Некоммерческое акционерное общество


Кафедра иностранных языков




Методические указания  “Деловая коммуникация” по развитию

навыков устной речи (для всех специальностей)



Алматы 2012

Составитель: Козлов В.С.   Английский язык. Методические указания по теме “Деловая коммуникация” по развитию навыков устной речи студентов и магистрантов (для всех специальностей).- Алматы. АУЭС, 2012. – 34  с.


Данные методические указания по развитию навыков устной речи для студентов всех специальностей затрагивают очень важную тему, связанную с поисками работы, ситуацией на рынке труда, проблемами занятости, подачей заявления для устройства на работу, составлением резюме, подготовкой к собеседованию


Рецензент: доцент У.Б.Серикбаева 


         Печатается по плану издания некоммерческого акционерного общества «Алматинский  университет энергетики и связи» на 2012 г. 


                          ©НАО «Алматинский университет энергетики и связи», 2012 г.




Lesson 1                                                                                Урок





Exercise 1. Match the equivalents.

A                                                        B

advancement                                       возмещение затрат на обучение

be (v) relocated away from the job       вопросы заработной платы

commitment                                        групповое интервью

committee interview                         интервью за обедом

compensation                                     интервью по одному

dependability                                      интервью, проводимое несколькими

                                                              членами компании

group interview                                   компенсация

interview materials                               материалы для интервью

lunch interview                                надежность

one-on-one interview                           отгул

professionalism                                   переселиться далеко от работы

salary issues                                        приверженность

screening interview                              продвижение

telephone interview                              профессионализм

time-off                                              сортировочное интервью

tuition reimbursement                          телефонное интервью


    Exercise 2. Read the dialogue and act it out.

     Joe: Extension 7385: Joe Andrews speaking.

     Pilar: Good morning, Joe. It’s Pilar Soto. I’m returning your call.

     Joe: Oh, hello, Pilar. That’s right, there was something I wanted to ask you about. That new software engineering post.

     Pilar: Yes, indeed. We need to appoint someone pretty soon.

     Joe: Right. Do you want to come and have a chat about the job description?

      Piilar: Well, I’ve jotted down a few ideas. I’ll tidy them up and get them typed and you can have a look at them.


         Exercise 3. Document study:

         Pilar Soto is Data Manager at Industrias Montresor. This is what her notes looked like when they had been typed. Notice how careful she is to say exactly what the new employee will have to do.

     Draft job description: Divisional Software Engineering Manager (DSEM)

     The DSEM is responsible to the Data Manager for:

         1) ensuring that all software used by the Corporation is maintained in good operational condition at all times.

         2) maintaining the strictest security with regard to computer programs.

         3) liaising with manufacturers and consultants in keeping software up to date and in overcoming problems or errors in programs.

         4) writing new programs, applications, etc. as required.


         Exercise 4. Read the discussion of qualifications. Make notes of what they want, under the headings ‘essential’ and ‘desirable’.

Joe: Come in, Pilar – take a seat, won’t you? Thanks for your draft of the job description – it looks OK to me – what we need to do now is to draft the advertisement.

Piilar: Yes. That’s more your line, of course. But I can tell you something about the qualifications we’ll be looking for.

Joe: Previous experience?

Pilar: Well, to start with, a degree in computing – preferably a postgraduate qualification – plus at least three years’ experience.

Joe: Mhm. Need that be in the chemical industry?

Pilar: We can’t afford to be that specific. We just need a good software engineer.

Joe: Right. How old should he be?

Pilar: Joe, it needn’t be a ‘he’.

Joe: Sorry! What’s the top age limit?

Pilar: Just say ‘the successful applicant is likely to be under thirty-five’.

Joe: And they must be fluent in English, I suppose.

Pilar: Oh yes, that’s essential, because whoever gets the job, their first assignment is going to be a training course in Japan.


         Exercise 5.

         This is the advertisement that appeared in several daily newspapers and specialist journals. Which of the items discussed by Joe Andrews and Pilar Soto appear in the advertisement?


Divisional Software Engineering Manager 


         Rapid career development for a high-flier.

         Industrials Montresor is an expanding multinational corporation, active in chemical engineering and marketing its products and services to the petrochemical industry. Our West European Division, located in Zaragoza, Spain, is urgently seeking an ambitious Software Engineer to build and take charge of an enthusiastic team.

         The successful applicant is likely to be under 35 and to have an outstanding track record in the field of software engineering (not necessarily relating to the chemical industry). He or she currently holds a post of responsibility at middle


management level and is fluent in Spanish and English. A postgraduate qualification will be an advantage.

         Salary negotiable. Expense allowance, company car, generous fringe benefits. Apply with c.v. and names of two referees to: Dept. Industrias Montresor SA, Apdo 234, Zaragoza, Spain, before 17 January 2007.


         Exercise 6. Read the text below on recruitment. Fill the gaps with words from the box. If you’re not sure of the meaning of any of the words, you will find them in the glossary.


Advertisements       applications appointments        experience  

interview                 qualifications


Most companies recruit new staff by advertising in the press. Pages with job __________ are usually headed ___________. They contain descriptions or specifications of the sort of people the advertiser is looking for __________(degrees, diplomas, certificates) are obviously important, but ______________ may count for much more. The aim is to attract a small number of well-qualified applicants, so that it is fairly easy to make a shortlist of the people you actually want to____________. If the advertisement is not specific enough, hundreds of people will send in their__________; but if it demands too much, they may be discouraged from applying at all.


         Exercise 7.

          Carlos Vila is a Spanish computer programmer working in Britain. He saw the Industrias Montresor advertisement after the closing date, but he thought he would telephone Joe Andrews anyway. Listen to what they say. Is Carlos too late?

Joe: Joe Andrews speaking.

Ccarlos: Good morning. My name is Carlos Vila. I’ve just seen an advertisement in the ‘International Herald Tribune’. It said you were looking for a Divisional Software Engineering Manager. I’m very interested, but I wonder if it’s too late to apply.

Joe: Well, the deadline was two days ago, but give me some details about yourself. What did you say your name was?

Carlos: Vila – Carlos Vila Monterde.

Joe: Could you spell that, please – surname first.

Carlos : Vila, V-i-l-a. Monterde, M-o-n- t-e-r-d-e. First name, Carlos, C-a-r-



         Exercise 8.

          Joe and Carlos continue their conversation. Joe’s part of the conversation is printed below. Listen to what they say, then listen again and speak the part of Carlos. To help you, the information that Carlos gives is printed on his c.v. below.

 Joe: OK, Mr Vila. Now, can we have your date of birth?


 Joe: Oh, so it’s Doctor Vila. What year did you finish your PhD?


 Joe: And what about your education? – Secondary education, I mean.


 Joe: Uh-huh. What qualification did you get when you finished school?


 Joe: What then?


 Joe: Did you? But then, suppose, you started work. What company did you go to first?


 Joe: I see. Where did you go then?


 Joe: What post did you hold?


 Joe: Yes, I suppose everyone has to, don’t they? What about further education?


 Joe: OK. What other companies have you worked for?


 Joe: And that led to – a degree?


 Joe: And when you finished that, you started work?


 Joe: Mm, interesting. I think we’d certainly like to have your c.v., Dr Vila. As time short, why don’t you fax to us today or tomorrow I’ll put your name on 01 list of applicants.


          Exercise 9. Read the text and put down all the important information.


                        How to prepare for a job interview


         Make a good impression at your interview by doing a little homework beforehand.

         Research the Company and the Position.

         The more you know about the company and the job you are applying for, the better you will appear in the interview. An interviewer will be impressed by your interest and motivation, and you will be able to explain what you can do for the company.

        Find out as much key information as you can about the company, its products and its customers. If possible, talk to people who work at the company. There may be other sources of information on the Web, especially if the company is publicly traded.

