Некоммерческое акционерное общество


Кафедра Иностранные языки 



Методические указания для развития умений говорения на основе

ситуативных диалогов (для всех специальностей)


Алматы 2009

СОСТАВИТЕЛЬ:  Кожаканова М.Т  Английский язык. Методическая указания для развития умений говорения на основе ситуативных диалогов.  для всех специальностей.  – Алматы: АИЭС, 2009. – 32 с.

 Методические указания предназначены для студентов второго курса, изучающих курс «Деловое общение». Цель методических указаний – способствовать выработке умений анализировать и обобщать полученную информацию, а также обучить основам делового информативного общения в устной и письменной формах.

Список литературы 

1.     English File. Intermediate student’s book. Oxford university press. 2005

  1. Market Leader. Intermediate Business English course book. Longman com. 2005
  2. Oxford Russian Dictionary. Oxford university Press 2007. fourth edition.
  3. New Headway Advanced Student’s Book. Oxford university Press. 2005



Unit 1  ……………………………………………………………………….. 3

Unit 2 ………………………………………………………………………... 6

Unit 3 …………………………………………………………………………11

Unit 4 …………………………………………………………………………16

Unit 5 …………………………………………………………………………25




Unit 1

 Listen to the Interview between the respondent 1 and respondent 2 and answer the questions


1 What is the theme of the  Interview?

2 Does the first respondent  buy brands?

3 Whose words are these: if you buy a branded product it’s a guarantee that the quality is fairly good and the product is reliable.

4 In first respondent’s opinion why the most people buy brands?

5 Does he think that the branded products are usually stylish and have a good design.

6 Why the second respondent doesn’t buy brands?

7 What kind of brands does he buy for his kids?


 Exercise 1. Read the dialogue


Marcia:   Alain, how do you feel about this?

                 Is she the right person for us?

Alain:      Definitely. In my opinion, she's ideal.

Marcia:   Right. Valerie, what do you think?

Valerie:   I agree because she's very good at marketing. I've met her

                 several times.

Marcia:   Barbara, you're shaking your head. What’s your opinion?

Barbara:  I'm afraid I can’t agree. I don't think she's

                  suitable at all.

Marcia:   So what do you suggest then?

Barbara:  I think we should find someone else. I

                 do have someone in mind.

Barbara:  In my opinion, his company has a lot to offer. Why don’t we

                  meet him and see if he's interested?


Which of the phrases in Exercise 1 are:

1 asking for opinions?              

2 giving opinions?

3 agreeing or disagreeing?

4 making suggestions?


Role play this situation

Jonson, a large department store in Chicago, USA, is losing money. Its main product areas are food, clothing and household furniture. Seventy percent of its revenue comes from clothing, twenty-two percent from food and eight percent from furniture. Three directors of the company meet to discuss the company's problems and how to solve them.

Student A: In your opinion, Johnson has a problem with its brand image.

 People consider their clothes to be boring, old-fashioned, over-priced and unexciting. They used to think they were well-made, value for money, durable and reasonably priced.

         Nowadays, the store sells clothes aimed at different age groups – young, middle-aged and old.

         People do not enjoy visiting the store because it needs redecorating in brighter colours.

         Staff uniforms do not help the company’s brand image.

You think Johnson should focus on the segment of the clothing market. You are not sure which segment would be best, so you want to spend a lot of money on market research.

Student B: In your opinion, the brand image of Johnson is excellent. People think that Johnson’s products are high quality and durable. But they are aiming at too many segments of the market.

            They should focus on the 30-50 year-old segment of the clothing market.

            They should not compete in the 15-30 year-old segment and should reduce

            floor space for these products.

            They should use the additional space to sell more food.

            They need to spend more money on advertising and promoting their


Student C: You want AB to use Orion Plc, the Scottish firm.

You think:

            The cost of the contract is very reasonable.

            There are many skilled workers in the area.

            The move will create a lot of jobs in the area.

            There will be good data protection.


If AB chooses one of the overseas options, you feel:

            Personal information may not be secure.

            Service will not be as good.

            Employees will not know enough about AB’s customers or its products.

            You do not think the cost saving suggested for the in-house call centres are



            Exercise 2. Complete the extract below with the words given in the chart


Receptionist:   Good morning. СPT. How may I help you?

Philippa:          It's Philippa Knight here. Could you put me through to …..

                         281. please?

Receptionist:    Certainly. Putting you through.

 Marcia:           Hello. Marcia Bonetti …..

Philippa:          Hello Marcia. It's Philippa Knight from The Fashion Group in    

                           New York.

Marcia:          Hi  Philippa. how are things.

Philippa:        Fine thanks. I'm calling because I'll be in London next week and I'd                                                 

                        like to make an ….. to see you. I want to tell you about  our new ….

Marcia:          Great. What day would ….. you?  I'm fairly free next week. I think.

Philippa:         How about Wednesday? In the afternoon? Could you make it then?

Marcia:           Let me look now. Let me check my ….. Oh yes. that'd be no

                         problem at all. What about two o'clock? Is that OK?

