Некоммерческое акционерное общество
АЛМАТИНСКИЙ УНИВЕРСИТЕТ ЭНЕРГЕТИКИ И СВЯЗИ
Кафедра иностранных языков
Методические указания “Practical English for special purposes
for students in Information systems”
(для специальности 5В070300)
СОСТАВИТЕЛЬ: Л.Я. Коробейникова. Методические указания “Practical English for special purposes for students in Information systems” (для специальности 5В070300) - Алматы: АУЭС, 2013. – 48 с.
Данные методические указания содержат компиляцию материалов, соответствующих тематике «Информационные технологии». Методические указания снабжены рекомендациями и упражнениями по развитию релевантной лексики, обращено внимание на некоторые грамматические явления. Могут быть полезными для использования на практических занятиях и в самостоятельной работе.
Рецензент: канд. филолог. наук, доцент В.С. Козлов
Печатается по плану издания некоммерческого акционерного общества «Алматинский университет энергетики и связи» на 2013 г.
© НАО «Алматинский университет энергетики и связи», на 2013г.
Unit 1. ICT. Basic notions
1.1 With your partner, try and make a list of 10 words, terms or collocations (word combinations) which you think are attributive to the notions “information technology” and “information and communication technology”. Then exchange your findings with the group.
Information technology (IT) is the application of computers and telecommunications equipment to store, retrieve, transmit and manipulate data, often in the context of a business or other enterprise. The term is commonly used as a synonym for computers and computer networks, but it also encompasses other information distribution technologies such as television and telephones. Several industries are associated with information technology, such as computer hardware, software, electronics, semiconductors, internet, telecom equipment, e-commerce and computer services (from Wikipedia) .
Information and Communications Technology or (ICT), is often used as an extended synonym for information technology (IT), but is a more specific term that stresses the role of unified communications and the integration of telecommunications (telephone lines and wireless signals), computers as well as necessary enterprise software, middleware, storage, and audio-visual systems, which enable users to access, store, transmit, and manipulate information. (Wikipedia).
implementation – реализация, внедрение, разработка;
convert - преобразовывать, конвертировать;
retrieve – отыскивать, извлекать;
securely – безопасно, надежно;
commonly known as, referred to as - Обратите внимание на присутствие в английских текстах научного и делового характера типовых фраз, словосочетаний, которые можно принять на вооружение и использовать в своей языковой (письменной) практике. Сравните: “usually referred to as…”, в начальных фразах договоров вы встречаете “herinafter referred to as “The Agreement”.. – в дальнейшем именуемым «Соглашением»…).
Myspace (previously stylized as MySpace and My_____) is a social networking service with a strong music emphasis owned by Specific Media LLC and pop music singer and actor Justin Timberlake. Myspace was launched in August 2003 and is headquartered in Beverly Hills, California. In June 2012, Myspace had 25 million unique U.S. visitors.
balloon –воздушный шар, to balloon= to expand;
encompass = include, охватывать
umbrella – здесь имеется в виду область охвата понятия.
Text A. Information (and Communications) Technology
Information Technology (IT) is «the study, design, development, implementation, support or management of computer-based information systems, particularly software applications and computer hardware». IT deals with the use of electronic computers and computer software to convert, store, protect, process, transmit and retrieve information, securely.
Recently it has become popular to broaden the term to explicitly include the field of electronic communication so that people tend to use the abbreviation ICT (Information and Communications Technology). It is common for this to be referred to as IT & T in the Australasia region, standing for Information Technology and Telecommunications.
In the United Kingdom education system, information technology was formally integrated into the school curriculum when the National Curriculum was devised. It was quickly realized that the work covered was useful in all subjects. In the US myspace music videos are very popular. With the arrival of the Internet and the broadband connections to all schools, the application of IT knowledge, skills and understanding in all subjects became a reality. This change in emphasis has resulted in a change of name from Information Technology to Information and Communication Technology. ICT in education can be understood as the application of digital equipment to all aspects of teaching and learning. It is present in almost all schools and is of growing influence.
The growth of use of Information and Communications Technology and its tools in the field of Education has seen tremendous growth in the recent past. Technology has entered the classroom in a big way to become part of a teaching and learning process.
Today, the term «information technology» has ballooned to encompass many aspects of computing and technology, and the term is more recognizable than ever before. The information technology umbrella can be quite large, covering many fields.
Computer professionals are often called IT specialists or Business Process Consultants, and the division of a company or university that deals with software technology is often called the IT department. Other names for the latter are information services (IS) or management information services (MIS), managed service providers (MSP). IT professionals perform a variety of duties that range from installing applications to designing complex computer networks and information databases. A few of the duties that IT professionals perform may include data management, networking, engineering computer hardware, database and software design, as well as the management and administration of entire systems.
1.2 Answer these questions:
1. What does IT deal with?
2. How has the term been recently broadened?
3. Why has the use of Information and Communications Technology and its tools in the field of Education grown in the recent past? What way?
4.What are the duties that IT professionals perform?
1.3 Define the term «information technology».
computer-based information systems; software applications; broadband connections; to result in; explicitly; tremendous; convert; implementation; securely.
1.5 Translate these words and word combinations into English:
разработка, ввод в эксплуатацию; преобразовывать; аппаратные средства; накопление (информации); огромный, громадный; база данных; поиск, извлечение (информации); передавать, применение, использование, обработка и передача (информации).
1.6 In the text and the above exercises find synonyms of the following words:
keep, deposit, save;
spread, pass on, send out, conduct, transfer;
use, function, adaptation, treatment;
firmly, steadily, safely;
extract (from), elicit (from), evoke (from), take/draw out;
handle, work (up), elaborate, adapt, sort out;
transform, change, turn, converse;
particularly, in full, elaborately, comprehensively;
embrace, cover, include, take in;
carrying out, execution, realization, operation;
department; office; section;
whole, full, complete;
work out, invent, develop, create, set up;
great, enormous, vast, immense, colossal, huge.
1.7 Read the definitions of “Information system” given by different authors. Which do you think best meets academic needs and interests of an ICT student (such as you are)? Comment on correlation between the concepts “information system”, “information technology”, “information and communication technology”. Look for additional information, if necessary. Translate the first and the last definitions. Describe your “conceptual” study in a paragraph or two.
Information system (IS) is…. - an integrated set of components for collecting, storing, and processing data and for delivering information, knowledge, and digital products… The main components of information systems are computer hardware and software, telecommunications, databases and data warehouses, human resources, and procedures. The hardware, software, and telecommunications constitute information technology (IT), which is now ingrained (прочно укоренилaсь) in the operations and management of organizations. (Encyclopedia Britannica);
- a set of solutions that are integrated or grouped together to act as a System that, in some manner, acts as an enabler or facilitator of Data, Information, and/or Knowledge; a tool or technology that is leveraged (improved, enhanced) or provided by one or more IT Professionals as a result of the Services they provide within or as a result of being in the IT Industry. (if4it.com-GLOSSARY);
- совокупность содержащейся в базах данных информации и обеспечивающих её обработку информационных технологий и технических средств» (Федеральный закон РФ от 27 июля 2006 года № 149-ФЗ «Об информации, информационных технологиях и о защите информации»;
- система обработки информации, работающая совместно с организационными ресурсами, такими, как люди, технические средства и финансовые ресурсы, которые обеспечивают и распределяют информацию» (Стандарт ISO/IEC 2382-1);
- «Автоматизированная система, результатом функционирования которой является представление выходной информации для последующего использования» (Российский ГОСТ РВ 51987);
- в узком смысле информационной системой называют только подмножество компонентов, включающее базы данных, СУБД и специализированные прикладные программы. ИС в узком смысле рассматривают как программно-аппаратную систему, предназначенную для автоматизации целенаправленной деятельности конечных пользователей, обеспечивающую, в соответствии с заложенной в неё логикой обработки, возможность получения, модификации и хранения информации (Википедия);
- информационная система состоит из баз данных, в которых накапливается информация, источника информации, аппаратной части ИС, программной части ИС, потребителя информации. По мнению одних авторов, ИС включает в себя персонал, её эксплуатирующий, по мнению других, — нет (из учебника).
1.8 Read the text. Mention the points of difference between the texts in the way of defining «information technology». Answer the questions: 1) What does Information Technology include? 2) What are the examples of Information Technology? Summarize the text using the words given below. Use the information for doing the tasks of 1.7.
Text B. Defining Information Technology
Information Technology means the use of hardware, software services, and supporting infrastructure to manage and deliver information using voice, data, and video.
To further define information technology and what should be included as far
as the IT budget, the following information is provided:
Information Technology includes:
- all computers with a human interface;
- all computer peripherals which will not operate unless connected to a computer or network;
- all voice, video and data networks and the equipment, staff and purchased services necessary to operate them;
- all salary and benefits for staff whose job descriptions specifically include technology functions, i.e. network services, applications development, systems administration;
- all technology services provided by vendors or contractors;
- operating costs associated with providing information technology;
- all costs associated with developing, purchasing, licensing or maintaining software.
Agencies may wish to include other costs at their discretion. For example, an agency may wish to include digital cameras in their IT budget even though they can be operated stand-alone. Data entry personnel may be included if they are considered part of the technology staff. Costs that are excluded above may be included if they are an integral part of a computer applications or would be difficult to break out because the costs are included with other information technology costs.
Examples of Information Technology:
- Telephone and radio equipment and switches used for voice communications.
- Traditional computer applications that include data storage and programs to input, process, and output the data.
- Software and support for office automation systems such as word processing and spreadsheets, as well as the computer to run them.
- Users' PCs and software.
- Server hardware and software used to support applications such as electronic mail/group ware, file and print services, database, application/ web servers, storage systems, and other hosting services.
- Data, voice, and video networks and all associated communications equipment and software.
- Peripherals directly connected to computer information systems used to collect or transmit audio, video or graphic information, such as scanners and digitizers.
- Voice response systems that interact with a computer database or application.
- The state radio communications network.
- Computers and network systems used by teachers, trainers, and students for educational purposes.
- "Open/integrated" computer systems that monitor or automate mechanical or chemical processes and also store information used by computer applications for analysis and decision-making, such as the Metasys building management system.
