Некоммерческое акционерное общество


Кафедра Иностранные языки



Лексический минимум.

Деловое общение для студентов всех форм обучения всех специальностей


Алматы 2009 

СОСТАВИТЕЛЬ: Б.Ә.Төлеген Английский язык. Лексический минимум. Деловое общение для студентов всех форм обучения всех специальностей – Алматы: АИЭС, 2009. – 38 с. 

Цель данной методической работы развить у студентов навыки и умения использования лексического материала в письменной и устной речи. Лексический материал методической работы полезен для студентов, поскольку позволяет им поддерживать знания по «Деловому общениию» и учиться различным формам общения на английском языке. 


A a

adapt  // verb

1) to change sth in order to make it suitable for a new use or situation:

 The cars are produced in Europe and specially adapted for the American market.  

2) to change your behaviour in order to deal more successfully with a new situation:

 A large organization can be slow to adapt to change.  We had to adapt ourselves to the local way of doing business.  

adaptable  // adjective: Successful businesses are highly adaptable to economic change.

advertise  /; AmE / verb

1)  to tell the public about a product or a service in order to encourage people to buy or use it: If you want to attract more customers, try advertising in the national press.  to advertise a product/business/service  The company’s new Internet service has been heavily advertised on television.  Something advertised as a toy is likely to be used by children.  I bought the camera and case as advertised in the catalogue.  The cruise was advertised as the ‘journey of a lifetime’. 

2)  to tell people about a job that is available: We are currently advertising for a new sales manager.

advertising agency  (also ad agency, informal) noun a company that plans and designs advertisements for other companies: She is an executive at a leading New York advertising agency.

affordable // adjective that people can afford; that does not cost a lot of money: We offer high quality at an affordable price.  Luxury cars became affordable in the 1)990s for millions of customers.  There is a lack of affordable housing in the area.  with its affordable $2)0 price tag

aggressive  // adjective

1) (used especially about a company’s policies) strong and determined to make sure that the company succeeds: an aggressive advertising campaign  an aggressive approach to cost-cutting  The rival store responded with aggressive price cuts.

2) (about a person or company) behaving in a firm and determined way in order to succeed: an aggressive seller/buyer

aggressively   adverb: The new snacks were aggressively marketed.  We must start competing more aggressively on cost.

ambitious  // adjective

1) impressive but difficult to achieve because a lot of work or effort is needed: They have an ambitious five-year plan to double the size of the business.  the company’s ambitious attempt to break into the Japanese market

2) determined to be successful in your career: a fiercely ambitious young manager  Plenty of ambitious young employees have left established companies to join start-ups.

apology  /; AmE / noun (plural apologies)

1)  a word or statement saying sorry for sth that has been done wrong or that causes a problem: We offer our sincere apologies for any inconvenience caused.  a letter of apology

2)  information that you cannot go to a meeting or must leave early: The meeting started with apologies (= the names of people who could not go to the meeting). 

applicant  // noun   a person who applies for sth, especially a job, shares, etc: There were over a hundred applicants for the job.  Successful applicants were entitled to purchase up to 1) 000 shares each.  Applicants for export licences should contact the Ministry of Foreign Trade.

apply  // verb (applies, applying, applied, applied)

1) apply (to sb/sth) (for sth) to make a formal written request for sth: The company has applied for planning permission to build a factory on the site.  Four people applied for the post of Assistant Manager.  Please apply in writing with full CV to the Human Resources Manager.  I decided to apply to business school.

2) apply sth (to sth) to use sth or make sth work in a particular situation: When you start work you must apply what you have learned at college.  As the new technology was applied to farming, fewer workers were needed.

3) (not used in the continuous tenses) apply (sth) (to sb/sth) to concern or have an effect on sb/sth: Special conditions apply to people who are under 2)1).  The tax will be applied to all new cars from next year.

appraisal  // noun

1)  a meeting between an employee and their manager to discuss the quality of the employee’s work and to plan future tasks:  The company introduced its staff appraisal scheme ten years ago. 

2)  a judgement of the value, performance or nature of sb/sth:  He was asked to give a critical appraisal of the facilities.

assertive  /; AmE / adjective

expressing opinions and desires in a strong confident way so that people notice you or do what you want: Working abroad has made her more confident and assertive.  an assertive management style  The country has adopted a more assertive stance on foreign policy issues.

attend  // verb to go to an event: The meeting was attended by 90% of shareholders.  All members of staff are invited to attend.

attention  // noun (only used in written English) (also attention of, for the attention of, fao) written on a business letter to show who it is intended for: I would be grateful if you could invoice the amount due for the attention of Emma Walton at the above address.

auditor  // noun  a person who officially examines the business and financial records of a company to see that they are true and correct: the firm of accountants that has been appointed auditors to the company  The auditor said the mistakes were ‘honest errors’.  Independent auditors report to the shareholders on the truth and fairness of the published financial statements.   


B b

baggage reclaim  (BrE) (AmE baggage claim) noun the place at an airport where you get your suitcases, etc. again after you have flown

bankrupt  // adjective, verb, noun


1) without enough money to pay what you owe, especially when this has been officially decided by a court: a bankrupt software company  Her husband went bankrupt two years ago.  The company was declared bankrupt in the High Court.   SYN   INSOLVENT

2)  (formal) [not usually before noun] not having something that has value:

      a government bankrupt of new ideas  a morally bankrupt society


to make sb bankrupt: The company was almost bankrupted by legal costs.



a person who has been judged by a court to be unable to pay their debts

barrier  // noun

1) a problem, rule or situation that prevents sb from doing sth, or that makes sth impossible: The policy protected farmers by setting up barriers against imports.  The company denied that there are any artificial barriers to promotion.

2) something that exists between one thing or person and another and keeps them separate: We need to remove unnecessary barriers between management and the workforce.

bidder  // noun


1) a person or group that offers to pay an amount of money to buy sth: The company’s assets will be sold to the highest bidder.

2) a person or group that offers to do work or to provide a service for a particular price, in competition with others: The group is one of six bidders competing for the $5)00 million contract.

billboard  /; AmE / noun, verb


a large board on the outside of a building or at the side of the road, used for putting advertisements on: billboard advertising   SYN   HOARDING


1) to advertise sth on a billboard: Cheap flights are often billboarded on the London underground.

2)  (especially AmE) to advertise sth:  the most billboarded game of the season

bonus  /; AmE / noun (plural bonuses)

1)  HR

an extra amount of money that is added to a payment, especially to sb’s wages as a reward: If he had stayed on as CEO, he would have received a $1) million bonus.  Productivity bonuses are paid to staff meeting agreed targets.  bonus payments 

2)  (Finance)

a payment in money or shares that a company makes to its shareholders: The company will issue one bonus share for every share held.

3)  (Insurance) (also capital bonus)

a share of its profits that a life insurance company pays to its customers (policyholders): Terminal bonuses (= an extra payment made at the end of a life insurance contract) are being cut completely.

branch  /; AmE / noun

1) a local office or shop/store belonging to a large organization or company, especially a bank: The retail bank has 1)70 branches in Brazil.  Our New York branch is dealing with the matter.  Where’s the nearest branch of Tesco?  He’s been promoted to assistant branch manager.  The bank intends to close 2)0 branches.  They have recently announced a three-year programme of branch closures.

2) a part of a government or other large organization that deals with one particular aspect of its work: The company has two branches: one for production and one for sales.   SYN   DEPARTMENT

brand  // noun, verb


1) a type of product or group of products sold using a particular name, which is often the name of the company that produces them; the name that is given to the products: People tend to go on buying the same brand of breakfast cereal.  He helped to build two of the world’s best-known brands: Nike and Starbucks.  The company has strong core brands.  She was responsible for creating the company’s ‘Learn it Well’ brand.  Harley-Davidson is one of America’s most successful consumer brands.  

2)  a particular type or kind of sth: the company’s particular brand of project management  a unique brand of humour


to give a particular name, design, etc. to a type of product or group of products that you sell: The phone is branded with the name of the service provider.  They are going to brand all their products under one name.  The way that you brand your product and make it different from others is critical for success.

bribe  // noun

money, etc. that you give or offer to sb to persuade them to help you, especially by doing sth dishonest: The company paid bribes to government officials to win the contract.  

bureaucratic  /; AmE / adjective connected with bureaucracy or bureaucrats and  involving complicated official rules which may seem unnecessary: The management has been criticized for being bureaucratic and slow-moving.


C c

campaign  // noun a series of planned activities to persuade people to buy or to do something: They launched a campaign to block the merger.   We spent $1)5) million on an advertising campaign to raise awareness of the brand name.  a marketing campaign aimed at younger shoppers  The government will step up its campaign to persuade households to adopt digital television.

cancellation  (AmE spelling also cancelation) // noun

1) a decision to stop sth that has already been arranged from happening; a statement that sth will not happen: We have been badly affected by the cancellation of orders.  Cancellations must be made in writing.  a $2)00 cancellation charge  We need at least 2)4) hours' notice of cancellation.

2)  (Law) the fact of making sth no longer valid: the cancellation of the contract  The contract had a no cancellation clause.

3)  the act of marking a document, cheque, ticket, etc. or to show it has been used or can no longer be used; a decision to stop using these items: The company plans to buy back 1)00 million of its own shares for cancellation.

cash flow  noun


the movement of money into and out of a business as goods are bought and sold; the difference between the amount of money a business receives and the amount it pays during a particular period of time: We expect to return to profitability and positive cash flow in the current fiscal year.  cash-flow problems

catch-up  noun [sing.]  the process of trying to reach sb who is more advanced or better: This latest version of the software has left competitors playing catch-up.  

centralized  , -ised // adjective that controls the different parts of sth or operates from one particular place: The company uses a centralized computer system.  We have a centralized human resources department for the group of companies.  a highly centralized system of government  The company has gone from being a highly centralized to a decentralized organization.


chair  /; AmE / noun, verb


1)  (usually the chair) the position of being in charge of a meeting or committee; the person who holds this position: She takes the chair in all our meetings.  Please address comments to the chair.  He was elected chair of the city council.  The chair has the deciding vote.