Philippa:           ….. Thanks very much. It'll be great to see you again. We'll have              

                        Plenty to talk about.

Marcia:          That's for sure. See you next week then.

Philippa:         Right. Bye.

Marcia:           Bye.


speaking, extension, suit, appointment, free, diary, plenty, collection, perfect


 Role play these two telephone situations

 Student A: is a company employee who has arranged to meet Student В, а colleague from one of your subsidiaries. Explain that you cannot keep the appointment, and give a reason. Suggest an alternative day.


Student В: is on a business trip to Sydney, Australia and wants to stay an extra day. Telephone the Qantas airline office. Talk to the representative, Student A, to arrange a different flight.


Exercise 3. Match the words and phrases below which have the same meaning. For each pair decide which is British English and which is American English


1   subway                            a) motorway

2  city centre                        b)  lift

3  carry-on baggage             c)  public toilet

4  one way                           d)  schedule

5   return                              e)   economy class

6  freeway                            f)   single

7   rest room                         g)  parking lot

8  elevator                            h)  underground

9  coach class                       i)   hand luggage

10 timetable                         j) round trip

11 car park                           k) downtown


Exercise 4.Read the dialogue try to find the meaning of the words to get in, to take over


VICKI: Do you have a glittering career? Is it all you even dreamed it would be? Well paid, nice office, company car?

MATT: How are you getting on at work?

VICKI: How well are things going for you at work?

VICKI: Maybe you’ve been lucky enough to land a dream job in your ideal company.

MATT: You’ve got your dream job. Mind you, it was difficult to get in.

VICKI: It was difficult to get employed by that company.

MATT: But you got through the interviews and tests.

VICKI: Yes you managed to pass the tests and were successful in the interviews, and...

MATT: you got in!

VICKI: So...Matt, how are you getting on at work?

MATT: How am I getting on? Oh, fine. In fact, I’ve just been promoted.

VICKI: Oh, so you’ve got a more important job now - that’s great. You really are

heading for the top!

VICKI: A word of warning though! Once you’ve been promoted you may find you

have to work harder and harder, and work longer and longer hours.... before

you know it the job can take over your life!

MATT: Actually, you could be right, I think this job is taking over my life!


Read the  examples and give your own:

1. To get in. It’s really difficult to get in to Oxford University.

2. To take over. I started playing badminton as a hobby but it’s completely taken

over my life now - I play every day.



Listen to the Interview with Stephanie Taylor and answer the questions


1 In Stephanie Taylor’s opinion what are the main priorities for business travellers    today?

2 What is the main factor for a short haul flight into Europe?

3 What is the big advantage for the business traveller?

4 With new communications technology do businesspeople need to travel so much?

5 Is it necessary to establish good face to relations with colleagues or with customers?


 Unit 2


Exercise 1. Put the dialogue into the right order 


A    It's strange driving on the left-hand side of the road.

  Are you interested in sport?

A    Where do you go. In Italy?

B     No. Not really. What about you?.

A    Yes. Is this your first visit to


B    I like golf and I go skiing about once a month in winter

A   Yes, it is. I'd love to see the university. Then let me show you round tomorrow

В   Oh, would you? That's very kind of you. Is there a good golf course in


A   I think so, but I don't play myself

В    Yes. A small place near Chatillon.

      It's in the Alps.


Work alone If you're having a meal or a drink with someone or travelling together, you can't spend all your time talking about business. Much of the time you'll be chatting or socializing. An important part of socializing is telling people about things that have happened to you - unusual, amusing or interesting experiences you've had.

1 Think of three stories you can tell. Think of an amusing, frightening, surprising or embarrassing experience you have had ...

... on a journey by car, plane, train or bus

... in a hotel

... while having a meal

... while meeting or looking after a visitor

... at work

If you can't think of any of your own personal experiences you could retell stories you have heard other people telling - maybe as if they really happened to you.

Make notes to help you to remember the main points.


2 Here are some expressions you can use when exchanging stories. Highlight the ones you'd like to remember.

I’ll never forget the day...

Did I ever tell you about...?

 I had an interesting experience the other day...

 The worst journey I ever made was ...

I had a surprise /I had a fright the other day when...

That's amazing!

Good heavens!

How awful!


How terrifying!

What happened then?

What did you do then?

How did you feel then?

That's interesting!

Good heavens!

Good grief!

How embarrassing!

Why did you do that?

What did you say then?


Listen to the Interview with Richard Brown and answer the questions


1.     How many types of organizational character do their research suggest?

2.     Is single type associated with business success or market leadership?

3.     In what ways particularly successful companies tend to be similar?

4.     Do you agree with Brown’s three ways of being successful?



Exercise 1. Match a line in A with a reply in B




1 Mike! Long time no see! How are things?

2 I'm afraid something's come up, and 1 can't make our meeting on the 6th.

 3 What are your travel arrangements?

 4 Could you confirm the details in writing?

5 They want a deposit of 2  percent, which means  £7,500.

 6 I'll give you £5,250 for your car. That's my final offer.

 7 I don't know their number offhand. Bear with me while I  look it up.

 8 OK. Here's their number. Are you ready? It's 0800 205080.

 9 So what's your salary, Dave? 35K? 40K?

10 Have you applied for that job?


a   Sorry, 1 didn't quite get that last bit. What was it again?

b   Sure. I'll email them to you as an attachment.