- All operating costs, equipment and staff time associated with supporting the technology infrastructure of the agency, possibly including items excluded above, such as video equipment used for technology training that is included in the information systems cost center for the agency.
at their discretion – по своему усмотрению;
spreadsheet – крупноформатная таблица;
peripherals – периферийное оборудование, внешние устройства;
stand-alone – автономный, не входящий в систему;
hosting - хо́стинг — услуга по предоставлению вычислительных мощностей для физического размещения информации на сервере, постоянно находящемся в сети (обычно Интернет). Обычно под понятием услуги хостинга подразумевают как минимум услугу размещения файлов сайта на сервере, на котором запущено ПО, необходимое для обработки запросов к этим файлам (веб-сервер).
1.9 Find English equivalents for the following (text B)
Услуги, предоставляемые производителями или поставщиками; принятие решений; ввод данных; открытые компьютерные системы; автоматизировать химические процессы.
1.10 Reproduce the text in English emphasizing the information not mentioned in the English texts. Use the words given at the bottom.
Что такое информационные технологии (ИТ)? В самом широком смысле ИТ — это совокупность методов обработки различного рода данных с целью более эффективного их использования. В каждой области человеческой деятельности существует специализированный набор ИТ.
ИТ включают в себя:
- компьютеры (и их компоненты — диски, дисплеи и т.д.);
- сетевые компоненты, позволяющие компьютерам
взаимодействовать друг с другом;
- системы безопасности, которые (иногда) защищают компьютеры от заражения вирусами или проверяют, чтобы только те лица, у которых есть право доступа, пользовались принадлежащей кому-либо информацией.
С момента своего появления компьютеры сильно изменились, и сейчас ИТ включает множество компонентов, которые 5-10 лет назад не считались составляющими ИТ. Например: Интернет; мобильные телефоны, при помощи которых вы отправляете и получаете текстовые
сообщения; устройства, позволяющие узнать ваше местоположение с помощью спутника.
Сегодня ИТ — одна из наиболее динамично развивающихся областей науки и техники. Изучать ИТ или работать с ними можно даже при отсутствии дорогостоящего оборудования (что относительно по сравнению со стоимостью химической фабрики, производящей химикаты в промышленных масштабах). Это позволяет жителям многих развивающихся стран получить работу в ИТ-области, а ИТ-компаниям предлагать работу за рубежом.
Какова роль информационных технологий в современном мире? Мы можем встретить применение ИТ повсюду. Они настолько глубоко интегрированы в повседневную жизнь каждого человека, что мы порой не замечаем их присутствия. Большое значение ИТ приобретают в работе средств массовой информации, среди которых особенно выделяется Интернет.
Почему ИТ так распространены и разнообразны? В основе ИТ лежит информация. В основе человеческого общения — обмен информацией, поэтому ИТ так же разнообразны, как человеческие отношения. ИТ — неизбежность современного общества: кто лучше обрабатывает информацию, тот лучше ориентируется в мире.
Автоматизация учреждений — наиболее широко осуществляемая форма информационной технологии, имеющая важнейшее значение для их организации и опыта работы. Данный вид технологии также упорядочивает поток информации (за счет информационных систем) и используется менеджерами в управлении и координации действий предприятий. Распространение ИТ вызвало интерес к возможному их воздействию на управление, особенно к тому, ведет ли данный процесс к концентрации управления на высших уровнях или, наоборот, способствует его демократизации через организации.
Главный научно-исследовательский интерес к информационной технологии настоящего времени касается развития систем распознавания речи. Это один из аспектов всемирной программы исследования в области компьютеров «пятого поколения».
Другая важнейшая разработка — интеграция информации и телекоммуникационных технологий (например, электронная почта). Разделение на информацию и коммуникационные технологии все более разрушается: фактически они теперь являются едиными коммуникационными технологиями.
взаимодействовать — interact; заражение — infection; право доступа — access, right of access; устройство — appliance, device; местоположение — location; оборудование — equipment; выделяться — be distinguished; ориентироваться — orient(ate) oneself; упорядочивать — arrange, regulate; система распознавания — (VRS) Voice Recognition System (Software); разделение на кого-л./что-л. — division (into)
1.11 Translate the sentences.
a) into Russian:
Today we live in an information society. Information technology permeates our daily lives, while sustaining a series of urban activities. In such a society, it is extremely important to develop information systems that can transmit and process data with no failures.
Humans are made for communications and communication technologies open new possibilities.
b) into English:
В последнее время под информационными технологиями чаще всего понимают компьютерные технологии.
1. The concept of information technology and the reasons of its growing usage in many spheres of human activity.
2. The components of Information Technology.
Unit 2. Computer Software
2.1 With your partner, make a list of software programs you cannot do without in your everyday academic and personal activities. Share your estimation with the group.
Word study (1) 2.2 Note the following definitions before reading the text:
procedure - a sequence of program instructions that perform a specific task, packaged as a unit. Similar terms: subroutine, function, method, subprogram; процедура = Именованная последовательность (макро)команд, выполняемая как единое целое.
programming language - язык программирования. = Алгоритмический язык, предназначенный для записи программ и данных, любой из групп языков, используемых при подготовке программ на ЭВМ. The term programming language is sometimes used interchangeably with computer language. However, the usage of both terms varies among authors, including the exact scope of each. One usage describes programming languages as a subset of computer languages.
preceding state - предшествующая форма (строение, положение, состояние).
compile - компилировать (составлять) = подготавливать программу на выходном, как правило, машинном языке согласно программе, написанной на алгоритмическом языке программирования. Compiler - компилятор, компилирующая программа = транслятор, выполняющий перевод программы с проблемно-ориентированного языка (Problem-Oriented Language) на машинно-ориентированный (Computer Oriented Language). =A compiler is a computer program (or set of programs) that transforms source code written in a programming language (the source language) into another computer language (the target language, often having a binary form known as object code). The most common reason for wanting to transform source code is to create an executable program.
arbitrary - произвольный=subject to individual will or judgment without restriction; contingent solely upon one's discretion: an arbitrary decision.
blur - сделать неясным, затемнить, затушевывать.
utilities – утилиты = различные вспомогательные компьютерные программы, предназначенные, в основном, для обслуживания системы. = Utility software is system software designed to help analyze, configure, optimize or maintain a computer. Utility software usually focuses on how the computer infrastructure (including the computer hardware, operating system, application software and data storage) operates. Due to this focus, utilities are often rather technical and targeted at people with an advanced level of computer knowledge - in contrast to application software, which allows users to do things like creating text documents, playing video games, listening to music or viewing websites.
unburden – облегчать, сбрасывать.
partition – разделение, разбиение = в программировании: разделение динамической области, которая распределяется для шага задания или системной задачи. N.B.: In the text below the word “partition” looks like a noun, but is used as a verb.
user object – объект User = объект диспетчера окон включающий окна (Windows), меню (Menu), курсоры (Cursor), значки (Icon) обработчики (hooks), сочетания клавиш (Shortcut), мониторы, раскладки клавиатуры (Keyboard Layout) и другие внутренние объекты.
suite – набор, серия= a group of things that go together…An example of suite is bundled computer software like Microsoft Word and PowerPoint that are sold together.
increment – возрастание, увеличение, инкремент, дифференциал.
2.3 Read the following text and say whether the term “software” is general or specific. Explain.
Text A. Computer software
Computer software, or just software is a general term used to describe a collection of computer programs, procedures and documentation that perform some tasks on the computer system.
Computer software is so called to distinguish it from computer hardware, which encompasses the physical interconnections and devices required to store and execute (or run) the software. At the lowest level, software consists of a machine language specific to an individual processor. A machine language consists of groups of binary values signifying processor instructions which change the state of the computer from its preceding state. Software is an ordered sequence of instructions for changing the state of the computer hardware in a particular sequence. It is usually written in high-level programming languages that are easier and more efficient for humans to use (closer to natural language). High-level languages are compiled or interpreted into machine language object codes. The term "software" was first used in this sense by John W. Tukey in 1958. In computer science and software engineering, computer software is all computer programs.
Types of software
Practically computer systems divide software systems into three major classes: system software, programming software and application software, although the distinction is arbitrary, and often blurred.
System software controls the basic functions of a computer, e.g. operating systems, programming software and utility programs. It includes: device drivers, operating systems, servers, utilities, Windows systems.
The purpose of the system software is to unburden the applications of the programs from the details of the particular computer complex being used, including such accessory devices as communications, printers, readers, displays, keyboards, etc., and also to partition the computer resources such as memory and processor time in safe and stable manner. Programming software usually provides tools to assist a programmer in writing computer programs, and software using different programming languages in a more convenient way. The tools include:
- text editors.
IDE, or Integrated Development Environment, is a single application
that attempts to manage all these functions.
Application software lets you do specific jobs such as writing letters, doing calculations, drawing or playing games… Application software allows end users to accomplish one or more specific (not directly computer development related) tasks. Typical applications include:
- industrial automation;
- business software;
- computer games;
- telecommunications (i.e. the Internet and everything that flows on it);
- educational software;
- medical software.
Application software has a wide variety of topics. Users often see things differently than programmers. People who use modern general purpose computers (as opposed to embedded systems, analog computers, supercomputers, etc.) usually see three layers of software performing a variety of tasks: platform, application, and user software.
Platform software: Platform includes the firmware, device drivers, an operating system, and typically a graphical user interface which, in total, allows a user to interact with the computer and its peripherals (associated equipment). Platform software often comes bundled with the computer. On a PC you will usually have the ability to change the platform software.
Application software: Application software or applications is/ are what most people think of when they think of software. Typical examples include office suites and video games. Application software is often purchased separately from computer hardware. Sometimes applications are bundled with the computer, but that does not change the fact that they run as independent applications. Applications are almost always independent programs from the operating system, though they are often tailored for specific platforms. Most users think of compilers, databases, and other "system software" as applications.
User-written software: End-user development tailor systems are to meet user's specific needs. User software includes spreadsheet templates, word processor macros, scientific simulations, and scripts for graphics and animations. Even email filters are a kind of user software. Users create the software themselves and often overlook how important it is. Depending on how competently the user-written software has been integrated into default application packages, many users may not be aware of the distinction between the original packages, and what has been added by co-workers.