        Search for the following:

        -  Office locations.

        -  Products and services.

        -  Customers.

        -  Competitors.

        -   Philosophy.

        -   History.

        -  Recent news.

        -  Financial info, including salary and stock.

        Prepare for the Actual Interview.

        -  Practice your answers to Common Questions. Likewise, prepare a list of questions to ask the employer. Most interviews follow this pattern: first, you answer questions about your experience and qualifications, then you ask questions about the job.

        -   Rehearse your interview with a friend. You should be able to convey all pertinent information about yourself in 15 minutes. Tape yourself to check your diction, speed, and body language.

        -   Prepare your interview materials before you leave. Bring several copies of your resume, a list of references, and, if appropriate, any work samples. Make sure they are all up-to-date.

        -   Dress professionally and comfortably. You will be judged in some respects by what you wear. When in doubt, dress conservatively.

     For women:

        -   A straight-forward business suit is best.

        -   Wear sensible pumps.

        -   Be moderate with make-up and perfume.

        -   Wear simple jewelry.

        -   Hair and fingernails should be well-groomed.

        For men:

        -   A clean, ironed shirt and conservative tie are a must.

        -   A simple jacket or business suit is a good idea as well.

        -   Shoes should be polished.

        -   Face should be clean-shaven; facial hair should be neatly trimmed.

        -   Hair and fingernails should be well-groomed.

        -   Use cologne or after-shave sparingly.

        -   Bring pen and notepad to jot down any information you may need to remember (but don’t take notes during the interview).


          Exercise 10.

         Joe Andrews and Pilar Soto have just finished interviewing someone for the post of Divisional Software Engineering Manager. Listen to what they say. Do you think Mr Schultz is likely to get the job?

         Pilar: Well, thank you, Mr Schultz. Goodbye! Well?

         Joe: He looks quite good on paper.

         Pilar: I’m sure he’s very sound, technically. The thing is, we must have someone who can communicate.

         Joe: But the Software Engineering Manager isn’t going to be meeting customers.

         Pilar: You never know. Anyway, he’s going to be talking to us every day! Schultz didn’t sound very confident in either Spanish or English.

         Joe: Well, let’s have the next one in, and see if he’s any good!

         Pilar: Ask Dr Vila to come in, please.


         Exercise 11. In the interview room, Pilar and Joe must make a decision. Do they find it easy or difficult?

         Pilar: Under thirty-five. Currently holds a post of responsibility at middle management level, fluent in Spanish and English.

         Joe: Yes, but not as fluent as Vila.

  Pilar: She speaks English as well as he does, if not better.

         Joe: But, unlike Vila, she doesn’t have a postgraduate qualification.

         Pilar: Look at their current salaries! He’s making half what she is! I suppose we’d have to pay her twice as much as him!

         Joe: Considering the field she’s in, 90K isn’t all that great. She was getting 45K in Britain five years ago. It’s taken her five years to double her earnings. What really bothers me, though, is that her experience has been totally in the area of finance and banking.

         Pilar: Yes, the lack of industrial experience is rather a drawback. How about drive, ambition, motivation? How do you rate Robbiani on that – compared with Vila, I mean?

         Joe: Well, in spite of what I said to Vila, I really feel he has the edge when it comes to motivation. That appears to me to be the essential difference between them. He’s much more ambitious than she is!

         Pilar: Yes. I think that, when we weigh them both up, we have to give it to Vila. His experience is more varied than Robbiani’s. And, as you say, he’s more highly motivated. And I get the impression that he’s better at working with people.

         Joe: What makes you say that?

         Pilar: That boat trip. Can you imagine it? Living for months in a tiny boat with five other people? I’d go crazy. But when he talked about it, you could see that it was more important to him than anything else he’d ever done.


         Job Interview Types


        There are different types of job interviews you may participate in during the hiring process. Here are the major ones and tips on how to handle them.

        a) Stress Interview.

        Stress interviews are a deliberate attempt to see how you handle yourself. The interviewer may be sarcastic or argumentative, or may keep you waiting. Expect this to happen and, when it does, don’t take it personally. Calmly answer each question as it comes. Ask for clarification if you need it and never rush into an answer. The interviewer may also lapse into silence at some point during the questioning. Recognize this as an attempt to unnerve you. Sit silently until the interviewer resumes the questions. If a minute goes by, ask if he or she needs clarification of your last comments.

        b) One-On-One Interview.

      In a one-on-one interview, it has been established that you have the skills and education necessary for the position. The interviewer wants to see if you will fit in with the company, and how your skills will complement the rest of the department. Your goal in a one-on-one interview is to establish rapport with the interviewer and show him or her that your qualifications will benefit the company.

        c) Screening Interview.

        A screening interview is meant to weed out unqualified candidates. Providing facts about your skills is more important than establishing rapport. Interviewers will work from an outline of points they want to cover, looking for inconsistencies in your resume and challenging your qualifications. Provide answers to their questions, and never volunteer any additional information. That information could work against you. One type of screening interview is the telephone interview.

        d) Lunch Interview.

        The same rules apply in lunch interviews as in those held at the office. The setting may be more casual, but remember it is a business lunch and you are being watched carefully. Use the lunch interview to develop common ground with your interviewer. Follow his or her lead in both selection of food and in etiquette.

        e) Committee Interview.

        Committee interviews are a common practice. You will face several members of the company who have a say in whether you are hired. When answering questions from several people, speak directly to the person asking the question; it is not necessary to answer to the group. In some committee interviews, you may be asked to demonstrate your problem-solving skills. The committee will outline a situation and ask you to formulate a plan that deals with the problem. You don’t have to come up with the ultimate solution. The interviewers are looking for how you apply your knowledge and skills to a real-life situation.

        f) Group Interview.

        A group interview is usually designed to uncover the leadership potential of prospective managers and employees who will be dealing with the public. The front-runner candidates are gathered together in an informal, discussion-type interview. A subject is introduced and the interviewer will start off the discussion. The goal of the group interview is to see how you interact with others and how you use your knowledge and reasoning powers to win others over. If you do well in the group interview, you can expect to be asked back for a more extensive interview.

        g) Telephone Interview.

        Telephone interviews are merely screening interviews meant to eliminate poorly qualified candidates so that only a few are left for personal interviews. You might be called out of the blue, or a telephone call to check on your resume might turn into an interview. Your mission is to be invited for a personal face-to-face interview. Some tips for telephone interviews:

        -   Anticipate the dialogue: write a general script with answers to questions you might be asked. Focus on skills, experiences, and accomplishments. Practice until you are comfortable. Then replace the script with cue cards that you keep by the telephone.

        -   Keep your notes handy: have any key information, including your resume, notes about the company, and any cue cards you have prepared, next to the phone. You will sound prepared if you don’t have to search for information. Make sure you also have a notepad and pen so you can jot down notes and any questions you would like to ask at the end of the interview.

        -   Be prepared to think on your feet: if you are asked to participate in a role-playing situation, give short but concise answers. Accept any criticism with tact and grace.

        -   Avoid salary issues: if you are asked how much money you would expect, try to avoid the issue by using a delaying statement or give a broad range with a $15,000 spread. At this point, you do not know how much the job is worth.

        -   Push for a face-to-face meeting: sell yourself by closing with something like: “I am very interested in exploring the possibility of working in your company. I would appreciate an opportunity to meet with you in person so we can both better evaluate each other. I am free either Tuesday afternoon or Wednesday morning. Which would be better for you?”.

        -   Try to reschedule surprise interviews: you will not be your best with a surprise interview. If you were called unexpectedly, try to set an appointment to call back by saying something like: “I have a scheduling conflict at this time. Can I call you back tomorrow after work, say 6 PM?”.


        Making a Good Impression on Job Interviews


        Here’s what you should keep in mind the day of the interview and immediately afterward.