 с   Hey! Mind your own business! You wouldn't tell anyone yours!

d  There's no point. I'm not qualified for it. I wouldn't stand a chance.

 e   I'm getting flight BA 2762, at 18.45.   

 f Good, thanks, Jeff. Business is booming. What about yourself?

 g   Great! It's a deal. It's yours.

 h   Never mind. Let's go for the following week. Is Wednesday the 13th good for you?

i  No worries. I'll hold.

 j  I'll read that back to you. Oh eight double oh, two oh five, oh eight oh.


         Which of these situations would you find the most difficult to deal with?

1 Losing a lot of money                         5 A new boss

2 Moving house                                     6 New neighbours

3 Moving to another country                 7 Driving abroad

4 Losing your job                                  8 Getting married


 What has been the most significant change in your life?


         Which of these business situations would worry you most? Why?

 1 You read in the paper that your company will probably be merging with another company.

2 You keep your job after a merger, but you are in a less powerful position.

3 Your company has to relocate to the other side of the city.

4 You are asked to relocate to a dangerous foreign country.

5 You are promoted but are now in charge of a hostile workforce.

6 You have to move from an open plan office to sharing your boss’s office.

7 You have to work with a completely new computer system.

8 You have to decide who to make redundant in your new department after a merger.


      Exercise 2. Role play this situation. You are managers of a television production company, Zoom International. You are discussing these two proposals for changes to company policy

1   Zoom International (Zl) could reduce costs by offering staff a 10% increase in salary instead of a company car. If Zl makes the change, staff will have to provide their own car for business use, using their own money.

2  Zl could increase security at their head office. At present, a security guard checks staff who enter the building. In future, staff will have to go through a barrier where they insert an identity card. If they do not have an identity card, they cannot enter the building. In addition, they must, at all times, wear an identity card with their photograph on it. There will be two female receptionists behind the barrier.


Student В: Proposal 1

Your colleague made this proposal. You are against the proposal because, in your opinion:

•   senior managers and sales staff will not be happy about the change. Some may leave the company.

•   a 10% increase in salary does not compensate for losing a company car.

Ask your colleague to clarify these points.

•   Will the company cancel the 10% increase after one year?

•   Has any other company made a similar change?

Proposal 2

Your colleague has proposed these changes. You are against the changes because, in your opinion:

•   a barrier is not necessary. Two receptionists sitting at a table could check the arrival and departure of staff.

•   staff will often forget their identity cards. This will cause problems in their



Student A: Proposal 1

You have proposed this change to the Board of Directors. You like the idea


•   the salary increase will cost less than providing a new car every four years.

•  The cost of maintaining cars is very high.

You may need to clarify certain points. This information could be useful.

• The company will not cancel the increase after one year.

•  Several other companies in the industry are making the same change.

•   The Board of Directors will make their decision on the proposal at the end of

the month.


Listen to  Interview with Richard Brown and answer the questions


1 What is the easier way to change the business’s character?

2 When was the merging of Guinness and Grand Metropolitian?

3 How many billion-pound company did it create?

4 What was the achievement of the top team?

5 What did they lay out?



         Exercise 3. Match the definitions 1 to 12 to the words and phrases a) to l).

1   the person in charge of the meeting                          a) action points

2  the people at the meeting                                           b) chairperson

3  to go to a meeting                                                       c) propose

4  a list of topics to be discussed                                    d) attend

5   one topic on the list                                                    e) to send your apologies

6  the last topic on the list                                               f) item

7  to make a suggestion formally                                    g) vote

8  to support a formal suggestion                                    h) any other business (AOB)

9  a method of making a decision                                    i) participants

10  an official record of what was said                            j) second

 and/or decided

11   to say that you cannot go to a meeting                     k) minutes

12  what needs to be done after the meeting,                  l) agenda

 and by whom



Exercise 4. Read the dialogue try to find the meaning of the words  to get away, to take off


VICKI: I think it’s time for us to get away from it all Matt.

MATT: Get away from it all? Go away and leave all our work behind? Where are we going?

VICKI: Well I thought we could get away from it all and go on holiday!

MATT: I would really like to get away on holiday. I’m all excited now – I love

holidays. Where are we going?

VICKI: Well Matt, we don’t have to plan a holiday that carefully. We could just take

off somewhere.

MATT: Take off somewhere – what? just leave now without planning anything?

VICKI: Sure. Why not? We could just go to the travel agent today and buy some


We’ve been working hard presenting this programme – we deserve a holiday!

MATT: Right! I’m going to pack my bags now!


Read the  examples and give your own:

1. To get away. I’m really stressed at the moment, I think I need to get away from

it all for a while.

2. To take off. Where have they gone? I don’t know - they didn’t tell me - they’ve

just taken off somewhere


        Study the Useful language box below. Then role play these negotiations. Try to get a good outcome in each situation

Student A is a supplier.