Computer software has to be "loaded" into the computer storage (as memory, or RAM). Once the software has been loaded, the computer is able to execute the software. This involves passing instructions from the application software, through the system software to the hardware which ultimately receives the instruction as a machine code. Each instruction causes the computer to carry out an operation — moving data, carrying out a computation, or altering the control flow of instructions.
Sometimes data movement involves moving data between memory and registers, which enable high-speed data access in the CPU. Moving data, especially large amounts of it, can be costly. So, this is sometimes avoided by
using "pointers" to data instead. Computations include simple operations such as incrementing the value of a variable data element. More complex computations can involve many operations and data elements together.
An operating system is a set of programs that control the hardware and allow people and applications to communicate with the hardware. Typical functions of the OS are handling input/output operations, running programs and organizing files on disks. The OS also gives access to networks and allows multitasking: a user can run several programs (and do various tasks) at a time. Examples are:
- the Windows family - designed by Microsoft and used on most PCs.
- Mac OS - created by Apple and used on Macintosh computers.
- Unix - found on mainframes and workstations in corporate installations, as it supports multi-users.
- Linux - developed under the GNU General Public License; anyone can copy its source code, modify and redistribute it. It is used on PCs and in appliances and small devices.
2.4 Read the text again and find the following.
1. the difference between system software and application software.
2. software that enables users and programs to communicate with hardware.
3. the meaning of “multitasking”.
4. a multi-user OS used on large, powerful computer systems.
5. the operating system that is freely distributed.
6. the operating system designed by Apple.
7. the OS created by Microsoft.
2.5 Match the terms and their Russian equivalents
1. Procedure а) окружать, заключать
2. Machine language b) разбиение, разделение
3. Increment c) последовательность
4. Compiler d) процедура
5. Templates e) прикладное программное обеспечение
6. Utilities f) машинный язык
7. Application software g) возрастание, увеличение
8. Sequence h) компилятор
9. Partition i) шаблон
10. Encompass j) утилиты
2.6 Translate the given sentences.
1. The purpose of the system software is to unburden the applications of the programs from the details.
2. High-level languages are compiled or interpreted into machine language object codes.
3. It is usually written in high-level programming languages that are easier and more efficient for humans to use (closer to natural language) than machine languages.
4. Software is an ordered sequence of instructions for changing the state of the computer hardware in a particular sequence.
5. Computations include simple operations such as incrementing the value of a variable data element.
2.7 Translate the following sentences into English. Use the information from the text.
1. Программное обеспечение — это общий термин, обозначающий целый ряд компьютерных программ и приложений, документацию и процедуры, позволяющие выполнять определенные задачи.
2. Программное обеспечение — это упорядоченная последовательность инструкций для успешной работы комплектующих компьютера.
3. В системное программное обеспечение входят драйверы, операционные системы, серверы, утилиты, системы Windows.
4. Программное обеспечение включает следующие средства (инструменты) для написания программ: компиляторы, отладки, интерпретаторы, редакторы текста.
5. Пользователь выбирает программное обеспечение в зависимости от своих потребностей.
6. Прикладное программное обеспечение включает широкий ряд тем таких, как: промышленная автоматизация, бизнес, компьютерные игры, телекоммуникация, образование, медицина и многие другие.
2.8 Complete the text with the words: advantage; keyboard; features; version; processor; graphics; device; commands
first (1)... of Windows provided a new software environment for developing and
running applications that use bitmap displays and mouse
pointing devices. Before Windows, PC users relied on the MS-DOS® method of typing (2)... at the C prompt (C:\). With Windows, users moved
a mouse to point and click their way through tasks. In addition, Windows users could switch among several concurrently running applications. The product included a set of desktop applications, including the MS-DOS file management program,a calendar, card file, notepad, calculator, clock, and telecommunications
programs, which helped users manage day-to-day activities.
Windows 2.0 took (3) ... of the improved processing
speed of the Intel 286 (4) ..., expanded memory, and inter-application
made possible through Dynamic Data Exchange (DDE). With improved graphics
support, users could now overlap windows, control screen lay out, and use
(5).... combinations to move rapidly through Windows operations. Many
developers wrote their first Windows-based applications for this release. The
third major release of the Windows platform from Microsoft offered improved
performance, advanced (6) ... with 16 colors, and full support of the more
powerful Intel 386 processor. A new wave of 386 PCs helped drive the popularity
of Windows 3.0, which offered a wide range of useful (7) ... and capabilities,
including: Program Manager, File Manager, and Print Manager, a completely
rewritten application development environment, an improved set of Windows
icons. The popularity of Windows 3.0 grew with the release of a new Windows (8)
... development kit (SDK), which helped software developers focus more on
writing applications and less on writing (9) ...drivers.
Widespread acceptance among third-party hardware and software developers helped fuel the success of Windows 3.0.
Word study (2)
Application software is any tool that functions and is operated by means of a computer, with the purpose of supporting or improving the software user's work. In other words, it is the subclass of computer software that employs the capabilities of a computer directly and thoroughly to a task that the user wishes to perform. This should be contrasted with system software (infrastructure) or middleware (computer services/ processes integrators), which is involved in integrating a computer's various capabilities, but typically does not directly apply them in the performance of tasks that benefit the user. In this context the term application refers to both the application software and its implementation. Typical examples of software applications are word processors, spreadsheets, media players and database applications.
A word processor enables you to create a document, store it electronically on a disk, display it on a screen, modify it by entering commands and characters from the keyboard, and print it on a printer. The great advantage of word processing over using a typewriter is that you can make changes without retyping the entire document… Word processors usually support these features (and a few others): Cut and paste; Find and replace; Word wrap; Font specifications; Graphics; Headers, footers and page numbering; Layout; Merge; Spell checker.. Say what you know about them, consult a dictionary if you hesitate.
A spreadsheet program helps you manage personal and business finances. Spreadsheets, or worksheets, are mathematical tables which show figures in row sand columns.
A cell can hold three types of data: text, numbers and formulae. Formulae are entries that have an equation which calculates the value to display; we can use them to calculate totals, percentages, discount…. Spreadsheets have many built-in functions, prewritten instructions that can be carried out by referring to the function by name. For example, =SUM (D2:D7) means add up all the values in the cell range D2 to D7. The format menu lets you choose font, alignment, borders, etc.
A database is essentially a computerized record-keeping system. Each unit of information you create is called a record and each record is made up of a collection of fields. Typically, a single record consists of a set of field names like: Title, First Name, Surname, Job Title, Tel. No and ID. You fill in a form with the relevant information for each field to add a new record to the database. There are different data types.
2.9 Match words with these definitions:
merge; word processor; layout; menu bar; footer; header; typeface.
1. a program used for preparing documents and letters.
2. a row of words that open up menus when selected.
3. the distinctive design of letters and characters, e.g. Arial Courier.
4. text printed in the top margin.
5. text printed in the bottom margin.
6. the way text is arranged on the page, including margins, paragraph format, columns, etc.
2.10 Match the terms with the appropriate explanation or definition:
2. software license;
3. software license agreement;
4. application program;
5. programming software;
6. system software;
a. permanent software programmed into a read-only memory;
b. the set of tools for writing computer programs;
c. a program which executes a specific task, such as word processing, database management or financial planning;
d. a computer software that provides the infrastructure over operating system which programs can operate;
e. the sets of programs that tell a computer how to do a particular job;
f. software that functions as a conversion or translation layer, also a consolidator and integrator;
g. a contract between a producer and a purchaser of computer software that is included with software;
h. a legal instrument governing the usage or redistribution of copyright protected software.
Notes: - ware
Let’s look at the suffix –ware. It refers to products of the same type. In computing, software refers to programs executed by a computer, as opposed to the physical devices on which they run - the hardware. It is commonly used to form jargon terms for classes of software.
- freeware: available free of charge, but protected by copyright: it differs from ‘free software', which can be changed and distributed subject to license.
- shareware: distributed similarly to freeware, except that it requires payment after a trial period.
- malware: designed to infiltrate or damage a computer (e.g. viruses, Trojan horses, spyware).
- spyware: designed to monitor the actions of your computer and send this data via the Net.
- adware: devised to display advertisements; some includes spyware.
- groupware: enables a group of people connected to a network to work on the same project.
2.11 What type of software do these descriptions refer to?
1. software that transmits data about your Web surfing habits without your consent.
2. also known as 'try before you buy' software.
3. short for malicious software.
4. software that periodically pops up advertising material.
5. collaborative software.
6. programs that you don't have to pay for.
2.12 Answer the questions:
- What great advantage of word processing over using a typewriter is mentioned in the text above?
- What is meant by “a computerized record-keeping system”?
- Why do you think Windows is so popular?
2.13 Write 1-3 paragraphs showing the place and role of software in ICT. Use additional sources, if necessary.
Unit 3. Data Processing Concepts
3.1 What do you think does the difference (if there is any) between “data processing” and” information processing” consist in? Explain it in a sentence or a paragraph.
Word study (1)
3.2 Read and memorize the following words and terms. Note, that here they have special, related to ICT, meaning.
data processing — (computer) data processing is any process that uses a computer program to enter data and summarize, analyze or otherwise convert data into usable information. It involves recording, analyzing, sorting, summarizing, calculating, disseminating and storing data = обработка информации (данных);
to convert — преобразовывать; переводить (e.g. PDF to Word);
to accomplish — to succeed in doing; perform; to reach the end of; complete. завершать, заканчивать; осуществлять, выполнять;
to control — управлять, регулировать;= regulate, operate;
storage — computer data storage, often called storage or memory, is a technology consisting of computer components and recording media used to retain digital data. It is a core function and fundamental component of computers. запоминающее устройство, память; хранение;
facility — устройство; средство; facilities — приспособления; возможности;
comprehensive groupings — полные, обширные, универсальные образования;
meaningful — имеющий смысл; значащий (о данных);
item — элемент; составная часть.
3.3. Read the text and explain your understanding of the terms “ data processing” and “data storage hierarchy”.
Text A. Data Processing and Data Processing Systems
The necessary data are processed by a computer to become useful information. In fact this is the definition of data processing. Data are a collection of facts — unorganized but able to be organized into useful information. Processing is a series of actions or operations that convert inputs into outputs. When we speak of data processing, the input is data, and the output is useful information. So, we can define data processing as a series of actions or operations that converts data into useful information.