        Before the Interview:

          1)  Be  on time. Being on time is usually interpreted by the interviewer  as evidence of  your commitment, dependability, and professionalism.

        2) Be positive and try to make others feel comfortable. Show openness by leaning into a greeting with a firm handshake and smile. Don’t make negative comments about current or former employers.

        3) Relax. Think of the interview as a conversation, not an interrogation. And remember, the interviewer is just as nervous about making a good impression on you.

        During the Interview:

        1) Show self-confidence. Make eye contact with the interviewer and answer his questions in a clear voice. Work to establish a rapport with the interviewer.

        2) Remember to listen. Communication is a two-way street. If you are talking too much, you will probably miss cues concerning what the interviewer feels is important.

        3)     Reflect before answering a difficult question. If you are unsure how to answer a question, you might reply with another question. For example, if the interviewer asks you what salary you expect, try answering by saying “That is a good question. What are you planning to pay your best candidate?”.

        4)  When it is your turn, ask the questions you have prepared in advance. These should cover any information about the company and job position you could not find in your own research.

        5) Do not ask questions that raise red flags. Ask, “Is relocation a requirement?”, and the interviewer may assume that you do not want to relocate at all. Too many questions about vacation may cause the interviewer to think you are more interested in taking time off than helping the company. Make sure the interviewer understands why you are asking these questions.

6) Show you want the job. Display your initiative by talking about what functions you could perform that would benefit the organization, and by giving specific details of how you have helped past employers. You might also ask about specific details of the job position, such as functions, responsibilities, who you would work with, and who you would report to.

7)       Avoid negative body language. An interviewer wants to see how well you react under pressure. Avoid these signs of nervousness and tension:

        -  Frequently touching your mouth.

        -  Faking a cough to think about the answer to a question.

        -  Gnawing on your lip.

        -  Tight or forced smiles.

        -  Swinging your foot or leg.

        -  Folding or crossing your arms.

        -  Slouching.

        -  Avoiding eye contact.

        -  Picking at invisible bits of lint.

        After the Interview:

        1) End the interview with a handshake and thank the interviewer for his or her time. Reiterate your interest in the position and your qualifications. Ask if you can telephone in a few days to check on the status of your application. If they offer to contact you, politely ask when you should expect the call.

        2) Send a “Thanks for the Interview” note. After the interview, send a brief thank-you note. Try to time it so it arrives before the hiring decision will be made. It will serve as a reminder to the interviewer concerning your appropriateness for the position, so feel free to mention any topics discussed during your interview. If the job contact was made through the Internet or e-mail, send an e-mail thank-you note immediately after the interview, then mail a second letter by post timed to arrive the week before the hiring decision will be made.

3) Follow up with a phone call if you are not contacted within a week of when the interviewer indicated you would be.


        Common Job Interview Questions


        By rehearsing interview questions, you’ll become more familiar with your own qualifications and will be well prepared to demonstrate how you can benefit an employer. Some examples:

        -   “Tell me about yourself”.

        -  Make a short, organized statement of your education and professional achievements and professional goals. Then, briefly describe your qualifications for the job and the contributions you could make to the organization.

        -   “Why do you want to work here?” or “What about our company interests you?”.

        Few questions are more important than these, so it is important to answer them clearly and with enthusiasm. Show the interviewer your interest in the company. Share what you learned about the job, the company and the industry through your own research. Talk about how your professional skills will benefit the company. Unless you work in sales, your answer should never be simply: “money.” The interviewer will wonder if you really care about the job.

        -   “Why did you leave your last job?”.

        The interviewer may want to know if you had any problems on your last job. If you did not have any problems, simply give a reason, such as: relocated away from job; company went out of business; laid off; temporary job; no possibility of advancement; wanted a job better suited to your skills.

        If you did have problems, be honest. Show that you can accept responsibility and learn from your mistakes. You should explain any problems you had (or still have) with an employer, but don’t describe that employer in negative terms. Demonstrate that it was a learning experience that will not affect your future work.

        -   “What are your best skills?”.

        If you have sufficiently researched the organization, you should be able to imagine what skills the company values. List them, then give examples where you have demonstrated these skills.

        -   “What is your major weakness?”.

        Be positive; turn a weakness into a strength. For example, you might say: “I often worry too much over my work. Sometimes I work late to make sure the job is done well.”.

        -   “Do you prefer to work by yourself or with others?”.

        The ideal answer is one of flexibility. However, be honest. Give examples describing how you have worked in both situations.

        -   “What are your career goals?” or “What are your future plans?”.

        The interviewer wants to know if your plans and the company’s goals are compatible. Let him know that you are ambitious enough to plan ahead. Talk about your desire to learn more and improve your performance, and be specific as possible about how you will meet the goals you have set for yourself.

        -   “What are your hobbies?” and “Do you play any sports?”.

        The interviewer may be looking for evidence of your job skills outside of your professional experience. For example, hobbies such as chess or bridge demonstrate analytical skills. Reading, music, and painting are creative hobbies. Individual sports show determination and stamina, while group sport activities may indicate you are comfortable working as part of a team.

        Also, the interviewer might simply be curious as to whether you have a life outside of work. Employees who have creative or athletic outlets for their stress are often healthier, happier and more productive.

        -   “What salary are you expecting?”.

        You probably don’t want to answer this one directly. Instead, deflect the question back to the interviewer by saying something like: “I don’t know. What are you planning on paying the best candidate?” Let the employer make the first offer.

        However, it is still important to know what the current salary range is for the profession. Find salary surveys at the library or on the Internet, and check the classifieds to see what comparable jobs in your area are paying. This information can help you negotiate compensation once the employer makes an offer.

        -   “What have I forgotten to ask?”.

        Use this as a chance to summarize your good characteristics and attributes and how they may be used to benefit the organization. Convince the interviewer that you understand the job requirements and that you can succeed.

        Here are some other job interview questions you might want to rehearse.

        Your Qualifications:

        - What can you do for us that someone else can’t do?

        - What qualifications do you have that relate to the position?

        - What new skills or capabilities have you developed recently?

        - Give me an example from a previous job where you’ve shown initiative.

        -   What have been your greatest accomplishments recently?

        -   What is important to you in a job?

        -   What motivates you in your work?

        -   What have you been doing since your last job?

        - What qualities do you find important in a coworker?


        Your Career Goals


        -   What would you like to being doing five years from now?

          -  How will you judge yourself successful? How will you achieve success?

        -  What type of position are you interested in?

        -   How will this job fit in your career plans?

        -  What do you expect from this job?

        -   Do you have a location preference?

        -   Can you travel?

        -   What hours can you work?

        -  When could you start?


        Your Work Experience


        -  What have you learned from your past jobs?

        -  What were your biggest responsibilities?

        -  What specific skills acquired or used in previous jobs relate to this position?

        -  How does your previous experience relate to this position?

        -  What did you like most/least about your last job?

        -  Whom may we contact for references?


        Your Education


        -   How do you think your education has prepared you for this position?  

        -  What were your favorite classes/activities at school?

        -  Why did you choose your major?

        -  Do you plan to continue your education?

        Asking Questions During a Job Interview.

        At most interviews, you will be invited to ask questions of your interviewer. This is an important opportunity for you to learn more about the employer, and for the interviewer to further evaluate you as a job candidate. It requires some advance preparation on your part.

        Here are some guidelines for asking questions:

        -  Prepare five good questions. Understanding that you may not have time to ask them all. Ask questions concerning the job, the company, and the industry or profession.

        -   Your questions should indicate your interest in these subjects and that you have read and thought about them. For example, you might start, “I read in Business Week that ... I wonder if that factor is going to have an impact on your business.”.