Student В is a buyer.

Supplier: You want to increase the list price of your sports bag model PX7 by 10%. You also want to change your delivery times.

 Buyer: You can only afford a 2% increase. You offer to buy a larger quantity of sports bags at a lower increase. You want the delivery times to stay the same. You also want to change the length of your contract with the supplier.

Student В is a company employee.

Student A is the employee's boss.

Employee: You think you should have a 10% salary increase.

Boss: You think the company can only afford a 2% increase.


Listen to the Interview with Hugh Whitman and answer the questions

1 What company did Mr. Whitman buy?

2 What are the advantages of his company?

3 Why did he want Metrot to become more dynamic and efficient?

4 What is his plan?

5 What is his aim?


Unit 3

  1   Read the text. The following are two letters, both written by employees of a British-based international public relations firm. The two employees work together as editors.

  2   What stereotypes do these people have about each other?

  3  What stereotypes are there of people from your country?

  4   How do we get stereotypes? Where do they come from?









To the Editor-in-Chief:

I am writing to tell you of some problems I have been having with the other editor in the office, Sakiko Fujita. We don 't work well together. She seems to depend on me for most all the ideas and decisions. I seem to carry the responsibility all the time.

To give an example of our tensions, I will describe what happened between us today. This morning we were working on an article. I found that I was doing all the work. She didn 't contribute to the discussion. When I finally asked her what she thought of my decisions, she hesitated. Then she only said that she thought my work was interesting and she would think about it more. I am very frustrated. She doesn 't give me her opinion or ideas How can I work with someone who doesn 't communicate or give feedback? I want to move forward with our work but I can’t with her. How can 1 get her to take on more responsibility?

I know that part of the problem is communication. She doesn't seem to listen to what I am saying. She rarefy looks at me when we speak. And she sits so far away. She is a very reserved person. I can't figure out what is going on in her head.

I hope that you can talk to her and get her to be more involved in our work. As things are now, our collaboration is not at all productive.




Edmundo Montaya Reyes



My Dear Friend Noriko,

Hello. How are you? I hope everything is going well.

I am not doing so well. Life at GIP International has been difficult lately. One of my colleagues is very difficult to work with. He seems only to consider himself. He doesn't know how to share work space or work responsibilities.


Part of the problem is that he has difficult listening carefully to people. When we work together, he rarely asks me for my opinion. He just talk all the time'. When I try to offer my opinion, he interrupts me For example, today we had to make some important changes in an article. He told me what he wanted, and when I tried to say it wasn 't the best idea, he just didn 't want to listen to me.

I don 't know what to dol Maybe I should ask for a transfer to a different office. It is too hard for us to work together. I don 't think we can resolve our differences. Tomorrow I will mention my problem to the editor in chief. I think she will understand.

Thanks for listening to me and my troubles.


With love, Sakiko


Exercise 1.Match the following words (taken from the two letters) to their definitions


_________1. tensions

_________2. hesitate

_________3.  frustrated

_________4.  feedback

_________5.  figure someone out


_________6   collaboration

_________7    colleague

_________8   to consider

_________9   behavior

_________10 to resolve



a. think about

b a person you work with

c working together

d way of acting

e. opinion in response to someone or something

f. understand someone

g to clear up a problem

h  feelings of worry, pressure, or anger

i to pause

j annoyed and disappointed


 Reviewing the case. Underline all the complaints Sakiko had about Edmundo in her letter and all the complaints Edmundo had about Sakiko in his letter. Put the complaints in the correct order in the chart.



Sakiko says


Edmundo says


Eye contact


He looks at me all the time



She doesn 't look at me when we speak.



Physical distance








Giving opinions









Making inferences


In the situation described above, there are two people from different countries working together. They each have their individual style, personality, and experiences, but they also have cultural expectations. They expect other people to behave according to their own cultural ways. For example, Edmundo expects Sakiko to look at him while they speak to each other. In his culture eye contact is an important part of communication. When she doesn't frequently look him in the eye, he thinks that she isn't listening to him. He understands her behavior according to his culture's rules. But Sakiko is acting in accordance with her own cultural rules. In her culture it is common to look away frequently while speaking and listening. She expects him to also look away from time to time. When he doesn't, she feels uncomfortable with him.


48. Read the following list of expectations. Decide which are Edmundo's (E) and which are Sakiko's (S), Share your answers in groups. The first one is done for you.

___E__   1. When people are working together they usually sit close to each other.

Closeness indicates interest and cooperation.

______2. A man should give a woman some physical distance. Physical distance shows respect for a person's space

______3. People should invite each other to say something in conversation. One should ask questions or remain silent so that the other person has a chance to say something.

_____     4. One should begin speaking even if the other person is speaking. If one doesn't interrupt, one will never speak.


______ 5. Silence expresses disinterest or boredom.


______   6. People often disagree with each other. It is normal to have different opinions.

______   7. People should give their opinions and not wait to be asked. It is the

individual's responsibility to say what he or she feels.