We use the term data processing system to include the resources that are used to accomplish the processing of data. There are four types of resources:
people, materials, facilities, and equipment. People provide input to computers, operate them, and use their output. Materials, such as boxes of paper and printer ribbons, are consumed in great quantity. Facilities are required to house the computer equipment, people and materials. The need for converting facts into useful information is not a phenomenon of modern life. Throughout history, and even prehistory, people have found it necessary to sort data into forms that were
easier to understand. For example, the ancient Egyptians recorded the ebb and flow of the Nile River and used this information to predict yearly crop yields. Today computers convert data about land and water into recommendations to farmers on crop planting. Mechanical aids to computation were developed and improved upon in Europe, Asia, and America throughout the seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth centuries. Modern computers are marvels of an electronics technology that continues to produce smaller, cheaper, and more powerful components.
Basic data processing operations
Five basic operations are characteristic of all data processing systems: inputting, storing, processing, outputting, and controlling. They are defined as follows:
- Inputting is the process of entering data, which are collected facts, into a data processing system.
- Storing is saving data or information so that they are available for initial or for additional processing.
- Processing represents performing arithmetic or logical operations on data in order to convert them into useful information.
- Outputting is the process of producing useful information, such as a printed report or visual display.
- Controlling is directing the manner and sequence in which all of the above operations are performed.
Data storage hierarchy
It is known that data, once entered, are organized and stored in successively more comprehensive groupings. Generally, these groupings are called a data storage hierarchy. The general groupings of any data storage hierarchy are as follows:
1) Characters, which are all written language symbols: letters, numbers, and special symbols.
2) Data elements, which are meaningful collections of related characters. Data elements are also called data items or fields.
3) Records, which are collections of related data elements.
4) Files, which are collections of related records. A set of related files is called a data base or a data bank.
3.4 Answer the questions:
1) What is processing? 2) What does the term “data processing system” mean? 3) What basic operations does a data processing system include? 4) How do you explain the terms “inputting / storing / outputting” information? 5) What do you understand by resources? 6) What does data storage hierarchy mean? 7) What are the general groupings of any data storage hierarchy?
3.5 Write out English equivalents of the following word combinations.
Системы обработки информации; совокупность фактов; последовательность действий; преобразование входных данных в полезную информацию; включать ресурсы; осуществить обработку данных; обеспечивать ввод информации в компьютер; ленты принтера; размещать компьютерное оборудование; нуждаться (требовать) в приспособлениях; явление современной жизни; прогнозировать урожай зерновых культур; механические средства вычисления; ввод данных; хранение данных; первоначальная обработка данных; дополнительная обработка; выдача полезной информации; напечатанный доклад; вывод на экран для визуального восприятия; последовательность запоминания информации; записанные символы языка; элементы информации; база данных.
3.6 Suggest translation of the following noun compounds:
Data resource; storage resource; network resource; security resource; system resource.
Communication facilities; data base facilities; display facilities; management facilities.
Distance control; device control; keyboard control; position control; program control.
Computer storage; laser storage; file storage; disk storage; data storage hierarchy.
Character sequence; instruction sequence; message sequence; pulse sequence.
Batch file; catalog file; data file; help file; input file; output file; menu file; user file.
Command input; data input; disk input; file input; keyboard input; program input.
3.7 Match the terms (left) and their definitions (right)
1. Computer a) the set of instructions that direct the
operations of computers;
2. Computer literacy b) a part of a computer, entering data into
3. A program c) facts unorganized but able to be
4. Data d) the output of a data processing system;
5. Data processing e) possessing sufficient knowledge of how
computers work and what they can do to
use them as problem-solving tools;
6. Data processing system f) a series of operations that results in the
conversion of data system into useful
7. Input g) an electronic device performing
calculations on numerical data;
8. Output h) an electronic device accepting the data
processing results from the computer and
9. Useful information i) a set of related files;
7. Data bank j) the resources required to accomplish the
processing of data. These resources are
personnel, material, facilities and equipment.
3.8 Fill in the gaps with words given here:
outputs; resources; facts; operations; recommendations; inputs;
a phenomenon; computers; elements; facilities.
1. ________1 are required to house the computer equipment.
2. Data_________ 2 are also called data items or fields.
3. The need for converting ______3 into useful information is not ________4 of modern life.
4. Modern______________5 are marvels of an electronics technology.
5. Today computers convert data about land and water into __________6 to farmers on crop planting.
6. The __________7 required to accomplish the processing of data are: personnel, material, facilities and equipment.
7. Processing is a series of actions or_________8 that convert_______9 into______10.
Word study (2)
3.9 Work with a dictionary. Write out definitions corresponding to the meaning found in this Unit (basically, IT-ICT vocabulary).
manual— ручной, выполняемый вручную ;
to take advantage of smth — воспользоваться ч.-л.;
capability — способность; возможность; характеристика;
accuracy— точность; правильность; четкость (изображения);
to eliminate — устранять; удалять; отменять; ликвидировать;
to make errors— допускать ошибки (погрешности);
error-prone — подверженный ошибкам;
vulnerable — уязвимый, чувствительный;
invalid data— неверные, неправильные, недопустимые данные;
communications networks — сети передачи данных; сети связи;
instant response— мгновенный ответ (реакция);
access— доступ; обращение; обращаться, иметь доступ;
capacity of storage— объем (емкость) памяти;
to retrieve— извлекать, выбирать (данные); восстанавливать (файл);
cost-effective— экономичный; экономически оправданный;
Text B. Advantages of Computer Data Processing
Computer-oriented data processing systems or just computer data processing systems are not designed to imitate manual systems. They should combine the capabilities of both humans and computers. Computer data processing systems can be designed to take advantage of four capabilities of computers.
1. Accuracy. Once data have been entered correctly into the computer component of a data processing system, the need for further manipulation by humans is eliminated, and the possibility of error is reduced. Computers, when properly programmed, are also unlikely to make computational errors. Of course, computer systems remain vulnerable to the entry by humans of invalid data.
2. Ease of communications. Data, once entered, can be transmitted wherever needed by communications networks. These may be either earth or satellite-based systems. A travel reservations system is an example of a data communications network. Reservation clerks throughout the world may make an enquiry about transportation or lodgings and receive an almost instant response. Another example is an office communications system that provides executives with access to a reservoir of date, called a corporate data base, from their personal microcomputer work stations.
3. Capacity of storage. Computers are able to store vast amounts of information, to organize it, and to retrieve it in ways that are far beyond the capabilities of humans. The amount of data that can be stored on devices such as magnetic discs is constantly increasing. All the while, the cost per character of data stored is decreasing.
4. Speed. The speed, at which computer data processing systems can respond, adds to their value. For example, the travel reservations system mentioned above would not be useful if clients had to wait more than a few seconds for a response. The response required might be a fraction of a second.
Thus, an important objective in the design of computer data processing systems is to allow computers to do what they do best and to free humans from routine, error-prone tasks. The most cost-effective computer data processing system is the one that does the job effectively and at the least cost. By using computers in a cost-effective manner, we will be better able to respond to the challenges and opportunities of our post-industrial, information-dependent society.
3.11 Answer the questions:
1). What capabilities should data-processing systems combine when designed? 2). What are the main advantages of computers? 3). What do you know of computers accuracy? 4). What is the function of communication networks? 5). Give examples of a data communication network. 6). What do you understand by capacity storage? 7). What other values of computer data processing systems do you know? 8). What is an important objective in the design of computer data processing systems? 9). What is the most effective computer data processing system? 10). What is the best way of responding to the challenges and opportunities of our post-industrial society?
3.12 Think and comment on at least one or two disadvantages of computer-based data processing (what about viruses, for example?).
3.13 Find English equivalents of the following phrases.
Система обработки информации компьютером; система ориентирования на обработку данных компьютером; сочетать возможности человека и машины; ограничивать управление; вряд ли допустят ошибку; оставаться уязвимым; недопустимые данные; легкость осуществления связи; сеть передачи информации; системы, основанные на использовании спутников; служащие по резервированию жилья; получить мгновенный ответ; наводить справки; хранилище данных; корпоративная база данных; объем памяти; запоминать огромное количество информации; извлекать информацию; добавить значимости; упомянутый выше; доля секунды; подверженный ошибкам; экономически оправданный.
3.14 Remember the meanings of the following words and write all possible derivatives (nouns, adjectives, negative forms, etc.).
То eliminate: eliminable…………
To respond: respondent…..
3.15 Write a response on this Unit. Was there anything of interest to you?
Unit 4. Data Transmission
4.1 Data transmission, digital transmission, or digital communications, or
transfer of data are usually looked at as synonymous. Do you agree?
What channels are mostly used for data transmission at present?
point-to-point - In telecommunications, a point-to-point connection refers to a communications connection between two nodes or endpoints;
storage medium (pl: media) - A storage medium is a device for recording (storing) information (data). = носитель информации;
routing - the process of selecting paths in a network along which to send network traffic. Routing is performed for many kinds of networks, including the telephone network (circuit switching), electronic data networks (such as the Internet), and transportation networks;
computer buses - A computer bus (often simply called Bus) is part of some computers. Its role is to transfer data, signals or power between some of the components that make up a computer;
parallel ports - A parallel port is a type of interface found on computers (personal and otherwise) for connecting peripherals. In computing, a parallel port is a parallel communication physical interface;
USB - Universal Serial Bus (USB) is an industry standard developed in the mid-1990s that defines the cables, connectors and communications protocols used in a bus for connection, communication and power supply between computers and electronic devices;
Hub – a communication device that contains multiple ports;
Pulse Code Modulation (PCM)- a method used to digitally represent sampled analog signals. It is the standard form of digital audio in computers, Compact Discs, digital telephony and other digital audio applications;
Time Division Multiplexing (TDM) - a type of digital (or rarely analog) multiplexing in which two or more bit streams or signals are transferred appearing simultaneously as sub-channels in one communication channel, but are physically taking turns on the channel;
Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) - a set of communication standards for simultaneous digital transmission of voice, video, data, and other network services over the traditional circuits of the public switched telephone network. Цифровая сеть с интеграцией служб;
Asymmetric digital subscriber line (ADSL) is a type of digital subscriber line (DSL) technology, a data communications technology that enables faster data transmission over copper telephone lines than a conventional voiceband modem can provide;
IP telephony and IPTV Internet Protocol television (IPTV) is a system through which television services are delivered using the Internet protocol suite over a packet-switched network such as the Internet, instead of being delivered through traditional terrestrial, satellite signal, and cable television formats;
baud or bit rate - The difference between Bit and Baud rate is complicated and intertwining. Both are dependent and inter-related. But the simplest explanation is that a Bit Rate is how many data bits are transmitted per second. A baud Rate is the number of times per second a signal in a communications channel changes;
time constraints – t.c. basically means lack of time or shortage of time to do a particular task or activity;
versatility - многосторонность;
handshaking is an automated process of negotiation, that dynamically sets
parameters of a communications channel established between two entities before normal communication over the channel begins;
The American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII) is a character-encoding scheme originally based on the English alphabet. ASCII codes represent text in computers, communications equipment, and other devices that use text. Most modern character-encoding schemes are based on ASCII, though they support many additional characters.