        -   Don’t ask questions that raise warning flags. For example, asking “Would I really have to work weekends?” implies that you are not available for weekend assignments. If you are available, rephrase your question. Also, avoid initiating questions about compensation (pay, vacations, etc.) or tuition reimbursements. You might seem more interested in paychecks or time-off than the actual job.

        -   Don’t ask questions about only one topic. People who ask about only one topic are often perceived as one dimensional and not good candidates.

        -   Clarify. It’s OK to ask a question to clarify something the interviewer said. Just make sure you are listening. Asking someone to clarify a specific point makes sense. Asking someone re-explain an entire subject gives the impression that you have problems listening or comprehending. For example, you can preface a clarifying question by saying: “You mentioned that at ABC Company does (blank) . Can you tell me how that works in practice?”.


        Common Job Interview Mistakes


        Want to know what not to do at the job interview? Learn from the mistakes of others. Here’s “18 Deadly Interview Mistakes Job Seekers Make,” adapted from Drs. Caryl and Ron Krannich’s 101 Dynamite Answers to Interview Questions.

         1) Arrive late for the interview.

         2) Indicate you are late because the directions you were given were not good.

         3) Look disheveled and inappropriately dressed.

         4) Slouch in your seat.

         5) Don’t maintain good eye-contact with the interviewer.

         6) Do your company research at the interview by asking, “What do you guys do here?”.

         7) Don’t make a connection between your skills and the needs of the employer.

         8) Brag about how great you are, but neglect to cite evidence of your accomplishments.

         9) Respond in an unfocused, disorganized, and rambling manner.

         10) Remain low-key and display no enthusiasm for the job.

         11) Answer most questions with simple “yes” and “no” answers.

         12) Appear desperate for a job – any job.

         13) Call the interviewer by his or her first name, or use the wrong name.

         14) Give memorized responses, forgetting parts in the process.

         15) Badmouth your current or former employer.

         16) Ask “How am I doing? Are you going to hire me?”

         17) Blurt out, “I need to make at least $35,000. I hope this job pays at least that much,” near the beginning of the interview.

         18) When asked “Do you have any questions?”, reply “No”.


        Exercise 11. Work in small groups. Imagine that a young friend of yours is about to attend his or her first interview. Note down some more advice that you would give:

    Join another group and compare your notes.


        Exercise 12. Work in pairs. Some interviewers give candidates a hard time by asking them difficult questions – like the 13 questions below.

        -   Can you think of three more questions you might be asked at an interview? Add them to the list.

            -  What would your own answers to each of the questions be? Rehearse your answers with your partner and make notes.

         1.   Tell me about yourself.

         2.   What do you think are your strengths and weaknesses?

         3.   We have a lot of applicants for this job, why should we appoint you?

         4.   Which is more important to you: status or money?

         5.   How long do you think you’d stay with us if you were appointed?

         6.   Why do you want to leave your present job?

         7.   What would you like to be doing ten years from now?

         8.   What are you most proud of having done recently?

         9.   What is your worst fault and what is your best quality?

         10.  Don’t you think you’re a little young/old for this job?

         11.  What are your long-range goals?

         12.  What excites you about the job you’re doing now?

         13. How would you rate your present boss?


         Exercise 13. Work in groups of three. Take it in turns to be the Interviewer, the Candidate and the Observer. Allow enough time for each of you to have a turn at being the Candidate. Interviewer ask the Candidate the questions you discussed in exercise 4. Avoid asking Yes/No questions. Perhaps try to give him or her a hard time by asking supplementary questions like these:

         - Why do you think that?

         - Could you explain why you think that?

         - Can you give me an example of that?

         - In what way exactly?

         -  What do you mean exactly?

         - Are you quite sure you mean that?

        Candidate: Do your best to answer the questions and try to keep cool!

        Observer: As you listen to the interview, make notes on these points:

        -  What impression did each person give?

        -  If they were nervous, how did this affect their performance?

        -  Were there too many Yes/No questions?’

        -  Which questions did they answer badly?

        -  Which questions did they answer well?

        -  What advice would you give them for their next real interview?


        Exercise 14. Read the documents and find in the text the following information:

1) Pilar has made her decision about Mr Schultz.

2) Pilar doesn’t agree with Joe’s comments on Mr Schultz.

3) Joe has been re-reading Carlos’s C.V.

4) Joe disagrees with Carlos’s view of his future.

5) Joe thinks Carlos is a bit too clever.

6) Joe is about to ask Carlos a question which he thinks will be hard to answer.

7) Joe agrees with what Carlos says about his frequent changes of job.

8) Carlos shows that he understands Joe’s point of view.

9) Carlos refers to the scientific work that he and his friends did on their voyage.

10) Carlos is correcting Joe’s wrong opinion.

11) Pilar wants the interview to end.

    Then answer the questions to each dialogue.

        A. Joe Andrews and Pilar Soto have just finished interviewing someone for the position Divisional Software Engineering Manager. Do you think Schultz is likely to get the job?

        Pilar:  Well, thank you, Mr Schultz. Goodbye! Well?

        Joe:     He looks quite good on paper.

        Pilar:  I’m sure he’s very sound, technically. The thing is, we must have someone who can communicate.

        Joe: But the Software Engineering Manager isn’t going to be meeting customers.

        Pilar:  You never know. Anyway, he’s going to be talking to us every day! Schultz didn’t sound very confident in either Spanish or English.

        Joe: Well, let’s have the next one in, and see if he’s any good!

        Pilar:  Ask Dr Vila to come in, please.

        B. Joe Andrews and Pilar Soto now interview Carlos Vila. Think that this is a formal or an informal interview?

        Joe: Good afternoon, Dr Vila. Please sit down. My name is Andrew. I’m the

        Staff   Controller, and my colleague here is Miss Soto, the Data Manager.

        Pilar:  Good afternoon.

        Carlos:Good afternoon.

        Joe:   I think Miss Soto would like to discuss technical matters with you to begin with. Then I’ll come in with some more general things Pilar?

        Pilar:     Thank you. Dr Vila, your C.V. doesn’t go into details about the hardware you’ve been working with recently. Tell me about your present job. What’s the set-up?

        Carlos:    Well, we have a network of IBM PCs and compatibles, which can operate as individual work stations or they can access a much more powerful minicomputer.

        C. Later in the interview Pilar and Carlos are talking in Spanish and laughing. Then Joe takes over. Is Joe impressed by Carlos?

        Pilar:  All right! Now I’ll hand you back to Mr. Andrews.

        Carlos: Thank you.

        Joe:     Yes, Dr. Vila. While you’ve been talking to Miss Soto, I’ve been refreshing my memory of your C.V. It makes interesting reading rather a mixed career so far. Suppose you do join our company. Where do you expect to be in five years’ time?

        Carlos: Well, a head of department - assistant head, anyway - in technical sales, or overseas marketing.

        Joe: I see. More on the marketing side? You’re quite sure about that? You think your track record will help you?

        Carlos:    Oh, yes, I think it will.

        Joe:         Hm. I’m glad you think so. You know what I think? I see a young man who may well be smart but who really doesn’t know where he’s going.

        Carlos:   Why do you say that?

        Joe:         Well, you tell me, Dr. Vila. Why did you move from

banking to printing,  to computer consultancy and now you want to move into heavy industry? And perhaps I ought to mention global navigation?

        D. Carlos Vila is answering Joe Andrews’s criticism. Does Carlos succeed in changing Joe’s view of his career?

        Joe: And perhaps I ought to mention global navigation?

        Carlos:    Because all those things are my career! In every position that I’ve had, I was developing my knowledge of computer systems. That knowledge I can apply equally well to banking, or machine automation, or image recognition – anything you like.

        Joe: I see. Well, maybe you have a point. But taking a year off to go sailing, at the start of your career, when you’ve just got your PhD. Wasn’t that a year wasted?

