerous problems he worked at.

He made a series of experiments in order to produce a perfect optical glass.

He is known to have improved the telescope as the result of a four years work.

After a while Faraday set to work on another important problem, that of magnetism.

There were many questions to be answered in this field of science.

His main task was to find out the nature of electricity and magnetism.


Инфинитифті орамды қолдана отырып сөйлемді ағылшын тіліне аударыңыз:

1)  Біздің білуімізше, Фарадей электр тоғы жайлы бірінші мақаланы оқыған кезде  13 жаста болған.

2) Физика саласын зерттеу оның өмірінің мақсатына айналған . 

3) Ол бұл салада білім алу үшін Дэвидің лекцияларына қатыса бастады.       4) Кейін ол, Дэвиге, кеніштерде қолдануға болатын қауіпсіз лампаны ойлап шығаруға көмектесті.   

5) Бүкіл әлем Фарадейді ең ғұлама ғалымдардың бірі деп таниды.


         Берілген сөйлемдерді ағылшын тілінен қазақ тіліне аударыңыз:

         It was after reading an article in the encyclopedia that Faraday turned his attention to electricity.

He turned to books and read everything he could get on the subject.

Next in turn was to buy a cheap apparatus and set to work doing careful experiments.

It turned to be so interesting that Faraday began to attend lectures at the Royal Institute.

When an assistant at the laboratory, he succeeded in turning hydrate chlorine by heating it in a sealed tube.

At last after a series of experiments he came to the conclusion that just as electricity magnetizes, magnetism can electrify, in its time.

The light is turned off.

The radio set is turned on.


“since” сөзінің әртүрлі мағынасына көңіл аудара отырып сөйлемдерді аударыңыз:

Since his childhood Faraday took great interest in electricity.

Induced electromotive force has supplied most of the world`s electricity since Faraday discovered it first in 1831.

A great number of outstanding discoveries and perfections have been made in that field of science since.

Since static electricity gives currents that are too small for most purposes, we widely use electricity produced by way of magnetism.


The Magnetic Field мәтінін аударыңыз

In the space surrounding every magnet there exists what is called a magnetic field. When a strong magnet is brought close to a piece of sort iron, the iron takes on all the properties of a magnet. This phenomenon is called induction and it was discovered by Faraday.


Мәтінді аудара отырып есте сақтаңыз:


Unit II. The law of electromagnetic induction


Faraday`s Law

The induced E.M.F. (electromagnetic field) in a conductor is proportional to the rate at which the conductor cuts the magnet lines of force.

The inducted E.M.F. in a circuit is a proportional to the rate of change of the number of lines of the force threading the circuit.

The induction coil, the dynamo, the transformer and the telephone are practical application of electromagnetic induction.


Faraday`s Law

The weight of a substance liberated in electrolysis in proportional to the quantify of electricity passed.

When the same quantify of electricity passed through different electrolytes, the weights of substance liberated are in the ration of their equivalent weights.

Quantify of electricity is measured in coulombs, the product of current in amperes, and the time in seconds.


Definition of terms:

Watt is the unit of power.

Ampere is the unit of the flow of electric current.

Ampere-hour. The practical unit of quantify of electricity flowing per hour through a conductor when the current in it is one ampere. It is equal to 3600 coulombs.

Volt is the unit of electromotive force and potential difference.

Voltage is the electromotive force of a supply of electricity, measured in volts.



to induce – ояту, индукциялау

rate – екпін, қарқын

to cut – кесу, өшіріп тастау

coil – электрлік орауыш

to liberate – босату

ratio – екі шаманың, санның қатынасы, пропорция

definition  – анықтама

watt – ватт

ampere – ампер

volt – вольт

voltage – вольтаж, кернеу

electromotive – электрлі қозғалтқыш

potential – потенциалды

coulomb – кулон


Unit III. Electricity


         An electric current is a flow of electricity. There are two kinds of electricity, positive and negative. Glass rubbed with silk is positively charged, ebonite rubbed with fur is negatively charged.

Like charges repel, unlike charges attract. The leaf electroscope is used to detect, distinguish and measure charges. 

The ultimate particle of negative electricity is called the electron; that of positive electricity is called proton.



         current – тоқ

         to rub – үйкеліс

         silk –жібек

         charge – заряд

         to repel – итеру

         to attract – баурау, өзіне жақын тарту

         leaf  – табақ

         to detect – айқындау, көріп қою

         to distinguish – айырып тану, танып білу

         ultimate  ақырғы, соңғы, шеткі

         electron – электрон

         proton – протон


Сұрақтарға жауап беріңіз:

1) What is an electric current?