Text A. Data transmission
Data transmission is essentially the same thing as digital communications, and implies physical transmission of a message as a digital bit stream, represented as an electro-magnetic signal, over a physical point-to-point or point-to-multipoint communication channel. Examples of such channels are copper wires, optical fibers, wireless communication channels, and storage media.
Data transmission is a subset of the field of data communications, which also includes computer networking or computer communication applications and networking protocols, for example, routing and switching.
Applications and History.
Data transmission is utilized in computers in computer buses and for communication with peripheral equipment via parallel ports and serial ports such us RS-232 (1969), Firewire (1995) and USB (1996). The principles of data transmission are also utilized in storage media for error detection and correction since 1951.
Data transmission is utilized in computer networking equipment such as modems (1940), local area networks (LAN) adapters (1964), repeaters, hubs, microwave links, wireless network access points (1997), etc.
In telephone networks, digital communication is utilized for transferring many phone calls over the same copper cable or fiber cable by means of Pulse Code Modulation (PCM), i.e. sampling and digitalization, in combination with Time Division Multiplexing (TDM) (1962). Telephone exchanges have become digital and software controlled, facilitating many value added services. For example the first AXE telephone exchange was presented in 1976. Since late 1980th, digital communication to the end user has been possible using Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) services. Since the end of 1990th, broadband access techniques such as ADSL, Cable modems, fiber- to-the-building (FTTB) and fiber-to-the-home (FTTH) have become wide spread to small offices and homes.
The current tendency is to replace traditional telecommunication services by packet mode communication such as IP telephony and IPTV.
Protocols and Handshaking
A protocol is an agreed-upon format for transmitting data between two devices, e.g.: computer and printer. All communications between devices require that the devices agree on the format of the data. The set of rules defining a format is called a protocol.
The protocol determines the following:
- the type of error checking to be used if any, e.g.: check digit (and what type/ what formula to be used);
- data compression method, if any, e.g.: zipped files if the file is large, like transfer across the Internet, LANs and WANs;
- how the sending device will indicate that it has finished sending a message, e.g.: in a Communications port a spare wire would be used, for serial (USB) transfer start and stop digits maybe used;
- how the receiving device will indicate that it has received a message rate of transmission (in baud or bit rate);
- whether transmission is to be synchronous or asynchronous.
In addition, protocols can include sophisticated techniques for detecting and recovering from transmission errors and for encoding and decoding data.
Handshaking is the process by which two devices initiate communications, e.g.: a certain ASCII character or an interrupt signal/ request bus signal to the processor along the Control Bus. Handshaking begins when one device sends a message to another device indicating that it wants to establish a communications channel. The two devices then send several messages back and forth that enable them to agree on a communications protocol. Handshaking must occur before data transmission as it allows the protocol to be agreed.
Asynchronous and Synchronous Data Transmission
Asynchronous and synchronous communication refers to methods by which signals are transferred in computing technology. These signals allow computers to transfer data between components within the computer or between the computer and an external network. Most actions and operations that take place in computers are carefully controlled and occur at specific times and intervals. Actions that are measured against a time reference, or a clock signal, are referred to as synchronous actions. Actions that are prompted as a response to another signal, typically not governed by a clock signal, are referred to as asynchronous signals.
Typical examples of synchronous signals include the transfer and retrieval of address information within a computer via the use of an address bus.
For example, when a processor places an address on the address bus, it will hold it there for a specific period of time. Within this interval, a particular device inside the computer will identify itself as the one being addressed and acknowledge the commencement of an operation related to that address.
In such an instance, all devices involved in ensuing bus cycles must obey the
time constraints applied to their actions — this is known as a synchronous operation. In contrast, asynchronous signals refer to the operations that are prompted by an exchange of signals with one another, and are not measured against a reference time base. Devices that cooperate asynchronously usually include modems and many network technologies, both of which use a collection of control signals to notify intent in an information exchange. Asynchronous signals, or extra control signals, are sometimes referred to as handshaking signals because of the way they mimic two people approaching one another and shaking hands before conversing or negotiating.
Within a computer, both asynchronous and synchronous protocols are used. Synchronous protocols usually offer the ability to transfer information faster per unit time than asynchronous protocols. This happens because synchronous signals do not require any extra negotiation as a prerequisite to data exchange. Instead, data or information is moved from one place to another at instants in time that are measured against the clock signal being used. This signal is usually comprised of one or more high frequency rectangular shaped waveforms, generated by special purpose clock circuitry. These pulsed waveforms are connected to all the devices that operate synchronously, allowing them to start and stop operations with respect to the clock waveform.
In contrast, asynchronous protocols are generally more flexible, since all the devices that need to exchange information can do so at their own natural rate — be these fast or slow. A clock signal is no longer necessary; instead the devices that behave asynchronously wait for the handshaking signals to change state, indicating that some transaction is about to commence. The handshaking signals are generated by the devices themselves and can occur as needed, and do not require an outside supervisory controller such as a clock circuit that dictates the occurrence of data transfer.
Asynchronous and synchronous transmission of information occurs both externally and internally in computers. One of the most popular protocols for communication between computers and peripheral devices, such as modems and printers, is the asynchronous RS-232 protocol. Designated as the RS-232C by the Electronic Industries Association (EIA), this protocol has been so successful at adapting to the needs of managing communication between computers and supporting devices, that it has been pushed into service in ways that were not intended as part of its original design. The RS-232C protocol uses an asynchronous scheme that permits flexible communication between computers and devices using byte-sized data blocks each framed with start, stop, and optional parity bits on the data line. Other conductors carry the handshaking signals and possess names that indicate their purpose — these include data terminal ready, request to send, clear to send, data set ready, etc.
Another advantage of asynchronous schemes is that they do not demand complexity in the receiver hardware. As each byte of data has its own start and stop bits, a small amount of drift or imprecision at the receiving end does not necessarily spell disaster since the device only has to keep pace with the data stream for a modest number of bits. So, if an interruption occurs, the receiving device can re-establish its operation with the beginning of the arrival of the next byte. This ability allows for the use of inexpensive hardware devices.
Although asynchronous data transfer schemes like RS-232 work well when relatively small amounts of data need to be transferred on an intermittent basis, they tend to be sub-optimal during large information transfers. This is so because the extra bits that frame incoming data tend to account for a significant part of the overall inter-machine traffic, hence consuming a portion of the communication bandwidth.
An alternative is to dispense with the extra handshaking signals and overhead, instead synchronizing the transmitter and receiver with a clock signal or synchronization information contained within the transmitted code before transmitting large amounts of information. This arrangement allows for collection and dispatch of large batches of bytes of data, with a few bytes at the front-end that can be used for the synchronization and control. These leading bytes are variously called synchronization bytes, flags, and preambles. If the actual communication channel is not a great distance, the clocking signal can also be sent as a separate stream of pulses. This ensures that the transmitter and receiver are both operating on the same time base, and the receiver can be prepared for data collection prior to the arrival of the data.
An example of a synchronous transmission scheme is known as the High-level Data Link Control, or HDLC. This protocol arose from an initial design proposed by the IBM Corporation. HDLC has been used at the data link level in public networks and has been adapted and modified in several different ways since.
A more advanced communication protocol is the Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM), which is an open, international standard for the transmission of voice, video, and data signals. Some advantages of ATM include a format that consists of short, fixed cells (53 bytes) which reduce overhead in maintenance of variable-sized data traffic. The versatility of this mode also allows it to simulate and integrate well with legacy technologies, as well as offering the ability to guarantee certain service levels, generally referred to as quality of service (QoS) parameters.
4.2 Define the term 'data transmission'.
4.3 Answer these questions:
1) What are the first examples of data transmission application?
2) Where is data transmission utilized?
3) What is the protocol?
4) When does handshaking occur?
5) What signals are referred to as asynchronous? Give some examples.
6) Which devices cooperate asynchronously?
7) What do synchronous protocols usually offer? Why?
8) Why are asynchronous protocols generally more flexible?
9) What are the advantages of asynchronous schemes?
10) Why do asynchronous data transfer schemes work well when relatively small amounts of data need to be transferred on an intermittent basis? What is an alternative?
4.4 Summarize the text using the words from Vocabulary Exercises.
4.5 Give Russian equivalents of the following words and expressions:
Optional; drift; permit; point-to-point dispatch; routing; commence; clock signal intermittent; value added; dispense with; check; digit; bandwidth; handshaking; optical fiber; parity; clock circuitry; prerequisite.
4.6 Replace the italicized words and expressions with synonyms from the previous exercise. Translate the sentences into Russian.
1) Data transmission implies physical transmission of a message as a digital bit stream, represented as an electro-magnetic signal, over a physical double-point or multipoint communication channel.
2) Examples of such channels are copper wires, light pipes, wireless communication channels, and storage media.
3) Telephone exchanges have become digital and software controlled, facilitating many cost attached services.
4) Connection acknowledgement must occur before data transmission as it allows the protocol to be agreed.