        Carlos:    It depends on how you look at it. It was an adventure, of course, but we also carried out a research programme for computer-aided satellite navigation. So actually I think it was quite useful. Anyway, would you turn down a chance like that?

        Joe:   Hm! OK, Dr. Vila. Are there any questions you want to ask us?

        Carlos: Well, yes. I’d like to know a little more about the group I would be working with.

        Pilar:      It’s been very interesting talking to you, Dr Vila. However, we still have one more person to interview.


        Exercise 15. Look at this advertisement and decide what kind of person the advertiser is looking for. Highlight the important points in the ad.

        Assistant Marketing  Manager

        We are a well-known international manufacturer, based in the UK, and we are expanding our export marketing activities in our European headquarters in London.

        We are looking for a lively and intelligent person to join our team as soon as possible.   

        The work will involve working in our London office, telephoning and corresponding with our overseas clients and agents, and some travel, mainly to European countries. Applicants should be fluent in at least one foreign language. Experience in marketing would be an asset but not essential.

        The successful applicant will be paid top London rates and provided with generous removal expenses.


        Exercise 16. Read three telephone messages. Each of the speakers has held interviews with applicants for the job. Decide which of the job applicants sounds most promising.

        Which of them will you put on the short list for a second interview in London? Which of the three candidates do you rate most highly, judging from what you’ve heard about them?

        Report Form:

        Best candidate: .................................................................................

        Age: ..................................................................................................

        Education: .........................................................................................

        Work experience: ..............................................................................

        Personality: ........................................................................................

        Availability: ..........................................................................................

        Suitability: ..........................................................................................

        Address: ............................................................................................

        Phone: ..............................................................................................

      Gus Morrison: Good afternoon. This is Gus Morrison calling from Glasgow. Now, most of the people I’ve talked to today have been pretty hopeless. One of them was obviously lying when he filled in the application form. Do you know, he claimed to speak German, but when I started talking to him in German, he couldn’t understand!

       Well, now, the best of the bunch was er ... where is it ... er Duncan McCabe (that’s D-u-n-c-a-n M-c-C-a-b-e). He’s quite young, he’s only 21 and he’s a graduate of Edinburgh...Edinburgh University. He’s got an MA and it’s in modern languages. Now, he’s been working for the publicity department of Glasgow City Council for about a year. He speaks fluent French and his German is quite good too. He’s a very pleasant lad, he seems a bit shy when you first talk to him, but when you get to know him he’s got a lovely sense of humour, and I think he’s very bright, he’s very eager and I think he’d fit in well with your people down in London. Now unfortunately he’s not available until September 1st.

        But if you want to contact him, his address is 145 Pentland (I’ll spell that, that’s P-e-n-t-l-a-n-d) Pentland Gardens, Glasgow, and the postcode is G5 8TG, and his phone number is 041 667 8092.

        Laura Steele: Hello, this is Laura Steele, I’m calling from Sheffield. I’ve spent this morning interviewing four candidates and the best one is a Mrs. Sylvia Sabbatini (that’s S-y-l-v-i-a S-a-b-b-a-t-i-n-i). Now, she’s 25, she’s married and has been working for Johnson Brothers, in Marketing since leaving school. She has a lovely personality – very cheerful and bright. She speaks Italian fluently (her father is Italian, her mother is English). Her qualifications on paper are not all that good, she left school at 16 to do a secretarial course, but she’s a very intelligent young woman – she impressed me very much. She’s been married for two years, no children, and her husband has just got a job in London, so she’d be able to start work in London more or less right away.

        Her address is 78 Pennine Avenue, Pennine (P-e-n-n-i-n-e) Avenue, Huddersfield (that’s H-u-d-d-e-r-s-f-i-e-l-d), and the postcode is LS34 7QT. Her telephone number is 0484 078432.

        Terry Williams: Hello, this is Terry Williams calling from Cardiff. I’ve just finished a very frustrating day interviewing people for you. There were really only two applicants that you should have invited for interview and I discovered after half an hour that one of them isn’t available: he’d already accepted another job but decided to come to the interview anyway!

        So the only person I have to tell you about is Miss Emma Harris (that’s
E-m-m-a H-a-r-r-i-s). She’s only 20 but she has really good potential. She had all the right exam results to get into university when she left school, but decided to go into industry. She speaks Spanish and French, though she’s not exactly fluent in either, but she’s so confident I don’t think that matters.

        She’s been working in marketing for light engineering firm and she had just become their Export Marketing Manager when the firm was taken over and she was made redundant because they decided to close her department. She is full of confidence, makes friends easily and she would work well in a team. She has no ties here, she could start next week if you wanted. I think she’d be a real find and should get in touch with her right away.

        Her address is 214 Gower Road (that’s G-o-w-e-r), Swansea (S-w-a-n-s‑e-a), SA2 4PJ. Her phone number is 0792 98762. All right. Ah, cheerio then.


        Exercise 17. Read this article and then fill each gap below with one word.

        Employee loyalty in service firms.

        New York

        Hotel, shop and restaurant chains, which employ thousands of people in low-paid, dead-end jobs, are discovering that high labour turnover rates resulting from the indiscriminate hiring of “cheap” workers can be extremely costly.

        Cole National, a Cleveland-based firm which owns Child World, Things Remembered and other speciality shops, declared a “war for people” in an effort to recruit and keep better staff.    

        Employees were asked: What do you enjoy about working here? In the past year, have you thought about leaving? If so, why? How can we improve our company and create an even better place to work? Employees replied they wanted better training, better communications with their supervisors and, above all, wanted their bosses to “make me feel like I make a difference”. Labour turnover declined by more than half; for full time sales assistants, it declined by about a third.

        Marriott Corporation, a hotels and restaurants group, has also decided to spend more money on retaining employees in the hope of spending less on finding and training new ones. In one year, it had to hire no fewer than 27,000 workers to fill 8,800 hourly-paid job slots.

        To slow its labour turnover, Marriott had to get a simple message accepted throughout its operating divisions: loyal, well  motivated employees make customers happy and that, in turn, creates fatter profits and happier shareholders. Improved training of middle managers helped. So did a change in bonus arrangements.

        At the same time,  Marriott became more fussy about the people it recruited. It screened out job applicants motivated mainly by money: applicants which the company pejoratively described as “pay first people”. Such people form a surprisingly small, though apparently disruptive, part of the service-industry workforce. Marriott found in its employee-attitude surveys that only about 20% of its workers at Roy Rogers restaurants and about 30% of its workers at Marriott hotels regarded pay as their primary reason for working there.

        Many middle managers in service industries are more comfortable coping with demands for more money than with demands for increased recognition and better communications. They will have to change their ways. Surveys say that when 13,000 employees in retail shops across America were asked to list in order the 18 reasons for working where they did, they ranked “good pay” third. In first place was “appreciation of work done”, with “respect for me as a person” second.

(from The Economist).


        1. Many workers in service industries are ______________ badly and their work is _____________.

        2. Service firms with large numbers of low-paid workers often have a high staff _______________.

        3. Cole National conducted a _________________ among its staff, because they wanted to recruit and ___________________ better workers.

        4. Staff replied that they wanted their managers to show that they were __________________.

        5. Marriott discovered that customers are happier when the staff are __________________ and _________________ motivated. They found that most of their workers were _________________mainly motivated by pay.

        6. For most US shop workers pay is the ____________________ most important reason for job satisfaction.


        Exercise 18. You’ll read part of a broadcast transcript about high-flyers – people who will be given special training and experience to make them into the top managers of tomorrow.                                          

     Presenter: ... the first high-flyer schemes were introduced in the 1960s and now many sectors of commerce, industry and the civil service pick out their most promising younger managers as ‘high-flyers’. You find schemes of this kind mostly in large companies or groups of companies, where the fairly rigid career structure can only be broken by by-passing the normal steps in the promotion ladder. It can take a company many years to develop a top-level manager, if he or she joins them straight from university. Such people must obtain wide experience in different parts of the company and this can take up to 20 years. This means that someone who joins the firm from university works for the company in different capacities, and is identified as a highflyer, can expect to reach top management at around the age of 40. Rod Scott has been looking at what is called the ‘individual development programme’ at BP.  