2) How many kinds of electricity are there?

3) What charges are repelled?

4) What charges are attracted?

5) What is the leaf electroscope used for?

6) What is electron?

7) What is proton?


Electricity and magnetism


         It has been known for centuries that certain black, heavy stones have the property of attracting iron, this property being called magnetism. A body that exhibits magnetism is called a magnet. The two parts of a magnet that show the strongest magnetism are called the North pole and South pole.

         Magnets not only affect ordinary iron, but they affect one another. When a pole of one magnet is brought toward a pole of the second magnet, they will repel if both are north poles or both are south poles, but they will attract if one is a north pole and the other a south pole.

         The region in which magnetic forces act is called a magnetic field. When placed in a strong magnetic field, iron becomes magnetized.

         Electricity and magnetism are closely connected. Almost all metals are good conductors of electricity, with copper being one of the best conductors of all. Glass, paper, rubber are the most common non-conductors or insulators.

         Many practical applications have resulted from the utilization of the magnetic effect of an electric current.

         These effects are used in motors, in most electric meters (ammeters, voltmeters and galvanometers), in electromagnets and in practically all electromechanical apparatus.



         electricity – электр тоғы

         magnet – магнит

         magnetism – магнетизм

         certain – кейбір, айқын

         property – құрамы, сипаттамасы

to exhibit – көрмеге немесе жарыққа шығару

to affect –әсерін тигізу

ordinary – қарапайым

toward – … бағытқа қарай

pole – полюс

to repel – қағажыту, итеру

region – өріс, алаң

to act – әрекет жасау, әрекет ету

conductor – өткізгіш

non-conductor – өткізгіш емес, диэлектрик

insulator – айырғыш

application – қолданыс

utilization – пайдалану

meter – метр

ammeter – амперметр

voltmeter – вольтметр

galvanometer – гальванометр


         Жиі қолданылатын сөздер:

         to attract, to affect, to repel, to act, to connect, to flow, to carry, meter


         Сұрақтарға жауап беріңіз:

1) What is called magnetism?

2) What is called the North (South) pole?

3) When do poles repel each other?

4) When do poles attract each other?

5) What is called a magnetic field?

6) When does iron become magnetized?

7) What substances are called conductors?

8) What metals are the best conductors?

9) Where are the magnetic effects of an electric current used?


Берілген сөйлемдерді ағылшын тілінен қазақ тіліне аударыңыз:

Two magnets put into a coil produce a greater effect than one.

The magnetic poles will repel if both are North poles or South poles.

Both glass and rubber are insulators.

There are instruments measuring current and voltage, and devices for measuring energy.

Due to magnetic effects dynamos are able to convert mechanical energy into electrical energy with a loss of only a few per cent.

Iron becomes magnetized when it is placed in a strong magnetic field.

When the magnetic field is removed magnetization disappears.

Whenever a current is flowing in a circuit, it is due to the existence of an electromotive force in the circuit.


Берілген анықтамалардың мағынасын табыңыз:

The flow of electricity along a wire.

The path of an electric current.

A reddish metal which conducts electricity and heat well.

Electric flow in one direction.

Electric flow first in one direction and then in the other direction.

An instrument for measuring electric current.


Берілген сөйлемдерді қазақ тілінен ағылшын тіліне аударыңыз:

         Мыс электр тоғының жаксы өткізгіші болғандықтан, өнеркәсіпте кең қолданылады. Тоқ өткізгіш бойымен өткен кезде оны қыздырады. Электр тоғы дегеніміз ол элетронның өткізгіш бойымен өтуі. Тоқ орауыш бойымен өткен кезде, магниттің бірнеше қызметіне ие болады. Электртехник мамандары магнит құрамы және оның қызметі жайлы білуге міндетті. Тұрақты тоқ, ауыспалы ток, кернеу, кедергі – бұлар әр электртехника саласындағы негізгі терминдер.  


Test. Choose the right variant:

Magnetism has the property of attracting …

glass, paper;

metals, iron.


A magnet shows the strongest magnetism at …

the North pole;

the South pole;

the equator.


A magnet …

repels another magnet;

attracts another magnet.


A magnetic field is the region in which …

electric forces act;

magnetic forces act.


Glass, paper, rubber are …




Copper is …

the worst conductor;

the best conductor.