______   8. One should express disagreement carefully. An open disagreement could offend or embarrass someone.

______   9. It is not polite to speak while someone else is speaking.

______   10. People may be silent for a few seconds if they are thinking about something. One should respect the silence and not interrupt it.

______   11. If there is a conflict, one should try to resolve it indirectly so that no one is embarrassed.

______   12. It is impossible to resolve a conflict without facing it directly.


     You are the editor-in-chief! You want to keep both Sakiko and Edmundo because they are both excellent editors. How can you help them resolve their conflict? With a partner, talk about a possible solution. Write out a plan of action that will help the two employees resolve their differences. Think about the following questions:

l.    Why are Sakiko and Edmundo having problems with each other? What specific behaviors are causing the misunderstandings?

2.   What small things can they do to work together better on a daily basis?

3.   What is the best way for you, the editor-in-chief, to communicate with them? Should you write them each a letter? Or should you call a meeting with both of them?

4.   How much should you, the editor-in-chief, be involved in their cultural misunderstandings?


Listen to the  Interview with Maggie Miller and answer the questions


1.     Who joined the company?

2.     What investments their company needed?

3.     How many percent did IT system change?

4.     What was the reason of IT system stopping people improving the way they did things?


Exercise 2. Read and complete the dialogue


A:    Paolo! It's great to see you again. Do come in. Shall I take you coat?

В:    …..

A:    Have a seat. Did you have any trouble finding the way?

В:    ……..

A:    How long did it take?

В:    …….

A:    Would you like some coffee?

В:    …….

A:    And how is Stephania?

В:   ……, by the way.

A:    Milk?

В:   ……  

A:    Here you are.

В:    ……



         Exercise 3. Read the dialogue and decide whether these statements are true or false


A:    The next item on the agenda is the new Spanish sales organization. As you know, we're going to open the new sales office in March and so we need to discuss recruitment. Basically we have two alternatives. We can either take on new Spanish sales representatives and train them. Or we can teach our French sales reps Spanish and transfer them. Any views on this, Marcel?

В:    Yes. The important thing here is product knowledge, not language. The French sales staff have already got the product knowledge. They know how the company operates too. I think we should teach them Spanish and transfer them.

A:    How do you feel about that proposal, Carlos?

С:    I don't agree. It takes years to learn a language. But why don't we employ   Spanish staff, and send them to France for technical training?

В:    No. It's a waste of time, if they can't speak French.

С:    What do you think, Nancy?

A:    I don't know, how long does it take to train a new sales rep, Marcel?

В:    It depends on the rep. Usually about a year.

A:    Mmm. That is a problem. But I think nationality is important here. It's a Spanish branch so I don't think we should employ French nationals.

Now I know you're not going to

agree with me here, Marcel, but as I see it we have no choice...


 1.They have three alternatives. 2.The next item on the agenda is the new French sales organization.3. Marcel thinks that  the important thing here is  language not product knowledge. 4.In Carlos’s opinion they should employ Spanish staff, and send them to France for technical training. 5.Nancy thinks that nationality is important here. 6. They are going to open the new sales office in May.


Exercise 4. Read and complete the dialogue


A:   Alan Wilson.

P:    Hello, ……here.

A:    Hello. Nice to hear…...

P:    Do you feel like playing golf some

time next week?

A:   That’s a …. idea.

P:    How about Thursday morning?

A:    ……

P:    Yes. See you on Thursday at ten,


 A:    Fine. …..


Unit 4


Exercise 1. Read the dialogue try to find the meaning of the words to set off, to stop off, to get back


VICKI: Matt, I’ve just been to the travel agent and I’ve got us tickets to go to the


MATT: This is just too exciting. So, when do we set off?

VICKI: The plane leaves tomorrow afternoon so we need to set off for the airport at 11am.

MATT: Just let me write that down so I don’t forget. So, we leave at 11 am. Do we

stop off anywhere on the way or are the flights direct?

VICKI: Well, there weren’t any direct flights, but we are very lucky. With these tickets

we can stop off in Sri Lanka. So we can stop and spend two days there on our

way to the Maldives.

MATT: Vicki – you are brilliant. I’ve always wanted to go there. So we stop off in Sri

Lanka. And, just one more thing…when do we get back?

VICKI: We’ll return home in ten days time

MATT: Wow, so we set off tomorrow afternoon, we stop off in Sri Lanka for 2 days on

our way to the Maldives, and we get back in ten days time.


Read the  examples and give your own:

1. to set off. The traffic’s terrible, we set off an hour ago and we’ve only gone 10


2. to stop off. On our way home we stopped off at my parents’ house for a cup of


3. to get back. She’s been away from work looking after her baby, but she gets

back to work next month.


I. Discussion. Translator in cross-cultural communication

1  Cross-cultural communication is communication between languages, culture

2  Do you agree the translation is cross-cultural communication

3 What does an intermediary do?

4  Have you ever participated in cross-cultural communication? What was your role?

II. Explain the words in the box



Translation,   Translator(s),  Intermediary,  Interpreter ,   Target language,           Cultural shock,         Cultural psychology cross-cultural,




III. Fill in the gaps using words from the box in II. Two words are excessive

1) _______________is cross-cultural communication, in which any ignorance of the  cultural psychology would cause____________________ or even conflicts

between cultures.