        Rod Scott: BP is one of the largest multinational companies in the world. It employs 130,000 people. It has 260 managers involved in its own ‘individual development programme’ who will compete for 180 senior positions in the group. They don’t join the scheme until they are in their late 20s, by which time they will have established themselves in their special field, they will have built up their professional reputation and they will have a record of high performance. While they’re on the scheme (and this lasts 5 to 10 years) their progress is supervised by a committee of 15 senior managers. One of the main purposes of the scheme is to provide them with experience outside their own field – in finance, working in an overseas division, or experience in information technology.

        Presenter: But high-flyer schemes have their drawbacks, according to Heather Stewart, a management consultant.

        Heather Stewart: One weakness is that you may be creating a management team who think and act in the same ways. That means, if your business changes, they may not be able to meet the challenges. As outsiders tend to be excluded as senior recruits, the company may be cutting itself off from a pool of talent which their competitors can draw on. Another problem is that late-starters are also excluded – not everyone is at their peak in their 20s and such qualities as experience and in-depth knowledge may be undervalued.

        Another weakness is that women are often excluded from high-flyer schemes, since schemes identify high-flyers at the very time when women are most likely to have children: they are forced to choose between career and family.

        Worst of all though is the resentment that high-flyers create among other managers who aren’t chosen to be highflyers. Developing a sort of elite, a chosen few, within an organization is quite simply bad for company morale – it makes everyone else feel they are being undervalued and takes away their enthusiasm and dedication – and clearly this is counter-productive. This is particularly noticeable in medium-sized companies, where high-flyer schemes seem to be particularly controversial and divisive. There have been “various experiments”.

        Answer these multiple-choice questions about the information and opinions given in the recording.

        According to the Presenter ...

        1. High-flyer schemes are ...

        a) found in all kinds of companies.

        b) most common in multinational companies.

        c) common in large companies.

        2.     In a large company ...

        a) only a high-flyer can climb the promotion ladder more quickly.

            b) a bright person can quickly climb the promotion ladder even if there is no high-flyer scheme.

        c) the career structure is normally quite flexible.

        3. A member of a high-flyer scheme will ...

        a) obtain wide experience in different departments.

        b) already have wide experience in different fields.

        c) become a specialist in his or her chosen field.

     According to Rod Scott ...

        4. BP ...

        a) is the world’s largest multinational company.

        b) has about 130,000 employees worldwide.

        c) has about 130,000 employees in the UK.

        5. There are .... people participating in BP’s ‘individual development program’.

        a) 130.

        b) 180.

        c) 260.

        6.     BP’s high-flyers join the scheme when ...

        a) they have just joined the group.

        b) they have been with the group for ten years.

        c) they have already shown their potential.

       According to Heather Stewart ...

        7.     A high-flyer scheme may ...

        a) produce a management team who can work well together.

        b) lead to a lack of flexibility in the management team.

        c) prevent the business from changing.

        8.     A company with a high-flyer scheme tends ...

        a) to be less competitive.

        b) not to recruit senior staff from outside the company.

        c) to lose good managers, who leave to join their competitors.

        9.     High-flyer schemes tend not to recognize the importance of ...

        a) academic qualifications.

        b) people who join the company later.

        c) the experience and knowledge of older people.

        10. Women managers are excluded from high-flyer schemes because ...

        a) they are expected to leave to have babies.

        b) they prefer to have babies instead of a career.

        c) this is the age they are most likely to have babies.

        11. Other able, enthusiastic managers ...

        a) consider high-flyers to be better than them.

        b) lose their motivation.

        c) leave the company if they aren’t selected as high-flyers.

        12. In medium-size companies high-flyer schemes ...

        a) are usually experimental.

        b) are unpopular.

    c) are unnecessary because the career structure is flexible.


        Exercise 19. Fill the gaps in these sentences, then add the words to the puzzle below.

        1. In American English, you _________________ an application form.

         2.   She’s going to make engineering her _________________.

         3.   Are we going to _________________ a new sales manager?

         4.   He was the most promising _________________ for the job.

           5. The past tense of seek is _________________.

           6. All our production workers are paid top _________________.

         7.   The applicants will be interviewed by the _____________ of directors.

         8.   Mr. and Mrs. Smith supplement their _________ by renting out rooms.

           9. A well-prepared _________________ will do well at any interview.

         ` 10.   The applicants were interviewed by a __________ of three managers.

           11.   If you’re _________________ you’re your own boss.

           12.   Could you explain to me what the _________________ of the job are?

           13.   How much _________________ will I have to pay?

         14. What is your present annual _________________?

15.   A company car, subsidized meals or low-interest loans are all __________ ____________.


         Exercise 20. Translate into English.

        1.     В интернете можно найти различные материалы для интервью, содержащие типовые вопросы.

        2.     Интервью бывают разных типов: один на один, сортировочное, проводимое несколькими сотрудниками компании, групповое.

        3.     Некоторые интервью могут проходить за обедом или по телефону.

        4.     На интервью необходимо показать приверженность компании, надежность и профессионализм.

          5.      Ошибкой на интервью было бы сразу поднимать вопросы заработной платы, отгулов, компенсаций и возмещения затрат на обучение.

        6.     Возможными вариантами ответов на вопросы о причине смены работы могут быть: переезд далеко от места предыдущей работы, невозможность продвижения по службе, однако если на предыдущем месте работы возникли проблемы, лучше сказать об этом честно.


interview materials           материалы для интервью

one-on-one interview       интервью по одному

screening interview          сортировочное интервью

lunch interview                интервью за обедом

committee interview        интервью, проводимое нескольки-

                                      ми членами компании

group interview               групповое интервью

telephone interview         телефонное интервью

salary issues                   вопросы заработной платы

commitment                   приверженность

dependability                  надежность

professionalism              профессионализм

be relocated away from the job переселиться далеко от работы

advancement                  продвижение

compensation                 компенсация

tuition reimbursement      возмещение затрат на обучение

tIme-off                          отгул


Lesson 2                                                                                      Урок 2



                                            Job hunting file


        This lesson is a big Role play which systemizes all the skills and knowledge acquired while studying this unit. By the end of the lesson you must have a file folder containing the following information:

        1) draft job description;

        2) job advertisement;

        3) resume;

        4) CV;

        5) letter of application;

        6) questions for the interview (from the point of view of the interviewer);

        7) questions for the interview (from the point of view of job seeker).

          The information about employees can be separated into two groups reflecting two very different ways in which employers can treat their employees. These two approaches were summarized by a well-known American theorist of the psychology of work, Douglas McGregor, who named them Theory X and Theory Y. Read the following text and then classify the statements above according to which theory they support

        Theory X  and  Theory Y

         In The Human Side of Enterprise, Douglas McGregor outlined two opposing theories of work and motivation. What he calls Theory X is the traditional approach to workers and working which assumes that people are lazy and dislike work, and that they have to be both threatened (for example, with losing their job) and rewarded. It assumes that most people are incapable of taking responsibility for themselves and have to be looked after. Theory Y, on the contrary, assumes that people have a psychological need to work and want achievement and responsibility.

         Later theorists argued that Theory Y makes much greater demands on both workers and managers than McGregor realized. Abraham Maslow, for example, spent a year studying a Californian company that used Theory Y, and concluded that its demands for responsibility and achievement are excessive for many people. He pointed out that there are always weak and vulnerable people, with little self-discipline, who need protection against the burden of responsibility. Even strong and healthy people need the security of order and direction.