Жақша ішіндегі сөздерді ағылшын тіліне аударыңыз:

Magnetism is the (құрамы) of attracting iron.

Every magnet has two (полюстер): the (солтүстік) pole, and the (оңтүстік) pole.

Magnets (әсер етеді) one another.

The North pole of one magnet (итереді) the North pole of another magnet. It is the same with the South pole.

The North pole of one magnet (тартады) the South pole of another magnet.

Almost all metals are good (өткізгіштер) of electricity.


Unit IV. Conductors


         According to their conductivity all materials are divided into conductors, insulators and semiconductors. Conductors allow electricity to pass through them; insulators do not. Conductors are materials having a very high conductivity. A conductor owes its conducting powers to the presence of free electrons which have broken away from their atoms. The most common of them are metals (copper, aluminum, steel, and others), carbon and electrolytes. Their coefficient of resistance is different. Copper, for example, has a positive coefficient while carbon has a negative coefficient of resistance.

          According to their resistivity, conductors are divided into two groups; the first includes materials with low resistivity; copper, aluminum and others. These metals are used to produce wire conductors due to their high mechanical strength. The second group includes materials with high resistivity: one of this nichrome. Due to its good heat resistance, nichrome is used to produce heaters. Carbon is commonly used to produce electrodes and brushes for electric machines.



according to – байланысты

conductivity – өткізгіштік, электр өткізгіштік

to divide – бөлу, айыру

conductor – өткізгіш

insulator – айырғыш

semiconductor – жартылай өткізгіш

to owe – сәйкес болу

carbon – көміртек

electrolyte – электролит

coefficient – коэффициент, көрсеткіш

resistance – кедергі

resistivity – үлесті кедергі

heater – қыздырғыш аспап, құрал


         Жиі қолданылатын сөздер:

сonductor, insulator, semiconductor, electrolyte, coefficient, strength, heat, common, positive, negative, mechanical, to produce, brush, wire.


Сұрақтарға жауап беріңіз:

1) Into what groups are materials divided?

2) What do conductors do?

3) What materials are common conductors?

4) Are their coefficients of resistance different?

5) What metals have high mechanical strength?

6) What coefficient of resistance has carbon?

7) What materials are commonly used to produce wire conductors (brushes, heaters)?


Сөз тіркестерін аударыңыз:

wire strength; semiconducting materials; air insulator; carbon brushes.

changing strength – changed resistance; insulating materials – insulated conductors; heated brushes – heating sources.

common wire strength; highly conductive copper wire; commonly produced wire brush; parallel connected circuit elements; commonly produced heaters.

any value of resistivity; rather low melting point.


Жауап қайтаруда мына сөз тіркестерін қолданыңыз: “certainly”, “I suppose”, “I don`t know”.

Is bronze used to produce conductors?

Has copper a positive coefficient of resistance?

Have metals (steel, iron, copper) good mechanical strength?


Test. Choose the correct variant:

All materials are divided into …

conductors and semiconductors;

conductors, insulators and semiconductors.


Copper has …

high mechanical strength;

low mechanical strength.


Carbon has …

a positive coefficient strength;

a negative coefficient strength.


Copper is commonly used to produce …




Жақша ішіндегі сөздерді ағылшын тіліне аударыңыз:

Any circuit (көрсету) resistance to the flow of current.

Resistance (тәуелді) the temperature of the conductor.

Conductors are divided into groups (байланысты) their resistivity.


Unit V. Insulators


         Insulating materials have a very low conductivity. They offer extremely high resistance to the flow of current. Insulators are used in electric devices to isolate conductors. Thus they should have a high dielectric strength and a high resistivity. Their mechanical properties are also important for practical use.

         Insulators are divided into gaseous, liquid, and solid. They are also divided into groups according to their heat resistance.

         The main gaseous insulator is air. At 20˚C the dielectric strength of air is extremely low; it is lower than the strength of most liquid and solid dielectrics. Liquid insulators are mineral oils, synthetic liquids, resins, and others. Of them mineral oils are used in oil transformers, cables and capacitors. In transformers, oil is used to insulate current conducting parts. Thus it should have a high dielectric strength (10 to 20 mv/m). As to resins, at low temperatures they are amorphous. When heated, they become first plastic, then liquid. Resins are the most important components of many plastics. (Commonly used in electrical engineering are synthetic (polymeric) resins - polyethylene). Plastics are used as wire and cable insulation. Solid insulators are paper, cloth, plastics, porcelain, and clastomers. Of them plastics are widely used in electrical engineering as insulating and structural materials. As to porcelain, it is highly resistant to mechanical factors and heat. Due to this property it is used to produce low and high voltage insulators.