2) the person who is in charge of a company or an organization: She’s vice chair of the group.


to act as the chairperson of a meeting, discussion, etc: Who’s chairing the meeting?

claim  //  verb

1)  Law

to ask for sth from sb/sth, especially money, because you think it is your legal right to have it: He’s not entitled to claim unemployment benefit.  Both companies have claimed rights to the trademark.  You can claim on your insurance for that coat you left on the train.  You could have claimed the cost of the hotel room from your insurance.  Don’t forget to claim your travel expenses when you get back.  She claimed damages from the company for the injury she had suffered.

2)  to say that a product has a particular nature or quality although this may not be true

coach  /; AmE / noun,


1)  (HR) a person who trains sb to do sth or gives lessons or advice: Coaches can help you become a better business leader.

            a business/career/executive/team coach

2)  (BrE)  a comfortable bus for carrying passengers over long distances: Travel is by coach to Berlin.  I went to the airport on the coach.

3)  (AmE)  the cheapest seats in a plane: to fly coach

            coach fares/passengers/seats

commission  // noun

1)  (Commerce)

an amount of money that is paid to sb for selling goods or services and which usually increases with the quantity they sell: You get a 1)0% commission on everything you sell.  They work on commission (= they are paid according to how much they sell) and so they try to sell you more.  I asked salespeople how much they earned in commissions in the last two years.

2) an amount of money that is charged by a bank, for example, for providing a particular service: Agents charge their clients 2)% commission on the sale of a house.  The two banks have similar commission rates.

3)  (often Commission)

a group of people who are officially asked to find out about a problem and suggest some actions in a report: The Commission will investigate the number of jobs created.  She is to head a commission to look into working conditions in the industry.  a commission of enquiry

4)  (often Commission)

an official organization with a particular purpose that manages sth or makes sure that the law is obeyed: the Equal Opportunities Commission  the Securities and Exchange Commission 

5)  a formal request to an artist or a writer, for example, to produce a piece of work:      I received a commission to write an article.

custom  // noun

1) (especially BrE) the fact of being a customer: They have cut their prices to attract custom.  Thank you for your custom. Please call again.   SYN   BUSINESS

2)  an accepted way of behaving or of doing sth in a particular company or industry:      The payment of a commission was a trade custom.  It is the employer’s custom and practice (= it has been done like this for so long it is now like a law) for full-time workers to work a 3)7-hour week.

civil servant  noun  a person who works in the civil service

commodity  /; AmE / noun [C] (plural commodities)

1)  (Finance)

a product or a raw material, such as grain, coffee, cotton or metals, that can be bought and sold in large quantities, especially between countries: rice, flour and other basic commodities  a drop in commodity prices

2)  a thing that is useful or has a useful quality: Time is a precious commodity.

competition  /; AmE / noun

1) a situation in which people or organizations compete with each other for sth that not everyone can have: He really wants the job, but he will be facing stiff competition.  We are in competition with four other companies for the contract.  They are under pressure to cut costs amid growing competition from foreign firms.

2)  the competition  the people who are competing against sb: We’ll be able to assess the competition at the conference.  a strategy to beat the competition

competitive  // adjective

1) used to describe a situation in which people or organizations compete against each other: a highly competitive market

2) as good as or better than others: We have a wide range of electrical goods at competitive prices.  We need to work harder to remain competitive with other companies.

3) (about a person) trying hard to be better than others: George is very competitive and wants to be number one in the department.  

confidential  /; AmE / adjective meant to be kept secret: This information is strictly confidential.  The details of the report were kept confidential.

consumer  /; AmE / noun

1)  a person who buys goods or services for their own use: Interest rate cuts have persuaded consumers to spend more.  Videophones are still too expensive for the average consumer.  Consumer spending will be up 2).4)% this year.  The new service has been slow to take off (= become popular) among consumers.  Low interest rates were responsible for the consumer boom (= period when people spend a lot).  Advertising is often aimed at those who influence consumer habits.  

2)  a person, a group, a country, etc. that uses sth such as fuel or energy: He said that America was the world’s largest consumer of natural resources per head of population.  Mexicans are believed to be the biggest consumers of soft drinks.

contractor  /; AmE / noun a person or company that has a contract to do work or provide goods or services for another company: They have employed outside contractors to install the new computer system.  a building/haulage contractor 

corrupt  // adjective

1) (about people) willing to use their power to do dishonest or illegal things in return for money or to get an advantage: Corrupt employees had passed on confidential information.

2) (about behaviour) dishonest or immoral: The firm is notorious for its corrupt practices.

3)  (IT)

containing changes or faults, and no longer in the original state: software that restores corrupt files  The text on the disk seems to be corrupt.

cost-cutting  noun (often used like an adjective)

a reduction in the amount of money a company spends: Three thousand jobs could go as part of a cost-cutting drive.  Aggressive cost-cutting helped the firm increase its income by 2)0%.

covering letter  (BrE) (AmE cover letter) noun a letter that you send with a document, package, etc. that gives more information about it:  Applicants should send a covering letter (= giving more information about themselves) and a CV to the following address ...

CV      // abbrcurriculum vitae a written record of your education and employment that you send when you are applying for a job: Applicants should send a full CV and covering letter to ...  Voluntary work will look good on your CV (= give a good impression).   SYN   RÉSUMÉ (AmE)


D d

day off  noun [C] (plural days off)

a day on which you do not have to work: When was the last time you had a day off?  She took a few days off.  a day off in lieu (= in return for working during a holiday)

decentralize  , -ise // verb

to give some of the power of a central organization to smaller organizations in different areas or countries; to divide the responsibilities of running an organization between many different people, departments, etc: The company is decentralizing its corporate structure.  Firms are decentralizing in search of reserves of labour. 

dedicated  // adjective [only before noun] designed to do only one particular type of work; used for one particular purpose only: They recommend that you use a dedicated server for the software.  We have our own dedicated warehouse.  a business park dedicated to technology and media companies

defective  // adjective

having a fault or faults; not perfect or complete: The manufacture offered to repair or replace any defective products.  The car’s tyres were defective. 

democratic  // adjective based on the principle that all members have an equal right to be involved in running an organization, etc: The decision-making process should be more open and democratic.  a democratic organization

department store  noun  a large shop/store that is divided into several parts, each part selling a different type of goods: She works as a fashion buyer for an upmarket London department store.  a struggling department store chain

deregulation  // noun (Economics) the removing of government rules and controls from an industry, a business activity, etc: the deregulation of US financial services  Under deregulation, power companies can sell electricity anywhere in the nation.  

determine  /; AmE / verb

1) to discover the facts about sth; to calculate sth exactly: A team of experts is trying to determine the cause of the accident.  We produced a business plan to determine how much capital we would need.  It is too soon to determine whether the advertisement has been successful.

2) to make sth happen in a particular way or be of a particular type: Price is determined by supply and demand.  Age and experience will be determining factors in our choice of candidate.

3) to officially decide sth: A date for the meeting has yet to be determined.  The court determined (that) the defendant should pay the legal costs.  The investigation will determine if the company is a monopoly.

differentiation  // noun


the process of making your product or service seem different from other similar products or services that it is competing with: Firms making similar products compete through a combination of price and product differentiation.  There is a lack of strong differentiation between products in the insurance industry.  Product differentiation can be in terms of quality, design or even image.

discount  noun

1)  (Commerce) an amount of money that is taken off the usual cost of sth:  We give a 1)5)% discount on large orders.  They were forced to sell their old stock at a discount (= at reduced prices).  Retailers are offering deep discounts to get shoppers into stores.  a discount for paying within 3)0 days  a discount airline (= one that sells tickets at low prices) 

2)  (Finance) if a share, etc. is bought or sold at a discount, its price is lower than sth, such as its price at an earlier time or its par value (= the value shown on the share, etc.):      The company should continue trading at a discount to the rest of the industry.  The new shares were issued at 1)3)1)¢, at a discount of 1)4).5)¢ to yesterday’s closing price.  The gilts were offered at a discount of 1)0%.  bonds trading at a discount to par

disruptive  // adjective:

 disruptive protests and strikes  My hours of work are disruptive to home life.  They see globalization as a potentially disruptive force.

distributor  // noun a person or business that supplies goods produced by other companies to shops/stores or directly to the public: Japan’s largest software distributor  the largest US distributor of canned fruit and vegetables  We have been appointed sole distributor for these products in Australia and New Zealand.  Most of our sales are through distributors.  a wholesale distributor (= one that only sells to shop/stores, etc.)  Third-party distributors are used to distribute the products in the areas where we do not have offices.

dividend  // (abbr div) (also share dividend) noun

(Finance) an amount of the profits that a company pays to shareholders: The company will pay a dividend of 1)0 cents a share.  The board declared (= announced) a quarterly dividend of $0.1)2)5).  Dividends are taxed at the standard rate of income tax.  They increased the dividend payout for the year from 7¢ to 9¢.  The insurer has proposed a dividend cut of nearly 4)0 per cent.  The company is holding its dividend at 1)4).6)¢. 

downsize  // verb

1)  (HR) to reduce the number of people who work in a company, business, etc. in order to reduce costs: Several of their smaller offices are being downsized.  The company has downsized to eight employees.  downsized organizations/workers

2)  (especially AmE) to make sth smaller; to produce sth in a smaller size: downsized cars

downtown  // adverb (especially AmE)

in or towards the centre of a city, especially its main business area: to go/work downtown

downtown   adjective [only before noun]: a downtown hotel  Their headquarters are in downtown Toronto.  Hong Kong ’s downtown area

downtown   noun = CENTRE  noun (3)): Our facilities are 2)0 miles north of downtown.

downturn  /; AmE / (also downswing) noun

a time when an economy, industry, etc. is weaker than normal; a fall in the amount of business that is done: There are signs that the economy is recovering from last year’s downturn.  We experienced a sharp downturn in sales last month.  The industry is going through its worst downturn ever.   SYN   TURNDOWN   OPP   UPTURN  

draft  /; AmE / noun

1) a rough written version of a document that is not yet in its final form: the first draft of the report  The committee has drawn up a draft action plan.  a draft agreement/letter  The new law has been released in draft form.