5) As each byte of data has its own start and stop bits, a small amount of divergence or imprecision at the receiving end does not necessarily spell disaster since the device only has to keep pace with the data stream for a modest number of bits.
6) Data transmission is a subset of the field of data communications, which also includes computer networking or computer communication applications and networking protocols, for example tracing and switching.
7) Synchronous signals do not require any extra negotiation as a precondition to data exchange.
8) The extra bits that frame incoming data tend to account for a significant part of the overall inter-machine traffic, hence consuming a portion of the communication throughput.
9) Actions that are measured against a time reference, or a beat wave, are referred to as synchronous actions.
10) The devices that behave asynchronously wait for the handshaking signals to change state, indicating that some transaction is about to start.
11) The handshaking signals are generated by the devices themselves and can occur as needed, and do not require an outside supervisory controller such as a synchronization diagram that dictates the occurrence of data transfer.
12) The RS-232C protocol uses an asynchronous scheme that allows flexible
communication between computers and devices using byte-sized data blocks each framed with start, stop, and additional even bits on the data line.
13) Although asynchronous data transfer schemes like RS-232 work well when relatively small amounts of data need to be transferred on a time-dependent basis, they tend to be sub- optimal during large information transfers.
14) To do without the extra handshaking signals and overhead, instead synchronizing the transmitter and receiver with a clock signal or synchronization information contained within the transmitted code before transmitting large amounts of information allows for collection and large batches of bytes of data sending, with a few bytes at the front-end that can be used for the synchronization and control.
4.7 Translate the words/expressions into English.
отправка, отправление; двухточечный, двухпунктовый; оптоволокно; начинать(ся); дополнительный, необязательный; допускать, позволять; маршрутизация (в сети); схема синхронизации; обходиться без чего-л.; пропускная способность; предпосылка, предварительное условие; нестационарный (о сигнале); синхросигнал, тактовый сигнал; обмен с квитированием; подтверждение установления/квитирование связи; четность; добавленная стоимость; отклонение, смещение; контрольный разряд.
4.8 Read the next text and answer the questions:
1) What does the type of transmission mode used depend on? 2) What are the methods by which signals are transferred in parallel transmission? 3) How does serial transmission occur? 4) How can the types of data transmission be applied and illustrated?
Types of Data Transmission
Digital data transmission can occur in two basic modes: serial or parallel. Data within a computer system is transmitted via parallel mode on buses with the width of the parallel bus matched to the word size of the computer system. Data between computer systems is usually transmitted in bit serial mode. Consequently, it is necessary to make a parallel-to-serial conversion at a computer interface when sending data from a computer system into a network
and a serial-to-parallel conversion at a computer interface when receiving information from a network. The type of transmission mode used may also depend upon distance and required data rate.
In parallel transmission, multiple bits (usually 8 bits or a byte/character) are sent simultaneously on different channels (wires, frequency channels) within the same cable, or radio path, and synchronized to a clock. Parallel devices have a wider data bus than serial devices and can therefore transfer data in words of one or more bytes at a time. As a result, there is a speedup in parallel transmission bit rate over serial transmission bit rate. However, this speedup is a tradeoff versus cost since multiple wires cost more than a single wire, and as a parallel cable gets longer, the synchronization timing between multiple channels becomes more sensitive to distance. The timing for parallel transmission is provided by a constant clocking signal sent over a separate wire within the parallel cable; thus parallel transmission is considered synchronous.
In serial transmission, bits are sent sequentially on the same channel (wire) which reduces costs for wire but also slows the speed of transmission. Also, for serial transmission, some overhead time is needed since bits must be assembled and sent as a unit and then disassembled at the receiver. Whilst only one bit is sent at a time, high transfer rates are possible. This can be used over longer distances as a check digit or Parity bit can be sent along it easily.
Serial transmission can be either synchronous or asynchronous. In synchronous transmission, groups of bits are combined into frames and frames are sent continuously with or without data to be transmitted. In asynchronous transmission, groups of bits are sent as independent units with start/stop flags and no data link synchronization, to allow for arbitrary size gaps between frames. However, start/stop bits maintain physical bit level synchronization once detected.
Serial transmission is between two computers or from a computer to an external device located some distance away. Parallel transmission either takes place within a computer system (on a computer bus) or to an external device located a close distance away.
A special computer chip known as a universal asynchronous receiver transmitter (UART) acts as the interface between the parallel transmission of the computer bus and the serial transmission of the serial port. UARTs differ in performance capabilities based on the amount of on-chip memory they possess.
Examples of parallel mode transmission include connections between a computer and a printer (parallel printer port and cable). Most printers are within 6 meters or 20 feet of the transmitting computer and the slight cost for extra wires is offset by the added speed gained through parallel transmission of data.
Examples of serial mode transmission include connections between a computer and a modem using the RS-232 protocol. Although an RS-232 cable can theoretically accommodate 25 wires, all but two of these wires are for overhead control signaling and not data transmission; the two data wires perform simple serial transmission in either direction. In this case, a computer may not be close to a modem, making the cost of parallel transmission prohibitive — thus speed of transmission may be considered less important than the economical advantage of serial transmission.
Serial transmission via RS-232 is officially limited to 20 Kbps for a distance of 15 meters or 50 feet. Depending on the type of media used and the amount of external interference present, RS-232 can be transmitted at higher speeds, or over greater distances, or both. Parallel transmission has similar distance-versus-speed tradeoffs, as well as a clocking threshold distance. Techniques to increase the performance of serial and parallel transmission (longer distance for same speed or higher speed for same distance) include using better transmission media, such as fiber optics or conditioned cables, implementing repeaters, or using shielded/multiple wires for noise immunity.
To resolve the speed and distance limitations of serial transmission via RS-232, several other serial transmission standards have been developed including RS-449, V.35, Universal Serial Bus (USB), and IEEE-1394 (Firewire). Each of these standards has different electrical, mechanical, functional, and procedural characteristics. The electrical characteristics define voltage levels and timing of voltage level changes. Mechanical characteristics define the actual connector shape and number of wires. Common mechanical interface standards associated with parallel transmission are the DB-25 and Centronics connectors. The Centronics connector is a 36-pin parallel interface that also defines electrical signaling. Functional characteristics specify the operations performed by each pin in a connector; these can be classified into the broad categories of data, control, timing, and electrical ground. The procedural characteristics or protocol define the sequence of operations performed by pins in the connector.
parallel-to-serial conversion; on-chip memory; prohibitive; Kbps; clock distance; threshold; shield; Centronics.
4.9 Write a summary to the text.
4.10 Read the text and speak on the importance of protocols. Ask 4 questions covering the essential problems of the texts to your group-mates.
In computing, a protocol is a convention or standard that controls or enables the connection, communication, and data transfer between two computing endpoints. In its simplest form, a protocol can be defined as the rules governing the syntax, semantics, and synchronization of communication. Protocols may be implemented by hardware, software, or a combination of the two.
At the lowest level, a protocol defines the behavior of a hardware connection.
It is difficult to generalize about protocols because they vary so greatly in purpose and sophistication. Most protocols specify one or more of the following properties:
- detection of the underlying physical connection (wired or wireless), or the existence of the other endpoint or node; handshaking;
- negotiation of various connection characteristics; how to start and end a message; how to format a message;
- what to do with corrupted or improperly formatted messages (error correction);
- how to detect unexpected loss of the connection, and what to do next;
- termination of the session or connection.
The widespread use and expansion of communications protocols is both a prerequisite for the Internet, and a major contributor to its power and success. The pair of Internet Protocol (or IP) and Transmission Control Protocol (or TCP) are the most important of these, and the term TCP/IP refers to a collection (or protocol suite) of its most used protocols. Most of the Internet's communication protocols are described in the RFC documents of the Internet Engineering Task Force (or IETF).
The protocols in human communication are separate rules about appearance, speaking, listening and understanding. All these rules, also called protocols of conversation, represent different layers of communication. They work together to help people successfully communicate. The need for protocols also applies to network devices. Computers have no way of learning protocols, so network engineers have written rules for communication that must be strictly followed for successful host-to-host communication. These rules apply to different layers of sophistication such as which physical connections to use, how hosts listen, how to interrupt, how to say good-bye, in short how to communicate, what language to use and many others. These rules, or protocols, that work together to ensure successful communication are groups into what is known as a protocol suite.
Object-oriented programming has extended the use of the term to include the programming protocols available for connections and communication between objects.
Generally, only the simplest protocols are used alone. Most protocols, especially in the context of communications or networking, are layered together into protocol stacks where the various tasks listed above are divided among different protocols in the stack.
Whereas the protocol stack denotes a specific combination of protocols that work together, a reference model is a software architecture that lists each layer and the services each should offer. The classic seven-layer reference model is the OSI model, which is used for conceptualizing protocol stacks and peer entities. This reference model also provides an opportunity to teach more general software engineering concepts like hiding, modularity, and delegation of tasks. This model has endured in spite of the demise of many of its protocols (and protocol stacks) originally sanctioned by the ISO. The OSI model is not the only reference model however. Common protocols: IP (Internet Protocol) UDP (User Datagram Protocol) TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol) HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol) FTP (File Transfer Protocol) Telnet (Telnet Remote Protocol) SSH (Secure Shell Remote Protocol) POP3 (Post Office Protocol 3) SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol) IMAP (Internet Message Access Protocol).
In general, protocol testers work by capturing the information exchanged between a Device Under Test (DUT) and a reference device known to operate properly. In the example of a manufacturer producing a new keyboard for a personal computer, the Device Under Test would be the keyboard and the reference device, the PC. The information exchanged between the two devices is governed by rules set out in a technical specification called a «communication protocol». Both the nature of the communication and the actual data exchanged are defined by the specification. Since communication protocols are state-dependent (what should happen next depends on what previously happened), specifications are complex and the documents describing them can be hundreds of pages.
The captured information is decoded from raw digital form into a human-readable format that permits users of the protocol tester to easily review the exchanged information. Protocol testers vary in their abilities to display data in multiple views, automatically detect errors, determine the root causes of errors, generate timing diagrams, etc.
Some protocol testers can also generate traffic and thus act as the reference device. Such testers generate protocol-correct traffic for functional testing, and may also have the ability to deliberately introduce errors to test for the DUT's ability to deal with error conditions.