to offer – ұсыну

device – құрылғы, аспап, тетік

to isolate – айыру

oil – жанармай, мұнай

resin – смола, шайыр

cable – сым

capacitor – конденсатор

amorphous – аморфты, пішінсіз

polyethylene – полиэтилен

to include – енгізу, қосып жіберу, кірістіру

porcelain – фарфор

current – электр тоғы

charge – заряд, қуат


         Жиі қолданылатын сөздер:

device, property, oil, liquid, resin, capacitor, porcelain, dielectric, gaseous, solid, synthetic, polymeric, amorphous


Сұрақтарға жауап беріңіз:

1) What materials offer extremely high resistance?

2) Where are insulators used?

3) What properties of insulators are important for practice?

4) Into what groups are insulators divided?

5) What is the main gaseous insulator?

6) What are liquid insulators?

7)  In what devices are mineral oils used as insulating materials?

8) What can you say about resins?

9) What happens to resins at low temperatures and when heated?

10) What properties have porcelain?


Сөз тіркестерін аударыңыз:

amorphous resins, air insulators, porcelain parts, important properties, main properties of capacitors, important parts of devices, solid synthetic resins, practically important part, extremely low conductivity, commonly produced porcelain insulator.


“thus” сөзіне көңіл аудара отырып сөйлемдерді аударыңыз:

The value of current should be the same in the elements of the circuit; thus they should be connected in series.

Porcelain is highly resistant to heat, thus it is commonly used to produce insulators.


Test. Choose the correct variant:

Insulators offer …

extremely high resistance;

extremely low resistance.


They should have …

a high dielectric strength;

a low dielectric strength.


Their mechanical properties …

are important for practice;

are not important for practice


Commonly used insulating materials are …




Unit VI. Semiconductors


The term “Semi –conductors” means “half – conductor”, that is, a material whose conductivity ranges between that of conductors and non –conductivity of insulators.

         They include a great variety of elements (silicon, germanium, selenium, phosphorus and others), many chemical compounds (oxides, sulphides) as well as numerous ores and minerals.

         While the conductivity of metals is very little influenced by temperature, the conductivity of semiconductors increases sharply with heating and falls with cooling. This dependence has opened great prospects for employing semi-conductors in measuring techniques. Light as well as heat increases the conductivity of semi-conducting materials, this principle being used in creating photo resistances. It is also widely applied for switching on engines, for counting parts on a conveyer belt, as well as for various systems of emergency signals and for various reproducing sound in cinematography. Besides reacting to light, semiconductors react to all kinds of radiations and are therefore employed in designing electronic counters.

         Converting heat into electricity without using boilers or other machines was one of the most complicated engineering problems. This could be done by means of metal thermocouples which later were made of semiconductors that generated ten times as much electricity as the metal ones.

         Sunlight, like heat, can feed our electric circuits. Photocells made of semiconducting materials are capable of transforming ten per cent of sun-ray energy into electric power. By burning wood which has accumulated the same amount of solar energy, we obtain only fractions of one per cent of electric power. The electricity generated by semiconductor the thermocouples can produce not only heat but also cooled, this principle being used in manufacturing refrigerators. Semiconducting materials are also excellent means of maintaining a constant a temperature respective of the surrounding temperature changes. The latter can vary over a wide range, for example, from 50˚C below 0˚C to 100˚C above 0˚C.

         Semiconductors are determining the progress of radio engineering, automation, chemistry, electrical engineering and many other fields of science and technique.



semiconductor – жартылай өткізгіш

to mean – білдіру

to range – топтастыру, жүйелеу

variety – әртүрлілік

silicon   кремний

germanium – германий

selenium – селен

phosphorous – фосфорлы

chemical compound  – химиялық қоспа

oxides – оксидтер

sulphide – сульфидтер

to influence – әсер ету

sharply – қиян-кескі

dependence – сенімділік

prospect – келешек, болашақ

to employ – жұмыс атқару

to apply – қолдану

to switch on – іске қосу

engine – машина, қозғалтқыш, мотор

to count – есептеу

emergency signals – жәрдем дабылы

to reproduce – қайта өндіру

to design – құрастыру

counter – есептеу

to feed – жүктеу

photocell – сәулелі ұяшық

to transform – айналдыру, өңдеу

to accumulate – жинақтау

amount – мөлшер

fraction – бөлшек

thermocouple – термоэлемент

refrigerator – тоңазытқыш

to maintain – сақтау

constant – тұрақты

irrespective – тәуелсіз

surrounding – қоршаған орта

the latter – кейінгі, екінші 

to vary – түрлендіру

wide range – кең өріс

to determine – анықтау

0˚C=zero degree – нөлдік деңгей


Жиі қолданылатын сөздер:

to range, variety, to increase, sharply, to employ, to apply, to switch on (off), to count, emergency, to transform, to maintain, to determine, dependence, to influence, prospects, engine, to design, compounds, to include.