2)  (Finance) a written order to a bank to pay money to sb: Please pay by draft or cheque.  She presented a draft on a bank on New York.   SYN   BANK DRAFT

durable  /; AmE / adjective likely to last for a long time without breaking or getting weaker: durable plastics/fabrics  He claims their software is more durable and reliable. 

dynamic  // adjective,

1) always changing; always adapting to new circumstances and making progress:     It’s difficult to set prices in such a dynamic market.  She said South Korea had become a dynamic economy and a good place to invest.  

2)  having a lot of energy and a strong personality: a dynamic boss


E e

economy class  (also economy) noun  the cheapest class of air travel; the part of a plane where people with the cheapest tickets sit:Fares start from €5)97 for economy class.  an economy-class fare/ticket/seat  I always fly economy class.  A light snack will be served in economy class.  Economy class traffic (= the number of people buying economy class tickets) fell by 6).3)% last month.  The airline has decided to get rid of business and economy class and adopt a no-frills model.   BUSINESS CLASS

earnings per share  noun [pl.] (abbr EPS)

(Accounting) the amount of profit that a company has made during a particular period, divided by the number of ordinary shares (= shares that give their owners the right to a share of the company’s profits) that people own: Earnings per share were 1)5) cents, down from 2)2) cents a year ago.  The company expects annual earnings-per-share growth of 1)2) per cent.  an earnings-per-share estimate/forecast  The company expects EPS growth of 1)5) per cent next year.

elevator  // noun (AmE)  = LIFT  noun

endorse  /; AmE / verb

1)  to say publicly that you support a person, statement or course of action: I strongly endorse the directors' plans.  The resolution was unanimously endorsed by the council.

2)  (Marketing) to say in an advertisement that you use and like a particular product or service so that other people will want to buy or use it: We decided to use a celebrity to endorse our restaurant.  products endorsed by loyal customers

3)  (Finance) to sign the back of a cheque or bill of exchange so that it can be paid to sb else; to sign the back of a cheque in order to receive cash from the bank: You must endorse the cheque before we can deposit it.  A non-transferable cheque cannot be endorsed to someone else.

4)  (Insurance) to add conditions to a standard insurance policy so that it applies to particular circumstances: Policies that refer only to employees should be endorsed to include volunteer workers. 

endorsement  (AmE spelling also indorsement) /; AmE / noun

1) a public statement or action showing that you support sb/sth; official approval of sth: The chairman’s comments were a ringing (= powerful) endorsement of the senior management team.  The plan will now go to the bankruptcy court for endorsement.  Increased investment in the country is seen as a clear endorsement of the government’s policies.

2)  (Marketing) a statement made in an advertisement, usually by sb famous or important, saying that they use and like a particular product or service: They are looking for a celebrity endorsement (= one given by a famous person) of their new line of T-shirts.  She has signed an endorsement deal with Nike.  This is her first major product endorsement.

3)  (Finance) the act of signing the back of a cheque or bill of exchange; the signature and the words that are written: The trader will transfer the bill of exchange to his bank through endorsement.  The thief obtained payment by forging an endorsement on the cheque to himself.

4)  (Insurance) conditions that are added to a standard insurance policy in order to make it apply to particular circumstances: This endorsement should be applied where the building to be insured is a farmhouse.  a policy endorsement

entrepreneur  /; AmE / noun   a person who makes money by starting or running businesses, especially when this involves taking financial risks:

estate agent  (BrE) (also real estate agent, AmE, BrE) a person or business that sells or rents houses, buildings and land for the owners, usually in return for a fee that is a percentage of the price of the property: a national network of estate agents  The housing market is slowing down, according to a survey of estate agents.   

executive  // noun

1) a person who has an important job as a manager of a company or an organization: Several top executives have left the company.  Our executives are judged on how well they manage people and look after the company’s reputation.  

2)  a group of people who run a company or an organization: The union’s executive has/have yet to reach a decision.

expense  // noun

1)  (Accounting) money that a business spends on supplies, workers, services, etc. in order to operate  NOTE   Expenses are taken away from profits in a company’s financial records: Labour is the airline industry’s biggest expense.  marketing/sales expenses  The cost of the insurance can be deducted as a business expense.  Even after expenses, healthy profit margins remain.  These measures should reduce annual expenses by 2)%.

2)  expenses [pl.]money that you spend while doing a job that your employer or the person you are working for will pay back to you later: We will cover your travel expenses.  I charge $2)00 an hour plus expenses.  (BrE) to take a client out for a meal on expenses  an all-expenses-paid trip   EXPENSES CLAIM

3) the money that you spend on sth: The factory was rebuilt at considerable expense.  He arranged everything, no expense spared (= he spent as much as was needed).

exporter  /; AmE / noun

1)  a business, country or person that sells goods or services to another country: A stronger yen hurts Japanese exporters because it makes their goods more expensive abroa

2) a country whose people or businesses invest money (capital) in companies, funds, etc. in other countries: The country has moved from being a supplier of cheap goods to an exporter of capital.


F f

fair trade  noun

1) trade which supports producers in developing countries by paying fair prices and making sure that workers have good working conditions and fair pay: Our aim is to support fair trade by giving the cocoa growers a fair price for their beans.  We buy 1)0% of our bananas from fair-trade sources.

2) trade that is fair to customers: fair trade laws to prevent misleading advertising  5)0% of consumer websites were in breach of fair trade laws as they did not provide clear information about cancellation, refund or exchange.

fast-growing  adjective [only before noun]

getting bigger quickly: a fast-growing business  Portables make up the fastest-growing segment of the computer market.

fire    // verb

(HR) to force sb to leave their job: ‘You’re fired!’  She got fired from her first job for always being late.  Who is responsible for hiring and firing staff? 

fitness  // noun

1) the state of being physically healthy and strong: They operate a chain of fitness clubs.  the health and fitness sector/industry  We need to ensure the company’s financial fitness.  The company has an on-site fitness centre for its staff.

2) the state of being suitable or good enough for sth: There were doubts about her fitness for the position.  The product is supplied as is, without any warranty of fitness for a particular use (= without promising that it will be suitable for a particular use).

flagship  // noun

1) the most important product, service, building, etc. that an organization owns or produces: They are opening a new flagship store in Madrid.  The software will continue to be our flagship.

2) the most important company in an industry or economy: They were once the flagship of the chocolate industry.  UBS, Switzerland’s banking flagship  the country’s flagship airline

flexible  // adjective

1) able to change or be changed to suit new conditions or situations: Our plans need to be flexible enough to cater for the needs of everyone.  a flexible approach to clients' requirements

2) able to bend easily without breaking:  flexible plastic tubing

flexibility  // noun  Computers offer a much greater degree of flexibility in the way work is organized.  greater flexibility on pay and duties

flexibly   adverb: Managers must respond flexibly to new developments in business practice.  We allow our staff to work flexibly-when they want and where they want.

focus group  noun

1)  (Marketing) a small group of people, specially chosen to represent different social classes, etc., who are asked to discuss and give their opinions about a particular subject. The information obtained is used by people doing market research, for example about new products or advertisements: Feedback from focus groups suggested the advertisement made people feel they could talk to the bank.  focus-group research

2)  (HR) a small group of employees who are asked to discuss and give their opinions about aspects of company policy such as management or changes: She formed a focus group composed of representatives from every department.  We do focus groups where we talk to our top performers about what makes them successful.  A focus group was held to find out what the workforce most disliked about senior management.

force  /; AmE / noun

1) a person or thing that has a lot of power or influence: The company has become a major force in the cellphone industry.  She was the driving force (= the person who has the most influence) behind the group’s success.  He is seen as a powerful force for change. 

         a dominant/driving/major/powerful force  competitive/economic forces

2) the authority of sth: These guidelines do not have the force of law.

3)  (HR) a group of people who have been organized for a particular purpose   WORKFORCE

free port  noun

(Trade) a port at which tax is not paid on goods that have been brought there temporarily before being sent to a different country

funny money  noun

1) money with little or no value, such as money that has been printed illegally or is in an unusual currency

2) an unusual type of shares, bonds, etc. that a company issues, whose value often moves up and down rapidly


G g

gadget  // noun a small tool or device that does sth useful: electronic gadgets  gadgets designed to make your life easier

gate    // noun the door or area at an airport, a bus station, etc. where passengers leave or arrive: a departure gate  The flight to Jakarta is now boarding at gate 1)2).  Typically in the US, the airline leases the gate.

gimmick  // noun an unusual trick or unnecessary device that is intended to attract attention or to persuade people to buy sth: The free gift is just a gimmick to get you to buy the magazine.  It’s a competitive business and you’ve got to have a gimmick.

grade  // noun, verb


1)  the quality of a particular product or material: All the materials used were of the highest grade.