Protocol testing is an essential step towards commercialization of standards-based products. It helps to ensure that products from different manufacturers will operate together properly («interoperate») and so satisfy customer expectations. This type of testing is of particular importance for new emerging communication technologies.
Manufacturers of protocol test equipment include Absolute Analysis, which has been providing protocol test solutions to developers since 1991.
termination; IETF; RFC; OSI; hiding; endure
4.11 Translate the text into English.
Передача данных — область электросвязи, имеющая целью передачу информации, представленной на основе заранее установленных правил в формализованном виде (знаками или непрерывными функциями), и предназначенная для обработки техническими средствами (например, вычислительными машинами) или уже обработанная ими. Такую информацию называют данными. Главное отличие цифровой передачи данных от телеграфной, телефонной и др. видов связи заключается в том, что получателем или отправителем информации (данных) является машина, а не человек (при передаче данных от ЭВМ к ЭВМ человек отсутствует на обоих концах линии связи). Передача данных нередко требует более высокой надежности, большей скорости и верности передачи, что, как правило, обусловлено большей важностью передаваемой информации и невозможностью логического контроля ее человеком в процессе передачи и приема. Вместе с вычислительной техникой передача данных служит технической базой информационно-вычислительных систем, в том числе автоматизированных систем управления (АСУ) различного уровня. Применение средств передачи данных ускоряет сбор и распределение информации, позволяет абонентам, имеющим недорогое оборудование, пользоваться услугами мощных вычислительных центров.
4.12 Talking points: Data transmission: its definition, applications and history; Wide-world importance of protocols.
Unit 5 Computer Networks
Start-up and Word study
5.1 With the help of this diagram, try to describe the function of these components of a typical network system:
1) a file server; 2) a bridge; 3) a router; 4) a backbone; 5) a LAN;
6) a gateway; 7) a modem.
Components of a typical LAN :
Bottom: Unix network; Twisted pair cabling; Computers with networks interface cards; Local printer
Middle: Fiber-optic backbone; Bridge; Shared network printer; Shared hard disk
Top: Another Novell LAN; Novell LAN; File server; Router – Internet.
5.2 Now read these definitions to check your answers. You may also refer to the Glossary. Memorize the definitions.
A bridge is a hardware and software combination used to connect the same type of networks. Bridges can also partition a large network into two smaller ones and connect two LANs that are nearby each other.
A router is a special computer that directs communicating messages when several networks are connected together. High-speed routers can serve as part of the Internet backbone.
A gateway is an interface that enables dissimilar networks to communicate, such as two LANs based on different topologies or network operating systems.
A backbone is the main transmission path, handling the major data traffic, connecting different LANs together.
A LAN is a network contained within a small area, for example a company department.
A modem is a device for converting digital signals to analogue signals and vice versa to enable a computer to transmit and receive data using an ordinary telephone line.
Grammar notes: Relative clauses with a participle.
Relative clauses with a participle are often used in technical descriptions. They allow you to provide a lot of information about a noun using as few words as possible.
Study these examples.
1. Computers equipped with wireless NICs.
2. A network printer connected to a wireless print server.
3. A modem providing access to the Internet.
4. A fixed LAN linking computers with cables.
We can use the passive participle as in examples 1 and 2.
1. Computers equipped with wireless NICs. = computers which are equipped…
2. A network printer connected to a wireless print server.
= a network printer which is connected…
We can use an active participle as in examples 3 and 4.
3. A modem providing access to the Internet. = modem which provides access to the Internet.
4. A fixed LAN linking computers with cables. = A fixed LAN which links computers with cables.
5.3 Complete these definitions with the correct participle of the verb given in brackets.
1. A gateway is an interface (enable) dissimilar networks to communicate.
2. A bridge is a hardware and software combination (use) to connect the same type of networks.
3. A backbone is a network transmission path (handle) major data traffic.
4. A router is a special computer (direct) messages when several networks are linked.
5. A network is a number of computers and peripherals (link) together.
6. A LAN is a network (connect) computers over a small distance such as within a company.
7. A server is a powerful computer (store) many programs (share) by all the clients in the network.
8. A client is a network computer (use) for accessing a service on a server.
9. A thin client is a simple computer (comprise) a processor and memory, display, keyboard, mouse and hard drives only.
10. A hub is an electronic device (connect) all the data cabling in a network.
Text A Basic Network Anatomy
A computer network is any computer system that links two or more computers. Why is networking important? The answers to this question revolve around the three essential components of every computer system:
- Hardware. Networks allow people to share computer hardware, reducing costs and making it possible for more people to take advantage of powerful computer equipment.
- Software. Networks allow people to share data and software programs, increasing efficiency and productivity.
- People. Networks allow people to work together in ways that are otherwise difficult or impossible.
Important information is hidden in these three statements. But before we examine them in more detail, we need to look at the hardware and software that make computer networks possible.
As we know, information travels among the CPU, memory, and other components within a computer as electrical impulses that move along collections of parallel wires called buses. A network extends the range of these information pulses, allowing them to travel to other computers. A computer may have a direct connection to a network – for example, it might be one of many machines linked together in an office – or it might have remote access to a network through a phone line and a dial-up connection. For connecting directly the computer needs a network interface card, for connecting through a phone line it generally needs a modem.
5.4 List most essential components of a computer.
5.5 Answer the questions:
- What is networking?
- Why is networking important?
- “Connections rather than computations?”. Would you comment on the statement, that “ the era of computers is over“ ( is being replaced by the era of communication between computers)?
5.6 Match these words ( word partnerships) to their meanings.
1. bus a) computer equipment
2. CPU b) a piece of equipment that allows you to connects computer to a telephone line
3. network c) a set of wires that send information from one part of a computer system to another
4. remote d) a connection that allows two pieces of computer equipment to work together
5. interface e) a set of computers connected to each other
6. modem f) operated from far away; distant
7. hardware g) the part of a computer that controls what it does
8. software h) the part of a computer in which information, instruction and programs are stored
9. dial-up (service or system) i) used from your computer by means of a telephone line
10.memory j) computer programs
5.7 Complete these sentences (or phrases) with words (word partnerships) from ex.5.6
1. For connecting directly the computer needs a n______ i_______ card , for connecting through a phone line it generally needs a m______.
2. The point-and-click int______ made life easier for users.
3. All staff have access to a computer n______.
4. We should keep in mind the ever-changing nature of computing h_______ and s_______.
5. A d___-__ s______ or s_____ can be used from your computer by means of a telephone line.
6. M_____ bank is the part of a computer where information is stored.
7. All these theories seem very r_ m_ _e from our everyday experience in the classroom.
8. A b_ _ is a set of wires that send information from one part of a computer system to another.
5.8 Find words and phrases corresponding to the following Russian translations.
Рассмотреть более подробно; снизить стоимость; воспользоваться чем-л.; делиться информацией; повысить эффективность; дистанционный доступ.
5.9 Match these words and phrases (on the left) to their definitions or/and Russian equivalents (on the right). Consult a dictionary, if necessary.
1. Computation a) the activity or skill of using computers or programming computers
2. Computing b) the process of calculating a number or amount
3. Computable c) stored on computer, done using a computer
4. Computational d) able to use a computer
5. Compute e) to use computers to do a particular kind of work
6. Computed f) involving the use of computers, relating to the ability to calculate numbers
7. Computerate g) to calculate a number or amount
8. Сomputerize h) исчислимый
Text B The Network Interface
All personal computers have ports—sockets that allow information to pass in and out. Parallel ports, commonly used to connect printers to a computer, allow bits to pass through in groups of 8, 16, or 32. Serial ports, on the other hand, require bits to pass through one at a time. Macintoshes don't have built-in parallel ports; they generally have two multipurpose serial ports for connecting to printers, modems, and some networks. The standard serial port on an IBM-compatible computer is designed to attach peripherals like modems—not to connect directly to networks.
A network interface card (NIC) adds an additional serial port to the computer— one that's especially designed for a direct network connection. The network interface card controls the flow of data between the computer's RAM and the network cable. At the same time it converts the computer's internal low-power signals into more powerful signals that can be transmitted through the network. The type of card depends on the type of network connection needed. The most common types of networks today require some kind of Ethernet card in each computer. Ethernet is a popular networking architecture developed in 1976 at Xerox. (Most Macintoshes include an Ethernet port on the main circuit board and don't need an additional card to connect to an Ethernet network.) Details vary—and there are many details— but the same general principles apply to all common network connections.
In the simplest networks two or more computers are linked by cables. But direct connection is impractical for computers that are miles or oceans apart. For computers to communicate over long distances, they need to transmit information through other paths.
5.10 Find words and phrases corresponding to the following Russian translations.
Встроенный; с другой стороны…; общие принципы; преобразовывать; зависит от; специально предназначенный для; многоцелевой; совместимый; самые распространенные виды сетей; поток информации.
5.11 Choose the correct word to complete each sentence.
Compute, computing, computation, computerize, computerization.
a) The ____________of the manufacturing division will be expensive in the short term, but cost-effective in the long term.
b) We should be able to_________ our profit for next year fairly accurately with the new programme.
c) I could tell from all the__________ on the board that a maths leson was in progress.
5.12 Decide whether these statements are true or false.
a) According to the text, most Macintoshes need an additional card to connect to an Ethernet network
b) As we can see from the text, the same general principles apply to all common network connections.
c) For IBM-compatible computers to communicate over long disnances, they need to be linked by cables.
d) All the most promising technologies are chiefly due to communication between computers- that is to connections rather than to computations.
5.13 From text 2, write out two sentences with the Passive Voice.
5.14 Answer the following questions.
1. What are ports, what are ports used for?
2. Do all personal computers have built-in parallel ports?
3. What are advantages and disadvantages of using cables for linking computers in the networks?
4. The best way to transmit computer information is through dial-up connection. Do you agree?
5.15 Match the following words and acronyms to their characteristics (one for each).
1. NIC a) connects a computer’s serial port to a telephone line
2. Ethernet b) includes a collection of computers and peripherals
3. Macintoshes c) pass messages between networks
4. modem d) coordinates communication throughout the network
5. routers e) don’t have built-in parallel ports
6. WAN f) was developed in 1976 at Xerox
7. LAN g) adds an additional serial port to the computer
8. NOS h) extends over a long distance
5.16 Suggest possible translations of the sentences from the text.
a) Details vary—and there are many details— but the same general principles apply to all common network connections.
b) Serial ports, on the other hand, require bits to pass through one at a time.