Сұрақтарға жауап беріңіз::

1) What does the term “semiconductor” mean?

2) Do semiconductors include many elements?

3) Do we refer metals to conducting materials?

4) Is the conductivity of metals influenced by temperature?


to elapse – өту

to provide – қамтамасыз ету

rapid – жылдам

to complement – толықтау

vehicle – көлік

large-scale – үлкен көлемде

to patrol – ерсілі-қарсылы жүру

timber – дуал ағаш

helicopter – тік ұшақ

aircraft – ұшақ

value – бағалы зат

to take-off – қайтарып алу, кему

fuselage – фюзеляж

wing – қанат

empennage – ұшақ қанатының тірегі

gear – құрылғы, аспап

flotation – флотация, қалқып жүру

nacelle – гондола (бір ескекті қайық), себет

compartment – купе (қора-қопсы)

cockpit – кабина

cargo – жүк

to attach – біріктіру

stress – қысым

tail – құйрық

rudder – меңгерік, тұтқыш

elevator – элеватор, жеделсаты

aileron – элерон

to tail – соңынан еру

tip – тарақ (ұршық тарағы), шың, бас

bank – блок, топтастыру

to roll орам, тай, бумаға орау

to reduce – азайту, қысқарту

modification – модификация, құрылымның табиғи жолмен өзгеруі;

airfoil – аэродинамикалық үстіңгі қабат, қанат

to impose – сұраныс жасау, хабарлау

drag – гидравликалық (гидродинамикалық) кедергі, тартылыс

relatively – салыстырмалы түрде

to skid –  тежеу

to overcomeтөтеп беру

differential – дифференциал, қысымның, температураның түсуі

up - aileron – жоғарғы элерон

down - aileron – төменгі элерон

literal – литерал, константа

axis – ось, осьті сызық

stick – рычаг, тұтқыш

to dive – сүңгу, суға секіру

vice versa – керісінше, қарама-қайшы

to pull back – артқа шегіну

to aid – жәрдем беру

controllable – басқарылатын

maneuver – өздігінен әрекет ету


Төмендегі етістіктерді қазақ тіліне аударыңыз:

to describe, to be familiar, to continue, to produce, to insert, to indicate, to carry, to loosen, to arrange, to rotate, to turn, to handle, to compute, to filter out, to rate, to reduce, to break (the circuit), to permit, to flow, to store, to manufacture, to weigh, to mark, to tune, to block, to filter, to attenuate, to give off, to follow through, to retain, to seal, to emit, to utilize, to cool, to repel, to attract, to surround, to overload, to bias, to make certain


Төмендегі сөз тіркестерді қазақ тіліне аударыңыз:

basic principles, circuit elements, high current, dissipate power, wire-wound type, variable resistor, fixed resistor, handle the current, turns of wire, filter circuit, tuned circuits, rate in henrys, conductor plates, transient voltages, dry capacitor, resonant tank circuit, resonant circuit, low-pass filter, band-pass filter, movable core, high selectivity, reject frequencies, incandescent lamp, vacuum valve, metal enclosure, directly heated, indirectly heated, electron-emitting material, radio receiving circuit, carrier wave, triode tube, like charges, unlike charges, fine wire, n-type germanium, hole current, valence electrons, point-contact transistor, junction transistor, biased positive, rugged construction


Сұрақтарға жауап беріңіз:

1) What is the difference between a diode and a triode?

2) What are the elements of the electronic circuit, and what are their functions?

3) What do we mean by tuning an electronic circuit?

4) What is a hole current?


Төмендегі қысқыртылымдырды қазақ тіліне аударыңыз:

 г. f., a. f., emf, а. с., d. с.