         Managers cannot simply substitute Theory Y for Theory X. They have to replace the security provided by Theory X with a different structure of security and certainty.


         Exercise 1. Read the text again and complete the following sentences, using your own words as much as possible.

         According to Theory X, employers have to threaten workers because...

         According to Theory Y, employers should give their workers responsibilities because...

         Maslow criticized Theory Y because...

         Maslow argued that even though they might want to be given responsibilities at work...


         Exercise 2.

         One of the most important functions of a manager is to motivate the employees under his or her authority. But how? What kind of things motivate you? Which of the following factors have been or will be important for you in your choice of a job?

         Classify them in order of importance.

         good administration and good labour relations

         good working conditions: enough space, light, heat and time, not too much noise, and so on

          an adequate wage or salary, and benefits such as paid holidays, sick pay, a pension, and so on

         job security

         a challenging, interesting and creative job


         contact with people

         opportunities to travel


         Are there any other important factors that are not listed here?


         Exercise 3.

         Write a short account (about 200 words) of the factors that have been or will be important for you in your choice of a job.


         Exercise 4.

         Another well-known theorist of the psychology of work, Frederick Herzberg, has argued that many of the features listed above do not in fact motivate people. Read the following text and find out why.

         ‘Satisfiers’ and ‘Motivators’

         It is logical to suppose that things like good labour relations, good working conditions, good wages and benefits, and job security motivate workers. But in Work and the Nature of Man, Frederick Herzberg argued that such conditions do not motivate workers. They are merely ‘satisfiers’ or, more importantly, ‘dissatisfiers’ where they do not exist. ‘Motivators’, on the contrary, include things such as having a challenging and interesting job, recognition and responsibility, promotion, and so on.

         However, even with the development of computers and robotics, there are and always will be plenty of boring, mindless, repetitive and mechanical jobs in all three sectors of the economy, and lots of unskilled people who have to do them.

         So how do managers motivate people in such jobs? One solution is to give them some responsibilities, not as individuals but as part of a team. For example, some supermarkets combine office staff, the people who fill the shelves, and the people who work on the checkout tills into a team and let them decide what product lines to stock, how to display them, and so on. Other employers ensure that people in repetitive jobs change them every couple of hours, as doing four different repetitive jobs a day is better than doing only one. 

         Many people now talk about the importance of a company’s shared values or corporate culture, with which all the staff can identify: for example, being the best hotel chain, or hamburger restaurant chain, or airline, or making the best, the safest, the most user-friendly, the most ecological or the most reliable products in a particular field. Such values are more likely to motivate workers than financial targets, which ultimately only concern a few people. Unfortunately, there is only a limited number of such goals to go round, and by definition, not all the competing companies in an industry can seriously claim to be the best.


         Exercise 5.

         Read the text again and complete the following sentences, using your own words as much as possible.

         Herzberg suggested that good labour relations and working conditions . . .

         According to Herzberg, the kind of things that motivate...

         The problem with saying that only challenging, interesting and responsible jobs are motivating is that...

         Ways of motivating people in unskilled jobs include...

       The problem with trying to motivate workers by the belief that their company is the best is that...


        Exercise 6. Work in two large groups. Each group should decide on one job that would be attractive and realistic for most of the members of the class to apply for. Perhaps this could be your ‘ideal job’ – the one you’d immediately apply for if you saw it advertised.

       A) Discuss a draft job description, put it down.

        B) Write an advertisement for the job and, if possible, make copies for the other group to see. Alternatively, pin it to the classroom notice board or stick it on the white / blackboard.


        Exercise 7. Everyone in the group prepares his / her resume and C.V. for this position.


        Exercise 8. Imaging that you decided to apply for the job in your advertisement and you need to write a letter of application. Plus you should fill in the application form from lesson 3, especially for this post.


        Exercise 9. In this simulation, half the class will be playing the role of interviewers and the other half the role of candidates. Each panel of interviewers works for a firm of consultants, and they will interview several candidates for both jobs advertised.

        Decide which members of the class are going to play the roles of candidates, and which are going to be the interviewers. Follow the instructions below, according to your role.

        Interviewers work with the other member(s) of your panel. Decide what questions you are going to ask each candidate.

    - What personal qualities are you looking for?

    - Are you going to be kind to the candidates or give them a hard time?

       Interviewers read the letters of application and any CVs you receive.

       Decide which candidates look promising and what special questions you’ll ask each one.

        Candidates work with another candidate and decide what impression you’ll try to give candidates

        Some useful information for the interview preparation:

        2. Listen carefully to the questions you are asked and answer them as completely as possible.

3. Try to be as clear and precise as you can.

4. Be prepared to clarify and expand upon your answers if asked to do so.

                                Ideas for interviewer

1. Before beginning the interview think about the different aspects of a job (some are mentioned below) and write down questions you can ask in order to find information about each of these aspects from someone who has that job.

    a) organization of the company;

    b) organization of particular departments;

    c) layout of the plant or building;

    d) layout of the office;

    e) special skills or training needed for the job;

    f) daily routines;

    g) ‘atmosphere’ in the office;

    h) colleagues;

    i)  job mobility and possibilities for promotion;

    j)  likes and dislikes about the job;

    k) advantages and disadvantages of the job;

    l)  pay scale and speed of progression;

m) extra benefits or ‘perks’ such as company cars, company organised holidays, trips, children’s holiday camps;

 n) facilities such as cafeteria, coffee machines, exercise or work-out area, employee lounge areas, company sports clubs, libraries and resource centres;

        o) on-the-job training programmes or training provided elsewhere;

 p) transport facilities to and from work job-related travel;

 q)   any other questions you would like to ask (write them here).

        2. Use questions: Who? When? What? Where? Why? and How?

3. Listen carefully to what the interviewee is telling you.

4. Remember that what’s important is to get your interviewee to speak, not to speak yourself.

5. Avoid interrupting.

6. Repeat information you are given to help the interviewee clarify or rephrase what has already been said. For example: ‘You say you work long hours, what do you mean by long?’ or ‘You said there are many people in your office, is that right?’.

7. Ask questions to get even more information than you have been given. This is useful when the interviewee doesn’t seem to know what to say or how to continue. For example: ‘You have given me the disadvantages of your job, now can you find any advantages?’ or ‘What kind of benefits does your company offer its employees?’ or ‘When must people be present in your office on the flexi-time programme?’.


Exercise 10. Now it’s time for the interviews to take place. Each interview panel should have its ‘office’ in a different part of the room. Candidates go to a different ‘office’ for each interview.

        -   The Controller will tell you how long is available for each interview and work out a timetable that allows time for panels to see at least three candidates. Each panel must stick to this schedule, so that other panels are not kept waiting.

        -   Candidates between interviews you should wait in a separate area - preferably in another room or in the corridor.

        -   When the interviews have finished, all the interviewers and all the candidates should meet in separate areas.

        -   Interviewers tell the other panels about the candidates you have interviewed.

        -   You can recommend up to three people for both posts. Decide which candidates will be short-listed.

        - Candidates imagine that you’re meeting in a local cafe. Tell the other candidates how you got on in your interviews.        

        a) What mistakes did you make?

        b) Which of the panels conducted the best interviews?

        c) What advice would you give them about their interviewing techniques?

        -   Decide which panels were the best.

        -   Now meet again as a class.

        -   Interviewers announce your short lists of successful candidates. Candidates announce which panel you voted ‘top interviewers’.


                             Interviewer’s guide sheet


        1. You are going to interview someone for a job. Make a list of information about the different aspects of the job which you will need to discuss with them. Here are some ideas:

        - organization of the company;

        - organization of particular departments;

        - physical work environment;

        - daily routines;                 

        - special skills / abilities and training necessary for the job;

        - job profile (what exactly are the tasks and responsibilities of this job?)