5.17 Read the following quotation and discuss it in pairs. Then tell the class what you think about it.
“The most desirable interaction with a network is one in which the network itself is invisible and unnoticeable. Planners often forget that people do not want to use systems at all – easy or not. What people want is to delegate a task and not to worry about how it is done.”
- Nicholas Negroponte, director of MIT’s Media Lab
Text C Networks Near and Far
“Never in history has distance meant less” —Alvin Toffler in Future Shock
Computer networks come in all shapes and sizes, but most can be categorized as either local area networks or wide area networks.
A local area network (LAN) is a network in which the computers are close to each other, usually in the same building. A typical local area network includes a collection of computers and peripherals; each computer and shared peripheral is an individual node on the network. Nodes are directly connected by cables, which serve as information highways for transporting data between machines. In a wireless network each node has a tiny radio or infrared transmitter connected to its network port so it can send and receive data through the air rather than through cables. Wireless network connections are especially convenient for workers who are constantly on the move, but they aren't common in offices because they cost more than other types of networks.
All computers on a LAN do not have to be the same brand or use the same operating system. For example, a single network might include Macintoshes, Windows PCs, and UNIX workstations. The computers can be connected in many different ways, and many rules and industry-defined standards dictate what will and won't work. Most organizations depend on network administrators to take care of the behind-the-scenes details so others can focus on using the network.
A wide area network (WAN), as the name implies, is a network that extends over a long distance. In a WAN each network site is a node on the network. "Wide area networks are possible because of the web of telephone lines, microwave relay towers, and satellites that span the globe. Some WANs are private operations designed to link corporate offices. Others are public or semipublic networks used by people from a variety of organizations.
In today's internetworked world, communication frequently happens between LANs and WANs. Bridges, routers, and gateways are hardware devices that can pass messages between networks and, in some cases, translate messages so they can be understood by networks that obey different software protocols.
5.18. Read the quotation and discuss it in pairs. (“Never in history has distance meant less”). Then tell the class what you think about it.
5.19. Match these words and phrases (on the left) to their definitions or/and Russian equivalents (on the right). Consult a dictionary, if necessary.
1.Unix a) a point on a computer network where a message can be created or received
2. node b) suggest
3. protocol c)устройство или программа маршрутизации
4. categorize d) often
5. router e) a written agreement between countries and a method of sending information between computers
6. gateway f) a computer operating system that can be used by
several people at the same time
7. imply g) classify
8. frequently h) a way of connecting two computer networks so that
information can pass between them.
5.20 Match each noun or adjective in column 1 to a noun (nouns) in column 2 to make word partnerships. Use the words only once.
1. industry-defined a) transmitters
2. behind-the scenes b) protocols
3. semipublic c) details
4. microwave relay d) standards
5. software e) highways
6. information f) towers and satellites
7. infrared g) networks
5.21 Decide whether these statements are true or false.
a) All computers on a LAN are always the same brand and have to use the same operating system.
b) Some WANs are public or semipublic networks. It means that they are designed to link corporate offices.
c) Computer networks have to obey different software protocols and industry defined standards.
d) Wireless network connections are especially convenient for people who work in different places, who are constantly on the move.
e) Most organizations prefer wireless network connections because they don’t cost more than other types of networks.
Text D Computer networks today: A Reality Check
Computer chat lines can become every bit as addictive as cocaine. I have been hooked on both, and it was easier to get off coke.
—from a private letter of an American in 1996.
Computer networks and on-line services are, for a small but growing number of people, as important as TVs and phones. People who spend lots of time on line learn to live with the shortcomings of today's network technology: busy signals, protocol problems, response delays, system failures, endless menu layers, inconsistent commands, high costs, and unexplainable restrictions. For serious networkers these problems are small when compared with the riches offered by the network: instantaneous communication, unlimited information, and an on-line community of kindred spirits.
Millions of people spend hours on line every day. For a few hard-core networkers the world on the other side of the modem is more real and more interesting than the everyday physical world. While this may seem strange, it's not unique. Many people feel the same way about television, spectator sports, or romance novels.
For most of us the keyboard-and-characters interface is simply too primitive to be addictive. The graphical user interfaces of the World Wide Web and America Online are more fun, but far from irresistible. But not all computer-based communication media are built around keyboards and mouse clicks.
5.22 True or false? (according to the text).
1. The number of people who need on-line services hasn’t changed over the past six years.
2. People spending much time on line have to put up with multiple drawbacks of today’s network technology.
3. The graphical user interfaces of the World Wide Web are becoming dangerously addictive for millions of people visiting Internet sites.
5.23 Try to find in the text the phrases, which could be translated into Russian as 1.«сообщество родственных душ», and 2.«сетевой костяк», или «истинные приверженцы интернета».
5.24 Work in pairs. One student makes a list of the riches offered by the network, all possible advantages. The other student writes down all disadvantages, possible harmful features and shortcomings of today’s network technology. Report your results to each other, then discuss them with the class.
5.25What parts of speech are these words? Write antonyms for them using prefixes if possible.
5.26 Read the following text (E) and answer these questions.
1 What is the objective of the W3C Consortium?
2 Why is the early Web described as the read-only Web?
3 What web phenomena illustrate online collaboration and sharing among users?
4 Which search tool lets you answer questions asked by other people?
5 Which web-based program can help you carry out office tasks?
6 What is the RDF language used for?
7 Which popular site exemplifies the Web as a 3-D environment?
Text E Past, present and future of the Web
The Web is constantly evolving. Websites and user preferences change over time, and new online communities are formed every day. To describe the different stages in web evolution, some experts use numbers like Web 1.0, Web 2.0 and Web 3.0.
The Web was invented by Tim Berners-Lee and Robert Cailliau at CERN in 1991. The former founded the W3C Consortium in 1994 to ensure compatibility between web technologies. This consortium set the standards of the Web as we know it today, including URLs, the HTTP protocol and the HTML language. The early Web contained static information in the form of text, pictures and hyperlinks. It is referred to as the read-only Web, because it only allowed users to search for information and read it.
With the arrival of Java in 1995 and web browsers that supported audio and video plug-ins, the Web became more dynamic and interactive, allowing users to play music and video. This was the era of the dial-up modem and the dot-com boom. It was the time of commercial online services, the AltaVista search engine, and webmail with Hotmail.
This is the current generation of the Web, described as the read-write Web.
The Web has become a place of collaboration, citizen journalism and user-generated content. This is exemplified by phenomena such as blogs, collective editing (Wikipedia), video-sharing (YouTube), social networking (Facebook) and social search (Yahoo! Answers). Yahoo! Answers is a site that allows users to ask and answer questions posed by other users. Another example is Flickr, a photo-sharing site that allows users to upload photos and label them with folksonomies, keyword tags that help you find images about a certain topic.
A lot of software is executed from scripts embedded in web pages. Two examples are Google Maps, a free mapping service, and ThinkFree Online, a free office suite that runs inside a browser, imitating PC applications such as word processing, spreadsheets and presentations. Other features of Web 2.0 are the extension of ADSL connections and the emergence of the mobile Internet.
Web 3.0 might be defined as a third generation of the Web, enabled by the convergence of several trends:
• Fast connections and ubiquitous computing, where users have internet access anytime, anywhere.
• Open-source software and open data; one example is Creative Commons licenses, which let people copy and distribute the work under certain conditions.
• Applications hosted on the Web and operated via voice and hand or eye gestures.
• The Semantic Web, which uses languages such as RDF (Resource Description Framework) to publish data so that it can be manipulated and understood by intelligent software agents; RDF provides a method for classification of data in order to improve searching and navigation.
• The three-dimensional Web, where sites are transformed into 3-D shared spaces, similar to the virtual reality community of Second Life.
5.27 Find the following in the text.
1 a program that enables you to view web pages……..
2 software which finds information on the Web by looking for words which you have typed in………
3 a common term for any web-based email……..
4 websites that contain text entries in reverse chronological order about a particular topic……….
5 a collaborative website whose content can be edited by its visitors…….
6 terms used to categorize web content with tags………
7 software that is freely distributed………
5.28 Complete these sentences with words from the box.
search for; online; upload; mobile.
1 Commercial _________services function like ISPs, but also provide their own unique content.
2 Wireless technologies are enabling the next major wave – the______Internet.
3 How do I______information on the Web?
4 You can_________photos to Flicr via email.
5.29 Write an essay (80-110 words) about how the Internet contributes to your academic achievements.
5.30. Talking point: ICT: further developments.
1. Fabre,E.M., Esteras S.R. Professional English in Use. Cambridge Universiy Press..
2. Башмакова И.С. Английский язык для студентов технических вузов. Учебное пособие.- М.: Филоматис. Изд. «Омега-Л», 2010.
3. Музафарова А.Д. English for ICT students. Уч.пособие для студентов направления «Информатика и вычислительная техника».- Екатеринбург, 2009.
4. Радовель В.А. Английский язык. Основы компьютерной грамотности. Ростов-на-Дону, «Феникс», 2011.
5. Бобылева С.В., Жаткин Д.Н. Английский язык для сферы информационных технологий и сервиса.- Ростов-на-Дону, 2009.
Unit 1 ICT. Basic notions
Unit 2 Computer Software
Unit 3 Data Processing Concepts
Unit 4 Data Transmission
Unit 5 Computer Networks
Сводный план 2013 г., поз. 225
Людмила Яковлевна Коробейникова
Методические указания “Practical English for special purposes
for students in Information systems”
(для специальности 5В070300)
Редактор А.Т. Сластихина
Специалист по стандартизации Н.К. Молдабекова
Подписано в печать__________
Формат 60х84 1/16
Тираж 50 экз
Бумага типографская №1
Объем _3.1_уч. – изд. л.
Заказ______. Цена 310т.
Некоммерческого акционерного общества
«Алматинский университет энергетики и связи»
050013, Алматы, Байтурсынова, 126