2)  (HR) a level in a system of pay or employment in an organization: salary grades (= levels of pay)  She’s still only on a secretarial grade.

3)  (Finance) a measurement of how good or safe sth such as an investment is:      The company has been downgraded to non-investment grade.

verb (often be graded)

to arrange people or things in groups according to their ability, quality, size, etc: The containers are graded according to size.  Employees are constantly graded for performance.  the highest-graded hotel in the area  Responses were graded from 1) (very satisfied) to 5) (not at all satisfied).

grain  // noun food crops such as corn and rice: a record grain harvest of 85) million tons  grain imports/exports  US grain and livestock futures prices rose yesterday.  Grain production needs to expand 4)0% worldwide.

gross margin  (abbr GM) (also gross profit margin abbr GPM) noun


a percentage showing the relationship between a business’s profits before overheads are taken away (gross profit), and the total amount of income from sales: Sales increased and the company’s gross margin reached a record 6)1).4)%.  The store needs a gross margin of 2)5)% to become profitable.


H h

hand luggage  (also hand baggage, less frequent) noun (both especially BrE) small bags that you can carry with you onto a plane

headhunt  // verb

(HR) (usually be headhunted)

to find sb who has the right skills and experience for a senior job in a company or an organization and persuade them to leave their present job: I was headhunted by a marketing agency. 

headhunter   noun:

Headhunters have been brought in to search for a successor to the chairman.

headhunting   noun

a headhunting firm  Top jobs in marketing or accounting have traditionally been filled through headhunting.

head office  (abbr HO) (also main office) noun

the main office of a company; the managers who work there: Their head office is in New York.  I don’t know what head office will think about this proposal.

headquarters  /; AmE / noun [U with sing./pl. verb; C] (plural headquarters) (abbr HQ) the place from where an organization is controlled; the people who work there: The company’s headquarters is/are in Cambridge.  Several companies have their headquarters in the area.  I’m now based at headquarters.  It took a day for the data to get to headquarters.

hierarchy  /; AmE / noun

1) the different levels at which people or things are organized, depending on how much authority, responsibility or importance they have: the highest levels of the corporate hierarchy  She’s quite high up in the management hierarchy.

2) the group of people in control of a large organization or institution

hierarchical  /; AmE / adjective: Most of us work in hierarchical organizations.

hoarding  /; AmE / noun (BrE)


a large board on the outside of a building or at the side of the road, used for putting advertisements on: a 2)0 x 1)0 foot advertising hoarding  a giant hoarding advertising mobile phones   SYN   BILLBOARD


I i

identify  // verb

1)  to find or discover sb/sth: As yet they have not identified a buyer for the company.  The group identified €1)6) million in possible cost savings.  We think we have identified a gap in the market.  They are trying to identify what is wrong with the present system.  The town was identified as a possible site for the new runway.

2) to recognize sb/sth and be able to say who or what they are: The machine identifies you by scanning your fingerprint.  Several problem areas were identified in the report.

implement  // verb

1) to make sth that has been officially decided start to happen or be used: The banks have agreed to implement measures to improve customer information.  These changes will be implemented over a five-year period.

       to implement changes/measures/reforms  to implement a decision/plan/policy/strategy  to implement sth extensively/fully/successfully

2)  (IT)

to introduce or start to use a new system: We have implemented the software across our distribution network.

importer  /; AmE / noun

1) a business, country or person that buys and brings in goods or services from another country: a London-based importer of Italian goods  China (= its businesses, etc.) became the second-largest importer of Japanese steel.  The country is a net importer of oil (= it imports more than it exports).

2)  a country whose government or businesses borrow money or receive investment from other countries: Traditionally, the country was an importer of capital to finance industrial growth.  To finance an imbalance in trade, a country must be a net importer of capital.  

increase  verb, noun

verb //

to become or to make sth greater in amount, number, value, etc: Revenues increased 4).5) per cent to ¥3) 5)3)7 billion.  The rate of inflation increased by 2)%.  Oil has increased in price.  concerns over increasing unemployment  We need to increase productivity.  They’ve increased the price by 5)0%.   OPP   DECREASE

increased   adjective [only before noun]:  increased demand

noun //

a rise in the amount, number or value of sth: The company reported a 1)2) per cent increase in costs.  We expect sales to show a significant increase from/over last year.  a year-on-year increase (= between this year and the previous year)  They demanded a wage increase of 3) per cent.  Industrial activity is on the increase.  The rate of increase has slowed.   OPP   DECREASE

industry  // noun (plural industries)

1) the production of goods from raw materials, especially in factories: They raised import duties to protect local industry.  the problems of British industry  He left college and went into industry.

       domestic/local/traditional industry  to be in/go into/enter industry

2) the people and activities involved in producing a particular thing, or in providing a particular service: the banking/car/steel industry  We’re in an industry that’s growing at 1)4)% a year.  We’re in a growth industry.  Sales fell across the industry.  The global mining industry is dominated by four large groups.  We hope the publicity surrounding the product will be good for the industry as a whole. 

3)  (formal)

the quality of working hard: We were impressed by their industry.

inexpensive  // adjective

not costing a lot of money: It’s relatively inexpensive. 

inform  /; AmE / verb

1)  inform sb of/about sth to tell sb about sth, especially in an official way: The employer must inform the employee of its decision.  I am pleased to inform you that you have been selected for interview.  It’s vital to keep staff informed.  Staff were waiting to be informed about the merger.  The directors kept the market fully informed.  He had not been informed who the candidates were.  The board was informed on Tuesday. 

2)  to influence sth; to be the basis for sth: This belief has always informed the board’s decisions.

introduce  /; AmE / verb

1) to make a new product or service available to people for the first time: Earlier this year the manufacturer introduced the product to the general market.  The new service will be introduced next year.  We’ve introduced a new range of energy-efficient freezers.  2)3)% of manufacturers use the Net to introduce new products.   SYN   BRING STH IN

2) to start to use a new system or a new method of doing sth: We’ve introduced a computerised system to deal with orders.  He is expected to continue the reforms introduced by his predecessor.  The fiscal measures were introduced on Monday as part of a tough budget.  The committee has recently introduced an industry code of best practice.   SYN   BRING STH IN

3)   introduce A (to B) | introduce A and B | introduce yourself (to sb) to tell two or more people who have not met before what one another’s names are; to tell sb what your name is: Can I introduce my wife?  Participants get one minute to introduce themselves.

4)  (often be introduced (to sth/sb)) to help sb find out about sth/sb or do sth for the first time: Jones was introduced to the firm by a business associate.  The course introduces students to drafting business plans.  He was introduced to the minidisc player by a friend.

5) to formally suggest a new law so that it can be discussed: The government has introduced a bill to reform pensions.  We will introduce new legislation to curb financial malpractice.

intuitive management  noun  a way of managing people, projects and businesses that relies on feelings rather than analysing facts and figures

investment  // noun

1) the action or process of using money in order to make a profit or earn interest, for example by buying shares, bonds, property, etc: We need to attract foreign investment.  Investment in these savings plans is expected to grow rapidly.  Why is the company an attractive investment opportunity?  Investment income is liable to tax.  the bank’s chief investment officer

2) the amount of money that a person or business invests: There is a minimum investment of $1)0 000.  I have had a high return on my original investment.  The company wishes to sell its entire investment. 

3)  the thing that a person or business invests in: Our investments are not doing well.  You should think of equities as a medium- to long-term investment.  The value of an investment can go down as well as up.

4) the act or process of buying materials, machines, etc. to make goods to sell: The area must attract new industrial investment.  Investment in manufacturing has fallen dramatically.  The company has announced a $5) million investment in new technology.  higher investment spending  attempts to boost badly needed investment

investor  // noun a person or an organization that invests money in order to make a profit or receive interest: Investors in the fund lost all their money.  Foreign investors have traditionally been welcome in Germany.  Efforts are being made to restore investor confidence.


J j

jargon  /; AmE / noun words or expressions that are used by a particular profession or group of people, and are difficult for others to understand: computer/legal/industry jargon  Try to avoid using too much technical jargon in your presentation.

jettison  // verb

1)  to get rid of sth/sb that you no longer need or want: They jettisoned 2)1)7 staff when the recession hit.  The firm still needs to jettison around €1) billion of debt.

2)  to reject an idea, belief, plan, etc. that you no longer think is useful or likely to be successful: Some elements of the plan are going to be jettisoned.

jittery  // adjective (used in newspapers) anxious and uncertain: Shoppers are already jittery about job security.  a jittery market

judge  // noun, verb


1)  a person who has authority to decide legal cases: a High Court judge  A federal judge awarded the company $1).2) million in damages.

2)  a person who decides who has won a competition: The judges' decision is final.  The best entry will be chosen by a panel of judges.


1) to form an opinion about sb/sth, based on the information you have: Each project is judged on the profits it could generate.  You need to judge our results against those of our competitors.  Judging by/from its results, their strategy was a good one.  The marketing campaign was judged a success.

2)  to decide the result of a competition; to be the judge in a competition: He was asked to judge the design competition.

3)  to decide whether sb/sth has committed a crime or is legally responsible for sth:      The company was judged guilty of price-fixing.  The issue will be judged by the courts.