Сөздіктегі сөздерді қолдана отырып, төмендегі мәтінді қазақ тіліне аударыңыз:


Unit VII. Principles of electronics


It should be quite obvious to the student that the vast subject of electronics cannot be covered in one chapter or even in one text­book. However, this chapter will describe the basic principles of electronics and acquaint the student with the operation of simple electronic circuits. The information gained from this chapter will also enable him to continue on to more advanced studies.1 Further we shall discuss such circuit elements as inductors, capacitors, resistors, electron tubes, transistors, and other items used in the construction of electronic circuits. We shall describe the functions of these units and also the methods by which they are connected together to produce certain effects. We shall also show how the principles discussed in this chapter are used in radio receivers, radio transmitters, electronic control systems, radar and other electronic devices.


Electronic circuit elements


Resistors. A resistor is a circuit element designed to insert resistance in the circuit. A resistor may be of low value or of high value.

Resistors in electronic circuits are made in a variety of sizes and shapes1. They are generally classed as2 fixed, adjustable or variable, depending upon their construction and use.

The resistance value of small fixed resistors is sometimes indicated by a code colour.

Resistors required to carry a comparatively high current3 and dissipate high power4 are usually of the wire-wound ceramic type.

Adjustable and variable resistors. An adjustable resistor is usually of the wire-wound type with a metal collar which may be moved along the resistance wire to vary the value of the resistance placed in the circuit. In order to change the resistance, the contact band must be loosened and moved to the desired position and then tightened so that it will not slip. In this way the resistor becomes, for all practical purposes, a fixed resistor during operation.

A variable resistor is arranged so that it may be changed in value at any time by the operator of the electronic circuit. This change is usually accompanied by rotating a small adjustment knob or by turning a screw adjustment. Variable resistors are commonly known as rheostats or potentiometers.

It must be pointed out that the use of a resistor of any type must be very carefully considered. The capacity of a fixed resistor, rheostat or potentiometer must be such that it can handle the current5 through the circuit without damage computing the current by means of Ohm's law.

Inductors. The purpose of an inductor, or inductance coil, is to insert inductance into a circuit. The effect of an inductance is to oppose any change6 in the existing current flow in a circuit. The opposition to current flow in an a. c. circuit by an inductor is called inductive reactance and is measured in ohms.

         Inductors are made in many shapes and designs. An inductor used in extremely high-frequency circuits may consist of only one turn or even less than one turn of wire. On the other hand, an inductor used as a choke coil in a low-frequency circuit or in a filter circuit may contain many turns of wire and also be wound on an iron core to increase the inductance.

         Inductors are often used in radio in connection with capacitors to provide tuned circuits. These tuned circuits are most valuable in radio and television for filtering out unwanted frequencies7 and passing the desired frequencies.

Inductance coils are rated as to value in henrys. One henry is a comparatively large inductance. Therefore, many of the inductors used in electronic circuits are rated in millihenrys. One millihenry (mh) is one thousandth of a henry. One henry is the inductance of a coil which will produce a back voltage of 1 volt when the current change is at the rate of8 1 amp per second.

         Capacitors. A capacitor may be defined as a device consisting of two or more conductor plates separated from one another by a dielectric and used for receiving and storing an electric charge. The effect of a capacitor in an electric circuit is to oppose any change in the existing voltage.

         Capacitors are commonly used in d. с. circuits to reduce the effects of transient voltages and currents. Electrical transients are high voltages developed from time to time when the circuit is broken or reconnected, as when a switch is turned on or off. These transient voltages are usually caused by the inductance of a circuit. In an a. c. circuit the capacitor is often used to block the direct current but permit the flow of the alternating current. In effect, the alternating current appears to flow through the capacitor but is actually being stored first on one plate of the capacitor and then on the other.

Like many other electronic units, capacitors are manufactured in a wide variety of sizes and styles. Some very low-capacity capacitors are merely tiny wafers of metal separated by an insulator; large capacitors may weigh several pounds. Fixed capacitors are of two general types. One is the dry capacitor which consists of metal plates separated by a dry dielectric such as mica or waxed paper, and the other is the electrolytic capacitor, whose dielectric is a chemical paste or one electrolyte. The electrolytic capacitor is effective in only one direction. This means that it must be connected in such a manner that the positive and negative polarities are correct. If it is connected in reverse, the current will flow through the capacitor and destroy it. Fixed capacitors of both the dry and electrolytic type are manufactured in a wide variety of shapes and sizes. The electrolytic capacitors are marked to indicate the correct method of connection into a circuit.