        2.     Make a second list of questions you will ask the interviewee to check their suitability for this job.

        For example:

        - previous employment;

        - special skills;

        - attitudes towards work and colleagues;

        - why they want this job;

        - why they think they are qualified for it;

        3.     Ask the interviewee questions to see what kind of job they are looking for. What are their main criteria for a job?

        4. Try to vary questions between more open and closed ones. Closed questions can be answered by only ‘yes’ or ‘no’, but open questions require the interviewee to provide more information.

        5.     Ask questions to get even more information than you have got so far. For example: ‘You say you worked in a team in your last job. Could you describe that team to me, especially your part in it?’

        6.     Think about how to begin and end your interview. You could begin like this: ‘Good morning / afternoon. My name is Jean Dupont, and I am in charge of human resources here. I’d like to ask you a few questions.’ During the interview, make notes on each candidate’s experience or potential under these headings:

        Checklist for interviewers:

        Working under stress                

        Dealing with people in English       


        Education and training

        Work experience                           




        Observing the interviewer


        1) What was the attitude of the interviewer towards the interviewee?

        -  Did they introduce themselves?

        -  Did they put the interviewee at ease by asking a few friendly questions?

        2) Was their presentation of the job clear and precise?

        3) Were their questions for the interviewee appropriate in relation to the job?

        4) Was there progression and variation in the different types of questions? Note down a closed question you heard (answered by “yes” or “no”). Note down an open question you heard (looking for information).

        5) How did the interviewer close the interview?


    Observing the interviewee


    `   1) Were they relaxed and at ease during the interview?

        2) Did they answer the questions they were asked?

        3) Were their answers clear?

        4) Did they ask for more detailed or precise information about the job?

5)   Did they convince the interviewer that they would be good for the job?


        Exercise 11. Work in groups or as a class. Finally, discuss these questions:

        -   How did you feel at each stage of the simulation?

        -   What did you learn from doing this simulation?

        -   How did any real interviews you’ve had compare with this one?

        -   If you could do the whole simulation again, what would you do differently?


        Exercise 12. Job Quiz: with the answer to finding a career.

         It used to be so simple: almost everyone had a job for life usually straight from school. But at the dawn of a new millennium, the rules have changed.  Students need to think harder about career choices, as do the rest of us when considering a change of direction with work. The key, say occupational psychologists Robert Pryor and Neville Taylor, is to consider your personality and interests to help find your true vocation.

        Do their quiz below, and follow The Sydney Morning Heralds Good Job Guide each week. Your quiz results will be explained, and we’ll point you to the parts of the series that most apply to you. And there’ll be information on a whole range of careers in the weeks ahead.

        Step 1: Read through the questions and then print out this page so you can note down the question numbers you think apply to you. Don’t think too much about any one statement – its best to go with your first impressions. Then score one mark for each question you answer “yes” to and click on the “Answers” link on the right to find out how to use those scores to determine your personality.

        Then check your personality types, and follow the guide over the coming months to find out what careers best suit you.

        Dr. Robert Pryor, BA (Hons) Ph.D M.A.Ps.S M.A.A.C.C, has been working in vocational psychology and counselling for more than 25 years. He has published numerous journal articles, book chapters and psychological tests. Dr. Neville Taylor, BsocStud (Hons) MA (Hons) M.A.Ps.S, has been working for more than 25 years in vocational psychology, psychological assessment and educational/personal counselling. He has published a book on career choice and numerous journal articles.

        The questions:

        I like or would like to:

1) Operate earthmoving equipment.

2) Use a machine to make clothes or books.

3) Go camping or bushwalking.

4) Write a program for a computer.

5) Conduct experiments in a laboratory.

6) Compose a song or write a poem.

7) Greet people at a meeting or conference.

8) Assist people with disabilities to live more satisfying lives.

9) Patrol a building to ensure it is secure.

10)   Manage a company.

11)   Write letters and reports.

12)   Build an extension to a house.

13)   Weld parts of a car or toy together.

14)   Play outdoor sports.

15)   Read manuals for videos, mobile phones, televisions and other appliances.

16)   Calculate and use advanced statistics.

17)   Draw cartoons or paint a picture.

18)   Arrange travel for overseas visitors.

19)   Arrange activities for preschool children.

20)   Provide an armed escort while money is being transported.

21)   Sell clothes.

        22)   Organize files or records.

23)   Use power tools to make things.

24.   Operate a printing press.

25)   Have my own special pet.

26)   Operate medical equipment for X-rays, ultrasounds or for testing blood.

27)   Understand how the human body works.

28)   Decorate a home or office.

29)   Lead a tour group to interesting sites.

30)   Arrange practical help for disadvantaged families.

31)   Investigate a crime.

32)   Inform people about a new product or service.

33)   Use office equipment photocopiers, fax machines and switchboard.

34)   Fix broken appliances.

35)   Assemble metal, wood or electrical goods.

36)   Work on a farm.

37)   Use a computer to draw plans for a machine or building.

38)   Analyze what food is comprised of.

39)   Entertain an audience.

40)   Serve customers in a shop.

41)   Care for people who are ill.

42)   Rescue people in dangerous situations.

43)   Promote a major public event (e.g. concert, sports contest).

44)   Use a computer to enter and sort information.

    I am the sort of person who:

45)   Gets asked to assist with household repairs.

46)   Prefers using facts to theories.

47)   Often prefers the company of animals to people.

48)   Browses in technical bookshops.

49)   Tries to solve problems by thinking logically.

50)   Can express thoughts and feelings in original ways.

51)   Enjoys meeting new people.

52)   People turn to when they have problems.

53)   Believes strongly that every law should be obeyed all the time.

54)   Knows a lot of other people.

55)   Likes to keep things very neat and tidy.

56)   Can take responsibility for building a house or a bridge.

57)   Enjoys routine activities such as packing shirts in boxes or putting leaflets in envelopes.

58)   Cannot work indoors all day.

59)   Can pay very close attention to detail.

60)   Likes to study theories about astronomy, biology or chemistry.

61)   Has a strong and vivid imagination.

62)   Gets on well with different types of people.

63)   Tries to understand people rather than tell them what to do.

64)   Enjoys directing or commanding others.

65)   Is enthusiastic nearly all the time.

66)   Likes to know exactly what is expected.

67)   Understands how a car engine works.

68)   Is prepared to get dirty hands to do a job.

69)   Gets satisfaction from training and caring for animals.

70)   Wants to be highly skilled in a technical area.

71)   Can think analytically about an idea or argument.

72)   Is always seeking out new ideas and experiences.

73)   Likes to see others enjoying themselves.

74)   Is very interested in other people’s lives.

75)   Can intervene in a conflict situation constructively.

76)   Often becomes the leader in groups.

77)   Prefers to plan and organize what to do.

78)   Can find out what is wrong with a machine that’s not working properly.

    I am the sort of person who:

79)   Is not worried by the noise of heavy machinery.

80)   Wants to do something practical about reducing pollution.

81)   Is capable of doing things that require patience and precision.

82)   Uses ideas and concepts to find new answers to scientific problems.

83)   Has artistic flair and creativity.

84)   Can easily talk to strangers.

85)   Can handle situations in which people are upset or distressed.

86)   Is able to spot trouble with others before it occurs.

87)   Has a lot of energy.

88)   Is happy to follow rules to get something done.

89)   Can interpret plans and drawings.

90)   Will take things apart and put them back together.

91)   Enjoys seeing things grow in a garden.

92)   Understands how the Internet is structured.

93) Has an inquiring mind about the laws of Nature.

94) Prefers to develop my own way of doing things.

95) Enjoys meeting a customer needs.

96) Is glad to see other people succeed.

97)   Likes enforcing rules.

98)   Is able to persuade others.

99)   Thinks it is important to be early for appointments or meetings.