K k

kerb market  (also kerb) (AmE spelling curb kerb market) /; AmE / noun

(Finance) trading of shares that takes place outside the official system of stock markets: The American Stock Exchange developed from an informal kerb market.

key account  noun

one of the most important customers that a company has: She will oversee a number of key accounts.  The job involves maintaining monthly contact with key accounts to monitor service delivery.

kingmaker  // noun (used especially in newspapers) a person or an organization with power or influence who is able to make sb/sth powerful or successful: He will play the role of kingmaker in any merger between the companies.

knock-down  (AmE spelling also knockdown) adjective

1)  (informal) (about prices, etc.) much lower than usual: They were forced to sell the business at a knock-down price.  We got a knockdown deal on the car.   SYN   ROCK-BOTTOM  

2)  (AmE) (abbr KD) used to describe furniture that can easily be put together and taken apart, and is sold in separate pieces


L l

labour force  (AmE spelling labor labour force) noun all the people who work for a company or country: a skilled/an unskilled labour force  Only 1)7% of the labour force in the UK is educated to degree level.   SYN   WORKFORCE

laissez-faire  (also spelled laisser-faire, less frequent) /; AmE / noun

(Economics) the policy of allowing businesses and the economy to develop without government control: We live in an age of laissez-faire.  laissez-faire economics/capitalism  He believes in a free market and a laissez-faire approach to regulation.

launch  // verb, noun


1) to start an activity, especially an organized one: an advertising campaign launched by the British Tourist Authority  He has launched a bid for control of the supermarket chain.  The business launched last year with 1)5) employees.

2) to start selling a product or service for the first time; to make sth available so that it can be bought and sold: The company is launching a new telephone service in Japan this year.  They are planning to launch a $2) billion bond issue.  The euro launched at a value nearly 2)0 per cent higher than the dollar.



the action of launching sth; an event at which sth is launched: the successful launch of euro notes and coins  The official launch date is in June.  The channel has attracted an audience of two million since its launch a month ago.  This is the first of a number of new launches from the company.  The new drug is scheduled for launch next month.  The latest model is selling well at launch (= when it was launched) .

law-abiding  adjective obeying and respecting the law: law-abiding companies/citizens

low-cost  (also lower-cost) adjective [usually before noun] costing or charging less than others: Which is Europe’s largest low-cost airline?  Sony has switched assembly to lower-cost countries.  The company has announced the launch of a new low-cost brand.   OPP   HIGH-COST

leaflet  // noun

a printed sheet of paper or a few printed pages that are given free of charge to advertise or give information about sth: We have hired a team to hand out promotional leaflets in the street.

letter of credit  noun (abbr l.c., L/C)

(Finance; Trade) a letter that a bank prepares for a customer in which it agrees to pay sb an amount of money under particular circumstances, used especially as a way of paying for imported goods: The importer asks the bank to issue a letter of credit on his behalf.  

liberalize  , -ise // verb to make the rules that apply to an activity, an industry, etc. less strict; to make it easier for more people to take part: plans to liberalize world trade  The country’s energy market has been fully liberalized for some time.

licence  (AmE spelling license) // noun

(Law) an official document that shows that permission has been given to do, own or use sth: (BrE) a driving licence  a licence for the software  The company won a licence to operate a mobile phone network.  a licence holder (= a person who has been given a licence)  They lost their licence to run the bus service (= it was taken away by the authorities).

lose    // verb (lost, lost /; AmE ; /)

1) lose (sth) (on sth) | lose sb sth to fail to keep money; to cause sb to fail to keep money: The business is losing money.  The firm has lost $1)76) million in the past six quarters.  We lost on that deal.  Many people have lost all their savings.

2)  lose sth (to sb) | lose sb sth to have sth taken away by sb; to fail to keep sth: Singapore has lost business to ports in Malaysia.  You will lose your deposit if you cancel the order.  He lost his job as a result of the incident.  Her mistake nearly lost us a valuable account.  The cosmetic group has been losing market share to cheaper brands.

3) (about a currency, share price, etc.) to fall to a lower level or price: The FTSE 1)00 lost a quarter of its value last year.  Royal Dutch Petroleum lost 0.3) per cent.  

loss-making  (also spelled lossmaking) adjective

1) a loss-making company, business, or part of a business does not make a profit: The group is to sell its loss-making computer assembly business.  Research departments are generally loss-making.  He turned Barratt from a loss-making company into one of the most respected and profitable housebuilders in the country.

2) a loss-making period of time is a period in which a company does not make a profit:  The aim is to break even next year after several loss-making years.

loyal  // adjective

1) a loyal customer tends to buy the same products all the time, rather than trying different ones: The company has 3)4) million loyal customers.  Many shareholders remained loyal to us in difficult times.

2) a loyal employee works for the same company for a long time: The secret of our success is our high-quality, loyal workforce.

luggage  // noun bags, cases, etc. that you carry your clothes and things in when you are travelling: Passengers are allowed to have up to three pieces of luggage.  

luxury  //  adjective expensive and of high quality; not essential: There has been a decline in the demand for luxury goods.  There are plans to build two new luxury hotels in the city.  Some of the fashion industry’s most famous luxury brands are: Chanel, Gucci, Prada and Versace.


M m

mailshot  /; AmE / noun (BrE)

(Marketing) an act of sending advertising or information to a large number of people at the same time by mail; an item sent in this way: To be effective, a mailshot must be well targeted.  The launch of the service will be supported by a mailshot campaign.

manufacturer  // noun a person or company that produces goods in large quantities from raw materials or parts: an auto/computer/drugs/steel manufacturer  Always follow the manufacturer’s instructions.  Faulty goods should be returned to the manufacturers.

market follower  noun


1) a company that has a strong position in a market which it wants to keep but is not trying to get the largest share of the market: In less than a decade the group moved from a position of (a) market follower to market leader.  

2) a company that starts to produce or sell new types of products only after other companies have done so; the products they produce or sell: These super-cheap PCs are seen as market followers.

market leader  noun


1) the company that sells the largest quantity of a particular kind of product: We are the market leader in car insurance.  We believe we are ready to challenge the market leaders.  They are in second place behind market leader, Tesco plc.  The drug company is confident it can become the US market leader.  Who is market leader for cellphones?  

2) a product that is the most successful of its kind: Our range of products includes 2)0 market leaders.

market segment  noun


1) a group of possible customers who are similar in income, age, habits, etc: Schools are a growing market segment.

2)  products produced for one particular group of customers: Their strongest market segment is in small notebook computers.

meeting  // noun

1) an occasion when people come together to discuss or decide sth: They held a meeting to discuss the future of the firm.  What time is the meeting?  I have a meeting with my manager in an hour.  a meeting between workers and management  a meeting of shareholders  a shareholder meeting  Ms Keane is in a meeting at the moment-can I take a message?  (informal) I’m stuck in meetings all week.  You will need to book a meeting room.  I’m about to go into a meeting-can you phone back later?  The meeting took place behind closed doors (= in private). 

2)  the meeting [sing.] (formal) the people at a meeting: The meeting voted to accept the pay offer.

memo    /; AmE / noun (plural memos) (also memorandum, formal) an official note from one person to another or others in the same organization: In a memo to employees, she explained the need to cut costs.

merger  /; AmE / noun

(Finance) the act of joining two or more businesses or organizations into one: There is talk of a merger between the two banks.  Analysts expect the retailer to seek a merger with a rival company.  She works in the mergers and acquisitions department of a well-known investment bank.  The agreement is the first step towards a full merger of the two shipbuilding yards.

modify  /; AmE / verb to change sth slightly, especially in order to make it more suitable for a particular purpose: The software is modified for specific customers.  We found it cheaper to modify existing equipment rather than buy new.  They’re planning to sell a modified version of their popular small car.

motivate  /; AmE / verb

to make sb want to do sth, especially to work hard or try hard: She’s very good at motivating her staff.  These systems can motivate employees to become more productive.  Surprisingly few employees said they were motivated by cash. 


N n

niche market  noun

(Marketing) a market in which there is little or no competition for a particular type of product or service, for which there is limited demand: The company has carved out a strong niche market for its software.

name-brand  adjective (Commerce; Marketing) used to describe goods that are marked with the name of a well-known product or manufacturer: We sell name-brand clothing at great prices.   OWN BRAND

navigate  // verb

1)  to find your position and the direction you need to go in, for example by using a map

2)  (IT) to find your way around on the Internet or on a particular website: Their website is very easy to navigate.

nominal capital  (also nominal share capital) noun

(Accounting) the value of all the shares issued by a company which is equal to the total number of shares multiplied by the price they were originally sold for (the par value)   SYN   AUTHORIZED CAPITAL


O o

open border  noun

(Trade) the fact of goods and people being able to pass freely between countries: an open border and free trade between the US and Mexico  Local producers complain that the open borders policy has pushed down prices.

outlet  // noun  

1) a shop/store or an organization that sells goods made by a particular company or of a particular type: The business has 3)4) retail outlets in this state alone.

2)  (especially AmE) a shop/store that sells goods of a particular make at reduced prices: Nike outlets are supplied direct from the factory.

3)  a way of making information or goods available to the public: a media/an Internet outlet

overbook  /; AmE / verb to sell more tickets on a plane or reserve more rooms in a hotel than there are places or rooms available: These flights are usually overbooked by 1)0-1)5) passengers.

overtime  /; AmE / noun

1) time that you spend working at your job after you have worked the normal hours: Some employees were willing to work overtime at weekends.  The union announced a ban on overtime.

2) the money that sb earns for doing overtime: They pay $1)5)0 a day plus overtime.

3) extra time that a factory operates, especially to meet orders: Several plants will work overtime next week.  Ford ran overtime shifts at 1)0 plants last week.


P p

package  // noun

1)  (especially AmE)  = PARCEL: A large package has arrived for you.

2)  (AmE) a box, bag, etc. in which things are wrapped or packed; the contents of a box, bag, etc: Our system allows us to track each package.  They cost $1)00 for a package of five.