2)  And therefore, translation as _______________________________________

not only the linguistic transfer but also the communication of cultural psychology.

3)  This requires that translators should take into sufficient consideration the factors of_____________   _________________in the relevant languages in the process of  translation

4)  The analysis of cultural psychology will be one of the basic tasks of ______                  in the foreseeable future.

5) Good_______________________________________should secure the psychological communication between source texts and______________ readers.

4.    Cultural differences. Many books about multicultural management suggest that the world can be divided into three geographical groups:

1.   North America

2     Europe, Latin America, Middle East

3    Japan, China, East Asia.

Where would you place Kazakhstan? Explain why.

5.     Try to match the groups (from 4) to the descriptions below. Write the number 1-3 and K (for Kazakhstan) in the boxes.


Company values


Business relationships_________________


[a] ___ Group harmony, long-term

relationships,   loyalty, company reputation.

[b]___Trust between individuals,

compromise, personal reputation. People work to live.

[c]___Competition between

individuals, achievement, action, risk-taking, directness, informality innovation. People live to work



[a] ___ Friendly and informal, but a

continuing personal relationship is not so important. Much business is done over the phone.

[b]___Done on a group basis, although   

relationships based on mutual respect are important. Often there is an older authority figure who rarely appears but has ultimate power.

[c]___ Personal relationships are very

important. Some time is needed to build trust before business can begin.








[a] ___ Objective is to gather

information. Communication style is often 'monologue - pause — monologue' rather than dialogue. Arguments are often indirect, and there are no sudden changes of viewpoint in meetings. Decisions are made by group consensus over a long time period.

[b]___Objective is to make a deal or

decision. Communication style is direct, factual, informal and at times confrontational. Decisions are based on facts, and are often made instantly in the meeting.

[c]     _ Objective is to establish relationships, build

understanding, clarify, and issue instructions. Communication style depends on national culture. Decisions are made by key individuals, outside the meeting.


[a] ___ Complicated language may be used

to show education. Audience expects formality and a logical structure, but a touch of imagination is also appreciated. May want a more personal 'extra' talk afterwards where you tell them the 'truth'.

[b]___Indirect, conservative language.

Audience appreciates a quiet, formal presentation with visual aids and lots of opportunity to ask questions and check understanding. They expect separate handouts, prepared for different people, by job function.

[c]___Direct, simple language. Audience

expects jokes, modernity, logic, slogans, informality and a hard sell.

Audience may ask questions or interrupt while someone is speaking, and will openly question inconsistent facts.






IV.   Discuss the questions in pairs or small groups

a. Does Kazakhstan match the description of a particular group?

b. How do individual countries in your geographical region differ from each other? (Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan, Iran, Russia and others)

c. In which ways is globalization making business more similar, reducing cultural differences?

d. Which cultural differences remain strong, resisting the effects of globalization?

e. Is globalization just a polite way of saying Americanization?


V. Writing   You work for a tourism agency and receive this email. Decide on a festival that is likely to attract a lot of bookings and send your reply to Ken Foley

FROM                     Ken Foley (Planning)

TO                           Marketing staff

Festivals are now playing a significant role in tourism development. Research indicates that they are the fastest growing tourist attractions. Some events such as the Edinburgh festival, or the carnivals of Rio and Venice are well-established but many Asian and Pacific countries are beginning to take advantage of festivals with good tourism potential. The time is right to examine this field in depth.

Please make a list of festivals and make recommendations as to which we should offer our North American customers. Please summarize why you think the festival is important, who it will appeal to and why it will attract tourists.

Thank you in advance.


Role-Play: Recommending a festival


Speaker A is a foreign visitor to Almaty (company). He/she would like to spend their free time participating  in a festival or seeing same customs of  f lost nation/country. They would like to discover new cultures, some national or local traditions of/in Kazakhstan.   To keep up the conversation, you are willing to swap the information about traditions and festivals in your own country (decide which).


Speaker B. You are the translator working for a joint company (decide which). You've got the task to discuss with a foreign partner where it would be most exciting for them to go and see national traditions or festivals. Make recommendations to the business client. To keep the conversation going, ask your partner about the traditions and customs known in their native country.


Role-Play with an interpreter: Explaining habits and customs in Kazakhstan to a foreigner

A - You as an interpreter, B - Your boss, C - Visitors.

 Local knowledge: You are the expert and translator!


Work in groups of three or four. Imagine that you'll soon be welcoming two people from the other side of the world, who haven't left their own country before. They are the newly-arrived foreigners, who need to be briefed on habits and customs in your country.

They're coming to work in your company for a few months, and you will be their interpreter. Help them to understand the local / our national culture and lessen their culture shock. Explain them the differences. Interpret also for your boss.

Make a list of customs and habits that might seem strange and which might be different from their country. What will you explain to them about...


•   eating  - popular dishes, meal times, etc.

•   public  transport - how do you get tickets, for example?

•   shopping - where to buy groceries and clothes cheaply

•   work - what kind of clothes to wear, office hours, etc.