The unit of capacitance is a farad. A capacitor which will store 1 coulomb of electricity under an e. m. f. of 1 volt has a capacitance of 1 farad. The farad is an extremely high value of capacitance; therefore capacitors used in standard electronic circuits are rated in9 microfarads (1 mf = one millionth of a farad) or micromicrofarads (1 mf = one millionth of a microfarad).


in a variety of sizes and shapes — әртүрлі формадағы және өлшемдегі

are generally classed as — әдетте былай топтасады

to carry a comparatively high current — салыстырмалы, үлкен мөлшерде тоқты өткізу

to dissipate high power — үлкен қуатты тудыру

to handle the current — тоқ өткізу

to oppose any change — өзгерістерге қарсы тұру

to filter out unwanted frequencies — жағымсыз жиіліктен құтылу

at the rate of — жылдамдықпен

are rated in — саналады


Unit VIII. Principles of tuning


Resonant circuits. In the design and operation of electronic systems resonant circuits provide the key to frequency control. When a certain frequency is to be produced, it is necessary to establish a circuit which is resonant at that frequency1. Also, when a certain frequency is to be passed through a circuit and others eliminated, it is necessary to have a circuit which is resonant at the frequency to be passed. When a certain frequency is to be blocked2, it is necessary to place in the circuit a resonant tank circuit, which will block the frequency for which it is resonant. Resonant circuits are most essential in radio and television receivers and transmitters.

Filters. The characteristics of resonant circuits, as just described, make them very useful for filtering various frequencies in an electronic circuit. Among the types of filters used in electronic circuits are high-pass filters, low-pass filters, and band-pass filters. A high-pass filter tends to pass frequencies in the higher ranges and to attenuate or reduce the current at frequencies in low ranges. The low-pass filter will pass frequencies in the lower ranges and attenuate or reduce the current frequencies of the higher ranges. A band-pass filter will allow a certain band of frequencies to pass and will reduce the current at frequencies below or above the band range. A filter may be made a tuning circuit by making either the inductance or the capacitance variable. A typical tuning circuit consists of a variable capacitor used with a fixed inductance. In some cases, however, the capacitor is fixed and the inductance is tuned by means of a "slug" or movable core. Tuning circuits are usually designed to have fairly high selectivity, that is, they allow only a very narrow band of frequencies to pass and reject all others.


The electron tube


It may be stated that the modern electronic industry was born with the invention of the electron tube. The first discoveries in electron-tube phenomena were made by Thomas Edison in 1883 during his experiments with the incandescent lamp. Edison discovered that the heated filament of an incandescent lamp gives off electrons which pass to another electrode in the bulb and thus create an actual current flow from the filament to the other electrode, or plate.

The diode tube. An electron tube, also called a vacuum valve, consists of a glass or metal enclosure in which electrodes are placed and sealed in either a gaseous or an evacuated atmosphere3. The simplest of electron tubes is the diode, which has two operating electrodes. One of these is the heated cathode, which emits the electrons, and the other is the plate or anode. The cathode may be directly heated or indirectly heated. The tube with the directly heated cathode utilizes the heated filament for the cathode; in this case the filament is coated with a special material which greatly increases the number of electrons emitted. If the tube has an indirectly heated cathode, the cathode consists of a metal tube in the centre of which is a filament or heater. The heater is insulated from the metal tube. The outside of the cathode tube is covered with an electron-emitting material such as barium oxide, strontium oxide or thorium oxide.

         The principal advantage of the diode tube is that it permits the flow of current in one direction only, that is, from the heated cathode to the anode. If an alternating current is applied to the cathode, the tube will conduct only during one half of each cycle, that is, while the cathode is negative and the anode or plate is positive. For this reason diode tubes are often used as rectifiers to change alternating current to direct current. Diode tubes are used in the power-supply circuits of such electronic devices as radio and television, which obtain their primary power from a. c. sources.

         Another use of the diode tube is as a detector4. In this application the tube changes the h. f. a. c. carrier wave into a direct current which displays the modulation of the a. f. signal, separates the audio portion of a radio signal from the r. f. portion which is the carrier wave.

         The triode tube. The triode tube was discovered by Dr. Lee De Forest. De Forest found that by adding a third element to the diode tube the electron flow from the cathode to the plate could be effectively controlled by changing the electrical charge on the grid placed between them.

The effect of the grid in a triode makes it possible for the tube to act as an amplifier, that is, small changes in voltage on the grid will cause very substantial changes in the current flow from the cathode to the plate.