3)  (IT) a set of programs for a particular type of task which are supplied together: an integrated software package  an updated accounting package  The package uses a wizard to guide you through the testing process.

4)  a set of products or services that are supplied together: We put together the right package of services for each client.  mobile phone packages for small- and medium-sized businesses  a package deal that includes unlimited local and national telephone calls  Whether it will be a piecemeal sale or a package deal remains in question.

5) a set of conditions, proposals, etc. that are offered and must be accepted together; he money involved in them: They took a pay cut as part of a package of measures to save the company.  His total benefits package exceeded $6) million.  She was offered a redundancy package last month.  a €4)00 million emergency loan package

6)  (informal)  = PACKAGE HOLIDAY

parent company  (also parent) noun

(Finance) an organization that owns and controls another company: a merger announcement between CRA and its parent company RTZ  The share price of Reed International, parent of Reed Elsevier, rose 2)¢. 

parking  /; AmE / noun

1) the act of leaving a vehicle somewhere for a period of time: Parking is not allowed here between 9 a.m. and 6) p.m.

2) a space or an area for leaving vehicles: There is free parking for customers.

performing  adjective

working to a very high standard:  a high-performing company/team

perk    /; AmE / noun something you receive as well as your wages for doing a particular job: Perks offered by the firm include a car and free health insurance.  There was a long-running dispute over executive perks.  Not having to get up early is just one of the perks of being retired.

permanent  /; AmE / adjective lasting or staying for a long time: a permanent job  permanent staff  She will take over the job until a permanent replacement is found.  You must register if you want to use the software on a permanent basis.  If the position is not permanent, the contract should state the expected length of employment. 

personal assistant  noun (abbr PA)

a person who works as a secretary or an assistant for one person: the personal assistant to the Director   EXECUTIVE SECRETARY

plant  /; AmE / noun

1) a factory or place where power is produced or an industrial process takes place: Toyota has car assembly plants in the United States and Canada.  It is Europe’s most productive car plant.  Two more nuclear power plants are to be built by the end of the decade. 

2) large machinery that is used in industrial processes: The company has been investing in new plant and equipment.  specialists in plant hire

point of sale  noun [C] (plural points of sale) (abbr POS)

(Commerce; Marketing) the place where a product is sold: More information on healthy foods should be provided at the point of sale.  Reading product tags and checking credit are performed at the point of sale.  point-of-sale advertising/displays  Point-of-sale computer systems with touch screens are being used at restaurants to automate the ordering process.

plummet  // verb  to fall suddenly and quickly from a high level or position: Share prices plummeted to an all-time low.   SYN   PLUNGE 

practice  // noun

1) action rather than ideas: She’s determined to put her new ideas into practice.  The idea sounds fine in theory, but will it work in practice?

2) a way of doing sth that is the usual or expected way in a particular organization or situation: guidelines for good practice  a review of pay and working practices  employment/labour practices

3) a thing that is done regularly; a habit or a custom: the German practice of giving workers a say in how their company is run

4) the work or the business of some professional people such as doctors, dentists and lawyers; the place where they work: My solicitor is no longer in practice.  a successful law practice

premises  // noun [pl.]

the buildings and land that a business owns or uses: We will soon need larger premises.  business/commercial premises  All the food is made on the premises.  The company has moved to smart new premises in the heart of the city.

pre-tax  (also spelled pretax, especially in AmE) adjective [only before noun]

(Accounting) before tax has been taken away: The company reported pre-tax profits of €1)82) million last year.  At the pre-tax level, the group suffered losses of $4)5)0 million.  The results included a $5) million pre-tax charge related to workforce reductions.

probation  /; AmE / noun

1) a time of training and testing when you start a new job to see if you are suitable for the work: a period of probation

2) a period of time during which a person or a company that has not been doing well must improve: He said that management was on probation and some people may be dismissed.

profit  /; AmE / noun the money that you make in business or by selling things, especially after paying the costs involved: They reported a profit of $5)1)2) million.  Profit on sales of the group’s luxury brand have risen by 1)2)%.  The company made a profit last year.  The transport operation has failed to turn (= make) a profit.  The sale generated record profits.  Profit from exports rose 7.3)%.  They should be able to sell at a profit.  The agency is voluntary and not run for profit.   The company said it would meet its profit forecast for the year.  They have reported a first-quarter profit that was higher than expected.  

profit margin  noun


1) a percentage showing the relationship between the profit a company makes and the money that it obtains from sales (revenueNOTE   This is often seen as a sign of the general efficiency of the company: The company showed a very disappointing profit margin of 0.4)% of revenue.  The most profitable department store had a pre-tax profit margin of 1)4).2)% on sales of $9.3) billion.

2) the difference between the cost of buying or producing sth and the price that it is sold for, calculated as a percentage of the selling price

promote verb

1)  to help sth to happen or develop:  policies to promote competition in the industry

2)  (Marketing)

to help sell a product, service, etc. or make it more popular by advertising it or offering it at a special price: Promoting new products and getting them accepted in the marketplace is expensive.  The area is being promoted as a tourist destination.  The supermarket chain has been promoting aggressively.

3)  (often be promoted) to move sb to a more senior job in an organization: She worked hard and was soon promoted.  He has been promoted to assistant manager of the department.  

4)  (Finance) to move a company to a higher position within a particular system, such as a stock exchange index: The company’s shares have been promoted to the FTSE All-Share index.  

5)  (Marketing) to arrange a large public event such as a sports competition

propose  /; AmE / verb

1) to suggest a plan, an idea, etc. for people to think about and decide on: The union proposed changes to the regulations.  She proposed that the product be withdrawn.  (BrE also) She proposed that the product should be withdrawn.  He proposed changing the name of the company.  It was proposed to pay the money from public funds.  The proposed changes will mean higher taxes for small businesses.

2) to suggest sth at a formal meeting and ask people to vote on it: I propose Tom Ellis for chairman.

protectionism  // noun

(Economics) the principle or practice of protecting a country’s own industry by taxing foreign goods: The system of protectionism aims to preserve jobs.  We cannot preach free trade abroad and practise protectionism at home.


Q q

qualification  /; AmE / noun

1) (BrE) an exam that you have passed or a course of study that you have successfully completed: What qualifications do you have?  In this job, experience counts for more than paper qualifications.  He left school with no formal qualifications.

2) a skill or type of experience that you need for a particular job or activity: Previous managerial experience is a necessary qualification for this job.

3) the fact of passing an exam, completing a course of training or reaching the standard necessary to do a job: Students who do well on work experience may be offered employment following qualification.

quantify  /; AmE / verb to describe or express sth as an amount or a number: The risks associated with this venture are difficult to quantify.

quorate  // adjective (BrE) (formal) a meeting that is quorate has enough people present for them to make official decisions by voting   OPP   INQUORATE

quota  /; AmE / noun

1)  (Economics) the limited number or amount of people or things that is officially allowed: to introduce a strict import quota on grain  export quotas  a quota system for greenhouse gases

2) a fixed amount of sth that sb can receive or must do; a fixed number of people that are expected or needed: He never takes his full quota of holidays.  Our sales quotas were not met last year.  I’m going home now-I’ve done my quota of work for the day.


R r

recall  verb

1) (Commerce) to ask people to return a product they have bought, usually because there is sth wrong with it: The company recalled 6).5) million of its tyres.  recalled products  

2)  (not used in the continuous tenses) to remember sth you have seen or heard: Customers who have heard your message in a 6)0-second ad will recall it in a 1)0-second one.

recession  // noun

(Economics) a difficult period in the economy of a country or group of countries, when there is less trade and industrial activity than usual and more people are unemployed: The economy is now officially in recession.  The manufacturing sector is recovering slowly from last year’s recession.  The country is emerging from its deepest recession since 1)94)5).  

recovery  // noun (plural recoveries)

1)  the process of improving or becoming strong again: There are no signs yet of an economic recovery.  a recovery in consumer spending  The company’s recovery plan will be unveiled at a meeting in New York.  We consider this company to be a recovery stock (= one whose value is likely to rise as the company is improving).  Analysts said that last month’s recovery in share prices had run out of steam.

2) the process or fact of getting back sth, for example money that you are owed: The country’s poor legal system has proved to be an obstacle to debt recovery.  The police have new powers to assist in the tracing and recovery of criminal assets.

3) the process of obtaining oil, minerals, etc. from the ground

recruitment  // noun

1)  (HR) the act or the process of finding new people to join a company or an organization: the recruitment of top executives  staff recruitment  a recruitment company/agency

2)  (HR) a person who has been chosen to join a company or an organization; an occasion when sb is chosen: Twenty-one recruitments have been carried out so far this year, of which ten were new posts.

3) the act of persuading sb to do sth for you: We are involved in the recruitment of people to take part in our market research.

redesign  // verb  to design a product, service, system, etc. again in a different way:

The Seattle-based company has redesigned its logo.  Engineers completely redesigned the way the car’s body was manufactured.

redundant  // adjective (BrE)

(HR) without a job because your employer has no more work available for you: the cost of retraining redundant employees

refund  noun

(Accounting; Commerce)

noun //

a sum of money that is paid back to you, especially because you paid too much or because you returned goods to a shop/store:  a tax refund  Return the product to the place of purchase for a full refund. 

regulation  // noun

1) (abbr reg) an official rule made by a government or some other authority: accounting/environmental/financial/safety regulations  the rules and regulations of corporate life  Some big companies are failing to meet government regulations.