•   entertainments - where can you go dancing, for example? What festivals can you recommend?

•   sports - where can you play tennis, work out, swim, etc.?

Change roles so that you all have a chance to be 'foreigners' and 'reside


Exercise 2. Read the dialogue and make your own dialogue according to the idea of this one


Alan:         Alan Wilson.

Сristina:    Good afternoon. This is Cristina Garcia. I'm phoning about our

                  appointment on the 16th. I'm sorry, but I can't make it.

 Alan:         Oh dear.

Сristina:     Can you manage the 18th instead?

Alan:         I'm afraid I'm tied up then.

Сristina:   The only other time I'm free is

                  Thursday morning. That's the 19th.

Alan:         Well, I've got another appointment but I can cancel it. Would 10.30 be


Сristina:    That's fine. I'm sorry to be a nuisance.

Alan:         It's quite all right.

Сristina     I'll see you on Thursday at 10.30, then. Thank you, Mr Wilson.

Alan:         Good bye.





 Business Lunch 


Conversation is the enemy of good wine and food  (Alfred Hitchcock, film director)

1.1 Discussion. Work with a partner and discuss the following questions.

a.   Is lunch an important meal for you?

b.   Do you ever have business lunch?

c.   Which of the following are you most likely to say to a foreign colleague visiting your country?

I thought you might like to try some of our local cuisine.

 I thought we could just grab a quick pizza or something.

 I thought we just work through lunch and eat later.

d.   Do you have a favorite place where you take clients and colleagues? If so, tell a partner about it                                                                  '

e.    What's the most expensive meal you've ever had? Was it worth the Money? Who was paying? Was it on expenses?


         1.2  Who said it?


The following things were said during a business lunch. Who do you think probably said them - the host, the guest or could it be either? Write H, G or E next to each sentence.

1.        Nice place. Do you come here often?           

2.        Now, what would you like to drink?             

3.        I'll just see if our table's ready.                      

4.        This is their standard menu.                         

5.         It all looks very good.                                 

6.        And those are the specials.                             

7.         Let me know if you want to explain anything.  

8.        So, what do you recommend?                          

9.        Well, they do a great lasagna.                           

10.      Is there anything you don't eat?                        

11.       I'm allergic to mussels.                                   

12        You could try the lamb. That's very good here.

13      That sounds nice.               

14      Shall we order a bottle of the house red?

15      Could we order some mineral water, too?

16       This absolutely delicious. How's your?

17       Now, how about a dessert?              

18      Better not. I'm on a diet.                  

19      I'll get this.                                    

20       No, no, I insist. You're my guest.            


1.3 Table manners. Quiz


In Russia they sit down at cocktail parties. In China the most important guest is seated facing the door. In Japan a tip is not expected; in France it is an insult not to leave one. How culturally aware are you at the table? Try the quiz below. Underline the correct information.


                                   Cross-cultural quiz

1    In Greece   Finland people frequently stop for lunch at 11:30 in the morning

2    In Switzerland   Brazil it's common to be up to two hours late for a party

3    In Portugal   the USA a business lunch can last up to three and half hours.

4    In .Japan   Russia the soup is often eaten at the end of the meal

5    In France   Britain cheese is normally served after the dessert

6    In American   Geman restaurants you may be asked if you want a bag for the food you cant eat

7    In Mexico' Belgium you should keep both' hands on the dinner table where they can be seen

8   At a Turkish  Chinese dinner table it is extremely impolite to say how hungry you are

The Japanese  British sometimes need to be offered more food three times before they will accept.

10  American   Latin executives like to be invited to your home for dinner

11  In Belgium   Spain an 11 o'clock dinner is quite normal

12  In Asian   Arab countries food is usually eaten with just three fingers of the right hand

13  In Poland  Japan you should keep filling other guests' glasses until they turn them over

14  In African   Asian countries it is the host who decides when the guests should leave




Role - Play. Out to lunch in the local restaurant


1 Work with a partner. You are having a business lunch together. Take aims to be the host and help your guest choose something to eat and drink from your menu.


2 On the menu, write down the names of three different starters and main dishes which are typical of your country or region.


The first dish should be something you dislike and never recommend to anyone.


The second dish should be something you really like and think everyone should try.

The third dish should be something which is quite difficult

to describe.                                                                                *

If you want, add a couple of wines to the wine list.


4  Role-play the situation.

Speaker A (the host): help your guest to choose a meal, describing the dishes if necessary and recommending some dishes (or not).


Speaker B (the guest): find out as much as you can about the dishes before you choose. Don't be too easily persuaded or dissuaded.

Then change over and use Speaker B's menu. Speaker B is now the host. Speaker A is the guest.


Work in groups. Use the chart below to practice chatting over lunch with business contacts. Start off by talking about what you've just ordered and then keep changing the subject as indicated until your meal arrives, - it seems to be taking a long time! Try not to intern each other too abruptly, but keep the conversation moving.


By the way   Incidentally    That reminds me     Before I forget

On the subject of . . . Talking of ... To change the subject for a moment...