Unit IX. Transistors


Among the most important discoveries in electronics during recent years is the invention of the transistor. The transistor is a very small device which is replacing and is doing the work of a much larger electron tube. One of its principal advantages, however, is that no current is required for a heater circuit, as the transistor works at room temperature. During operation a transistor becomes heated, and so it is necessary to make certain that the transistor circuit is not overloaded beyond its operating limits5.

         Semiconductors. The operation of a transistor depends upon the nature and characteristics of a crystal substance such as germanium, or silicon. Pure germanium and silicon are good insulators because there are no free electrons to carry current through the material. However, when a very small percentage of an impurity is added, their crystal lattice structure remains the same, but the extra electrons brought in by the impurity remain free in the material to act as current carriers. This makes the material a semiconductor that is; it will carry current in one direction and block the flow of current in another direction. Germanium with an impurity which leaves an excess of electrons in the material is called n-type germanium because of its negative characteristic. When an impurity such as aluminum is added to germanium, p-type germanium is formed. This is because aluminum atoms have fewer valence electrons, and when combined with germanium, they leave vacant spots or holes where an electron should be in order to balance the charges between the atoms. A current flow in p-type germanium, electrons move into the holes, leaving other holes at the points from which they came. This is the hole current.

         Junction transistor. There are two principal types of transistors: the point-contact transistor and the junction transistor.

         A junction transistor consists of three principal sections and may be manufactured as one piece. In a n-p-n transistor the crystal consists of a section of n-type germanium, and another larger section of n-type germanium. One end of this transistor is called the emitter, the small p-type section is called the base, and the other end is called the collector. The collector is biased positive with respect to the base; hence there will normally be no current flow across the base-to-collector junction. The positive collector will draw the electrons away from the junction and the negative base will draw the holes away6 from the junction, and so there can be no transfer of holes or electrons at this point. Since the emitter is negative with respect to the base, the electrons will flow from the emitter to the base and the holes will move from the base to the emitter. This results in a substantial flow of electrons from the emitter to the base, and since the base is very thin, these electrons move across the base and into the positively charged collector.

         The result is that a substantial collector current will flow. This collector current will vary in accordance with the changes of the current flow across the emitter-to-base junction. Generally speaking, we may consider the operation of this transistor similar to that of a triode tube with the emitter representing the cathode7, the base representing the control grid and the collector representing the plate.

         The advantages of a transistor are its very small size and weight, the fact that no power is necessary for heating it, and its comparatively rugged construction.


which is resonant at that frequency — берілген жиеліктегі резонантты

is to be blocked — құлыпталады

an evacuated atmosphere — тартылған ауа

as a detector — детектор ретінде

beyond its operating limits — мүмкіндіктен тыс жұмыс шектігі

to draw the holes away — тетіктерді жамау

with the emitter representing the cathode — эмиттер катодтарды алмастыру барысында



electronic circuits – электронды тізбек

inductor – индукциялы орауыш

capacitor – конденсатор

resistor – кедергі, резистор

electron tube – электронды лампа

transistor – транзистор

radio receiver – радио  қабылдағыш

radio transmitter – радио хабаршы

electronic control system – электронды бақылау жүйесі

electronic device – электрондық құрылғы

code colour – шартты түс

fixed resistor – тұрақты кедергі

wire-wound ceramic type – сымды-керамикалық түр

adjustable (variable) resistor – өзгермелі кедергі

metal collar – металды қамыт

contact band – байланыс сақинасы

adjustment knob – орнату  сабы

screw adjustment – орнату  винті

potentiometer – потенциометр

to handle the current –тоқты өткізу

to compute the current –ток күшін есептеу

inductance coil – өзіндік индукциялы орауыш

inductive reactance – реактивті кедергі

high-frequency circuit – жоғары жиелі тізбек

choke coil – дроссельді орауыш

filter circuit – фильтрдің тізбегі



Әдебиеттер тізімі 

1. Луговая А.Л Английский язык для энергетических специальностей.    - Москва: Издательство «Высшая школа», 2003.

         2. Казахско-русский русско-казахский терминологический словарь Энергетика. Республиканское государственное издательство. - Алматы: «Рауан», 2000.

         3.  Абдуллаева Ж. Учебное издание «Курс общей физики на казахском языке». Издательство «Ана тілі», - Алматы:  1991




Unit I. Michael Faraday (1791 - 1867)


Unit II. The law of electromagnetic induction


Unit III. Electricity


Unit IV. Conductors


Unit V. Insulators


Unit VI. Semiconductors


Unit VII. Principles of electronics


Unit VIII. Principles of tuning


Unit IX. Transistors