2)  controlling sth by means of rules: the voluntary regulation of the press  The authority plans to tighten regulation of company auditors. 

relaunch  // verb

(Marketing) to start or present sth again in a new or different way, especially a product for sale:

to relaunch a product The magazine was relaunched as a monthly to attract new readers.  The website was bought by a software company who relaunched it as a pay-for-use service.

relaunch  // noun

the relaunch of the magazine

reliable  // adjective

1)  that you can trust or rely on: We are looking for someone who is reliable and hard-working.  a reliable machine

2)  that is likely to be correct or true: They provide reliable information to investors.  These tests are a reliable indicator of future performance.

relocate  /; AmE / verb to move or to move sb/sth to a new place to work or operate: The company relocated its head office to Stanford.  The owner is selling because his partner has relocated.  Are you thinking about relocating ?

replace  // verb

1) to be used instead of something else: The new design will eventually replace all existing models.  Their currency has been replaced with the US dollar.  These measures do not replace the need for regular safety checks.

2) to take a new job, or to put a new person in a job, instead of sb else: Mr Hill replaces the outgoing Head of Communications.  People leaving are not being replaced.  She will be very difficult to replace.  He will be replaced as Chief Executive by Margaret Reed.  The company failed to get the shareholder votes it needed to replace the whole board.

3)  (Commerce) to change sth that is damaged, old, or does not work properly for sth new or better: People aren’t replacing their computers as often as manufacturers would like.  We need to replace the valves and pumps with more efficient motors.

replacement  // noun

1) a thing that replaces sth that is old, broken, not good enough, not available, etc: Aluminium is becoming popular as a replacement for steel in cars.  If you are not happy with any item, return it for a replacement or refund.

2) a person who replaces another person in an organization, for example by taking their job: It won’t be easy to find a replacement for Louisa.  We have been forced to use replacement workers during the strike.

3) the act of replacing one thing with another, especially sth that is newer or better: the replacement of old, inefficient electrical equipment  Our PCs are due for replacement. 

reposition  // verb

(Marketing) to present a product in a new way so that it will attract more or different customers: The parent company intend to reposition the brand as sportswear, rather than fashion.  The bank is repositioning itself to focus on consumers and personal finance

resign  // verb

(HR) to officially tell sb that you are leaving your job, an organization, etc: She resigned as manager after eight years.  Two members resigned from the board in protest.  He resigned his directorship last year.

restriction  // noun

1) a rule or law that limits what you can do or what can happen: There should be fewer restrictions on trading, not more.  There are no restrictions on the amount of money you can withdraw.

2) the act of limiting or controlling sth: Restriction of supply will help support prices.

restructure  // verb

1) to organize sth such as a company, an industry, etc. in a different way in order to make it more efficient: The company has recently restructured, reducing the size of its stores and changing the product mix.  We’re going to have to restructure the business to reflect falling demand.

2)  (Finance) if a company with problems restructures its debts, it agrees with lenders to pay them in a different way from before: Talks began in August to restructure $6).5) billion of debt.

résumé  /; AmE / noun  a written record of your education and employment, that you send when applying for a job: Make sure your résumé is up to date. SYN CV (BrE)

retailer  // noun

(Commerce) a business or a person that sells goods directly to the public: There have been strong sales by the big retailers.  clothing/electronics/food retailers  a retailer of computer products  The product is about to go on sale at a leading high-street retailer.  Some retailers have decided not to stock the new product.  the growth of online retailers  More shoppers are saving money by buying basic clothing from discount retailers.  They are one of Britain’s biggest fashion retailers.

retrain  // verb

(HR) to learn, or to teach sb, a new type of work, a new skill, etc: Staff have been retrained to use the new technology.  I am considering retraining as an IT teacher. 

return ticket (BrE) (AmE round-trip ticket) a ticket for a journey to a place and back again:  A return is cheaper than two singles.  the return fare to London

roll out; roll sth out 

1) to introduce a new product, service or technology by gradually making it available to more people; to become available in this way: The new service is to be rolled out next year.  The product will be launched in New York and then rolled out in other cities across the USA.

2) to show a new aircraft or vehicle to the public for the first time; to be seen for the first time: It will be the world’s biggest passenger airline when it rolls out in 2)006).

round trip  noun a journey to a place and back again: a 3)0-mile round trip to work  a round trip between New York and Chicago  It’s 3)0 miles round trip to work.

royalty  // noun (plural royalties)


1) an amount of money that is paid for the right to use the property of another person, such as the owner of a copyright or patent. A particular amount is paid each time their book, product, etc. is sold or their work performed: She received $5) 000 in royalties.  a 1)2)% royalty on sales of the drug  royalty fees/payments/rates/revenue  We allow them to use our design and then pick up royalties on each product they sell.

2) an amount of money that is paid by an oil or mining company to the owner of the land that they are working on


S s

sales revenue  noun (also sales revenues [pl.]) (especially AmE)

(Accounting) the total income that a company receives from sales of goods and services in a particular period of time   SYN   TURNOVER

sample  /; AmE / noun

1) a small amount or example of sth that can be looked at or tried to see what it is like: They are giving away free samples of shampoo in supermarkets.  a book of fabric samples  The website has useful sample letters and emails.

2)  (Technical) a number of people or things taken from a larger group and used in tests to provide information about the group: We did a telephone survey of a random sample of 1) 000 workers.  The drug was tested on a sample group of 2)4) people.

3)  (Technical) a small amount of a product that is looked at or tested in order to see what the rest is like:  A sample of parts are inspected for quality.  A sample taken from the plant tested positive for the bacteria.

schedule  /; AmE / noun


1) a plan that lists all the work that you have to do and when you must do each thing:  I have a very busy schedule for the next few days.  We’re working to a tight schedule (= we have a lot of things to do in a short time).  Let employees design their own work schedules.  Work began on schedule (= at the planned time).  The new bridge has been finished two years ahead of schedule.  The project has already fallen behind schedule.  They are currently running 8 to 1)0 days behind schedule.

2)  a list showing what time particular events happen:  a bus/train schedule  The airline has increased the services in its summer schedule.   SYN   TIMETABLE

3) a formal written list of things, for example prices, rates or conditions:  Our price schedule is printed in the enclosed document.  The tariff schedule was a part of the trade agreement.  The schedule of wage rates is recognized by the Director of Labor and Industrial Relations.

4)  (Insurance) a list that describes what is covered by a particular insurance policy:  The Schedule of Compensation lists the amounts of money that will be paid for different bodily injuries.

5)  a list of the television and radio programmes that are on a particular channel and the times that they start:  The channel’s schedules are filled with old movies and repeats.  Channel 4) has published its spring schedules.

6)  (Accounting)  = TAX SCHEDULE

secretary  /; AmE / noun (plural secretaries)

1)  a person who works in an office, working for another person, dealing with letters and telephone calls, typing, keeping records, arranging meetings with people, etc:  a legal/medical secretary  Please contact my secretary to make an appointment.


3)  an official of a club, society, etc. who deals with writing letters, keeping records, and making business arrangements:  the membership secretary

self    // pronoun  written on a cheque or other document to refer to the person who has signed

seminar  // noun a meeting for discussion or training: a one-day management seminar   WEBINAR

setback  // noun

1) a difficulty or problem that delays or prevents sth, or makes a situation worse: We suffered a major setback when the new product failed safety tests.  The delay in receiving parts was a temporary setback.  

2)  (Stock Exchange) (used especially in newspapers) a fall in prices: Canadian stock prices suffered a 6).7% setback in July.

shareholder  /; AmE / noun

(Finance) a person or group that owns shares in a company or business: They are the biggest shareholder in EFM, with a 3)0% stake.  a shareholders' meeting  The restructuring is subject to the approval of ordinary shareholders.

shipping agent  noun

(Transport) a person or company in a port that arranges business, such as insurance or documents, for the owner of a ship

shortlist  /; AmE / verb

verb (AmE spelling also short-list) (usually be shortlisted) to put sb/sth on a shortlist for a job: Candidates who are shortlisted for interview will be contacted by the end of the week.

sick leave  noun

(HR) permission to be away from work because of illness; the period of time spent away from work: to be on sick leave

slogan  /; AmE / (BrE also strapline, less frequent) noun

(Marketing) a phrase or sentence that is easy to remember, used for example in advertising to attract people’s attention and make them remember a product: advertising slogans  One of the easiest slogans to remember was Coca Cola’s: ‘It’s the real thing’.   SYN   TAG LINE

slow    /; AmE / adjective

1) not happening quickly: The outlook is for continued slow growth in Brazil.  Economic recovery is expected to be slow.

2)  not very busy; containing little action: Sales are slow (= not many goods are being sold).  The spring shopping season may be slow.

3)  slow to do sth | slow (in) doing sth not doing sth immediately; not happening immediately: The industry has been slow to react.  They were very slow paying me.  The company has been slow in responding to shifts in demand.

spending  // noun the amount of money that is spent by a person, a government or an organization: Consumer spending rose by 4).5)% over the year.  a sharp drop in business spending on technology  High street spending (= the amount that shoppers spend in the main shops/stores in a town or city) fell unexpectedly.  Corporate spending cuts have led to a sharp drop in advertising revenue.

start-up  (also spelled startup) noun

1) the action or process of starting or making sth start: They announced the start-up of a new pension scheme.  On start-up, the computer asks for a password.

2)  a new company: This region has the highest level of business start-ups in the country.  It is becoming harder for technology start-ups to attract venture capital.

strategic industry  noun an industry that is considered to be extremely important to the economy or the defence of a country or region: The government is likely to raise tariff levels to protect strategic industries such as electronics.

subcontract  verb /; AmE / to pay a person or company to do some of the work that you have been given a contract to do: We subcontracted the work to a small engineering firm.  We subcontracted a small engineering firm to do the work.

subsidiary  // noun a company that is owned or controlled by another company: Exis Power, a 5)8%-owned subsidiary of Exis Corp   SALES SUBSIDIARY

subsidize  , -ise // verb to give money to sb or an organization to help pay for sth; to give a subsidy: Their online service is subsidized by advertising.  The company offered to subsidize anyone who came to work by bus or bicycle.

supplier  // noun

1) a company that provides raw materials or pieces of equipment to companies that make goods; a company that provides finished goods, for example for other companies to sell to the public: suppliers to the catering industry  the world’s largest supplier of mobile phones  Boeing are the airline’s sole (= only) supplier of aircraft.  We have reduced our supplier base (= the number of companies that supply us) by half over the last year.  a building supplier (= a company that supplies materials for building)  The company is working with suppliers to cut costs by 3)0%.  

2)  a company that supplies gas, water or electricity: a UK-based energy supplier  a supplier of gas and power  She claims that a third of households have switched suppliers (= changed to another company) in the last three years.


T t

tackle  // verb

1)  to make an effort to deal with a difficult problem or situation: measures to tackle inflation

2) to speak to sb about a problem or difficult situation: I tackled our supplier about the late payments.

target audience  noun

(Marketing) the group of people that an advertisement, a programme or a product is aimed at: the target audience for the new product  We want to reach a target audience that’s younger in age.  Radio 1) has widened its target audience to 1)6)-3)5) year-olds.   TARGET MARKET

tariff  // noun

1)  (Trade) a tax that is paid on goods coming into or going out of a country: New import tariffs have been imposed on a wide range of agricultural products.  High tariff barriers protect domestic industry.  Thailand has complained that high tariffs on its tuna exports makes it uncompetitive.  The latest car industry plan includes tariff exemptions for the local manufacturers.

2)  (Commerce) a list of fixed prices that are charged by a company for a particular service, or by a hotel or restaurant for rooms, meals, etc: a telephone tariff  the hotel’s daily/weekly tariff

tax     // noun, verb

noun money that you have to pay to the government so that it can pay for public services. People pay tax according to their income and businesses pay tax according to their profits. Tax is also often paid on goods and services: They pay over €1)00 000 a year in tax.  profits before/after tax  They have put a tax on cigarettes.  Has the tax been deducted from the interest?  All menu prices are exclusive of tax.  You must fill in and return your tax form by the end of September.  The tax office demanded €2)00 000 in back taxes (= taxes that are owed from a previous period).  By more efficient accounting, the company cut its tax bill by 5)%.  The government is to close a tax loophole which favours wealthy foreigners living in the country.

verb to put a tax on sb/sth; to make sb pay tax: Shares in quoted companies are taxed at 4)0%.  You will be taxed on all your income.  Companies are more heavily taxed in this country than in others.  Companies resident in Denmark are taxed on world-wide income and capital gains.

temporary  /; AmE / adjective lasting or intended to last only for a short time; not permanent: The canteen has been closed as a temporary measure while the problem is investigated.  More than half the staff are temporary. 

terminal  /; AmE / noun


1) a building or set of buildings at an airport where air passengers arrive and leave:      A third terminal was opened last year.

2)  (IT) a piece of equipment, usually consisting of a keyboard and a screen that joins the user to a central computer system: Please switch off your computer terminal before leaving.

3) a place, building or set of buildings where journeys by train, bus or boat begin or end:  a railway/bus/ferry terminal

timetable  // noun

1)  a plan of when you expect particular events to happen: I have a busy timetable this week.  We have set out a timetable for the opening of four new branches.  The chairman announced that jobs would be cut, but refused to set a timetable.

2)  a list showing what time particular events happen: a bus/train timetable (= when they arrive and leave)

trade barrier  noun

(Economics) an action by a government that makes free trade between its own country and other countries more difficult or impossible: Under the agreement, member countries will remove trade barriers on industrial goods.  Exports from developing countries face higher trade barriers than products from developed countries.  Several countries agreed to lower trade barriers to their farm products.

turnover  /; AmE / noun

1)  (Accounting) the total value of goods or services sold by a company during a particular period of time:  The firm has an annual turnover of $75) million.   SYN   SALES REVENUE

2)  (HR) the rate at which employees leave a company and are replaced by other people: The factory has a high turnover of staff.  plans to prevent avoidable turnover  Our turnover rate last year was 3)%.

3)  (Accounting; Commerce) the rate at which goods are sold in a shop/store and replaced by others: Special offers help to ensure a fast turnover of stock.  the stock turnover rate

4)  (Stock Exchange) the total value of the business done on a stock exchange during a particular period of time; the total number of shares bought and sold: Market turnover was 2).6) billion shares.


U u

ultimate consumer  noun

(Marketing) the person who actually buys or uses a particular product: The ultimate consumer pays considerably more than the manufacturing price.   SYN   END-USER

umbrella  // noun a thing that contains many parts or elements: There are 2)2) companies operating under the umbrella of SRC Holdings Corp.  The Pakistan Tea Association is an umbrella organization for all importers.

unfair  /; AmE / adjective

not giving every group or person the same opportunity to do sth; not right or fair: Steel makers face unfair competition from subsidized foreign producers.  The new pension plans are unfair to older workers.   OPP   FAIR

USP     // abbr

(Marketing) unique selling proposition or unique selling point (less frequent)

a feature of a product or service that makes it different from all others: We need to create a USP for the product if it is to sell.  Many of the best slogans are simple statements of USPs.



V v

vacancy  // noun (plural vacancies)

1)  (HR)

a job that is available for sb to do: We have a vacancy for a designer.  A vacancy has arisen in our sales department.

       a vacancy arises/exists/occurs  to fill a vacancy

2) a room that is available in a hotel:  No vacancies (= on a sign).

vacation  /; / noun

1) (AmE) a holiday or a period when people are not working: You look tired-you should take a vacation.  I’m on vacation next week.  The job includes four weeks' paid vacation.  Vacation pay is proportional to the number of hours worked.

2) in the UK, one of the periods of time when universities or courts of law are closed; in the US, one of the periods of time when schools, colleges, universities or courts of law are closed: students looking for vacation work

valuable  // adjective

1) worth a lot of money: Please leave valuable items in the hotel safe.  We had to sell off valuable assets.  the ten most valuable companies in Europe

2)  very useful or important: Her experience in Japan made her very valuable to the company.  The book provides valuable information on recent trends.

value  // noun, adjective, verb


1) how much sth is worth in money or other goods for which it can be exchanged:      Share values have fallen by 2)0% in the last year.  Investments could increase in value by about 5)% per year.  Some people have put a value of $2) billion on the company.  creating value for investors  The euro has lost a third of its value against the dollar.

2) (especially BrE) how much sth is worth compared with its price: Our printers represent excellent value when compared with similar products.  Consumers are looking for the service that offers the best value for money.

3)  values [pl.] beliefs about what is right and wrong and what is important in life:      The document lists the eight core values on which company policy is based.  The joint venture was a success because the companies had shared values.

adjective [only before noun]

(about a product) produced and sold cheaply: We have over a thousand items in our value range of toiletries.


1) to decide how much money sth is worth: The company has been valued at over €2) billion.

2) to think that sb/sth is important: I value him as a friend as well as a colleague.  The metal is valued for its lightness and strength.  valued customers/employees  The firm values its older employees as a resource of knowledge.


W w

warehouse  /; AmE / noun

a building where large quantities of goods are stored, especially before they are sent to shops/stores to be sold: We have 3)0 000 square feet of warehouse space.

wholesaler  /; AmE / noun


a person or a business that buys goods in large quantities and sells them to businesses, so they can be sold again to make a profit:

word of mouth  noun the process of people telling each other about sth: Most of our products are sold by word of mouth rather than by advertising.  word-of-mouth marketing


X x

x-efficiency  noun the ability of a company to use the people, machines, etc. that it has in the best way in order to produce as much as possible quickly and at a low cost: In order for a firm to achieve x-efficiency, staff motivation needs to be high.   SYN   TECHNICAL EFFICIENCY   OPP   X-INEFFICIENCY

Xerox™  /; AmE / noun a process for producing copies of letters, documents, etc. using a special machine; a copy made using this process: a Xerox machine  She kept Xeroxes of all the letters.

xerox  /; AmE / verb to make a copy of a letter, document, etc. by using Xerox or a similar process: Could you xerox this letter please?   SYN   PHOTOCOPY


Y y

yard    /; AmE / noun

1) an area of land used for a special purpose or business: a boat yard  a freight yard

2)  (abbr yd) a unit for measuring length, equal to 3) feet or 0.91)4)4) of a metre

yearbook  /; AmE / noun

a book published once a year, giving details of what happened the previous year in a particular company, country or area of activity: The ‘Japan Statistical Yearbook 2)005)’ covers all fields of statistics published by government and private organizations.

Yellow Pages™  noun a book with yellow pages that gives a list of companies and organizations and their telephone numbers, arranged according to the type of services they offer: Look in the Yellow Pages to find your nearest car hire firm.   WHITE PAGES


Z z

zero defects  noun

(Production) used to describe a system of quality management which aims to make products that contain almost no faults: a strategy for achieving zero defects in construction  Total quality management meant zero defects.  Our products are manufactured to our zero-defects standard.   RIGHT FIRST TIME

zone    /; AmE / noun, verb


1) an area or a region with a particular feature or use: an industrial zone  the danger/safety zone

2)  one of the areas that a larger area is divided into for the purpose of organization:      postal charges to countries in zone 2)


1) to keep an area of land to be used for a particular purpose: The town centre was zoned for office development.

2)  to divide an area of land into smaller areas