         Listen to Catherine Eng. Decide whether these statements are true and false


1.     She’ll talk first  about building relationships with the French.

2.     Everything you do during visits must show that you consider your visitors to be untrust people

3.     Make an effort to learn and use a few words in Chinese. Your visitors will appreciate this.

4.     If there is someone in your company who speaks Chinese, it may be worst to use that person instead of a professional interpreter.

5.     Chinese people often like a gift.

6.     Chinese people will appreciate any famous brands of the country they’re visiting.

7.     Punctuality is not very important. They used to be late for a meeting.

8.     “Sincerity” is highly valued by the Chinese.


Exercise 3. Read the dialogue try to find the meaning of the words to slow down, to burn out, to run out of


VICKI: Now stop worrying about your job Matt.

MATT: But I really do think this job is taking over my life. I’ve got to slow down

VICKI: Yes you need to stop working so hard otherwise you’ll be too tired to do


MATT: That’s right - if I don’t slow down, I’m going to burn out ….

VICKI: Exactly - and if you burn out through working too hard, you won’t be able to

do your job properly anyway!

VICKI: So, pace yourself - work more slowly. Don’t run out of steam before you get

to the top!

MATT: You’re right, I don’t want to run out of steam - I don’t want to use all my

energy before I can get promoted again.


Read the  examples and give your own:

1. To slow down. When I retire, I’m going to slow down a bit and try not to be so


2. To burn out. He was a really famous pop star, but he did too much at once and

burned out before his second album.

3. To run out of. I wanted to finish my essay this week but I’ve run out of time.




Role-play. The business lunch


Speaker A. You are a CEO from the local company (subsidiary). A representative from the head-quarters has come to your subsidiary with an inspection. After intense work you go together to the restaurant to have lunch. You are chatting over lunch with your business contact.


Help your guest to choose a meal, describing the dishes if necessary and recommending some dishes (or not). Then keep changing the subject until your meal arrives, - it seems to be taking a long time! Try not to interrupt each other too abruptly, but keep the conversation moving.


Speaker B. You are the guest who came with a controlling mission from the head­quarters located in another country (decide which). You are having business lunch together with a CEO from your subsidiary. You are chatting over lunch with the business contact.

Find out as much as you can about the dishes before you choose. Don't be too easily persuaded or dissuaded. Then keep changing the subject until your meal arrives, - it seems to be taking a long time! Try not to interrupt each other too abruptly, but keep the conversation moving.


Exercise 4.  Complete the sentence with suitable word from the box given below


С:   The wine …… , sir.

A:   Thank you. Let's see. What sort of

….. do you like, Paolo?

В:    I prefer white.

A:    ……or dry?

В:    Dry.

A:     Then let's have the Chablis. It's

usually very good.

В:    How …… do you come here?

A:    About once a month.

(to the waiter) Excuse me.

С:    Yes sir?

A:   We'll have the Chablis, please.

Number sixty-three.

 В:    And I'd like a bottle of …..

water too, please.


Mineral, sweet, list, often, wine.







Unit 5


1.1  Entertaining for business success. Read the tips. Which interesting tips did you remember?


•   Entertaining business clients over lunch or dinner often takes place at a restaurant, in a private club.

• When entertaining, prestigious restaurants and banquet halls are the best choices. Moreover, first class hotels are usually appropriate venues for business meals and banquets.

•   Accept all invitations to lunch or dinner whenever possible. If the time or date is inconvenient, immediately take the initiative to suggest an alternative. Your success in business depends upon establishing social relationships.

 •  It is rare for spouses to be included in an invitation for a business dinner.

•   Do not wear blue or white at social functions; these colours are associated with death and mourning.

•   When social appointments are made, a half-hour courtesy time is allowed for most people.

•    When invited to dinner, it can be appropriate to bring fruit, candy or cookies to the hostess; present your gift with both hands.


Before dinner

•    Greet everyone when you arrive, beginning with the most senior or elderly.

•    After entering a home, visitors are usually offered tea, soft drinks or warm water.

•    Before starting a meal, guests should recognize the older members of the family.

 During a meal


•   Seating etiquette is important. The guest of honour traditionally sits opposite the host. The next most important guest sits to the left of the guest of honour; the third-ranking person is seated to the right of the guest of honour. This continues all  the-way around the table. Surprisingly to Westerners, this arrangement actually results in the "least important" people being seated next to the host.

•   Placing the host closest to the entrance has its advantages. This puts him in a better position to oversee the servers. Moreover, at the end of the evening, the host is traditionally expected to escort honored guests out to their cars.

•    When sitting, visitors should place their hands in their laps and keep their legs still.

•   During a meal, numerous courses may be served, so try not to eat too much at once. The best policy is to lightly sample each dish.


Different cultures


.•   Giving sincere compliments is always appreciated; denying these remarks, however, is the Chinese way of accepting them.

•   Banquets are an important part of entertaining in Hong Kong business culture, especially for celebrating a productive meeting or new alliance.

•   A banquet is an appropriate gift for a Chinese client, and should definitely be reciprocated if offered to you.

•    One way to enhance your reputation is to learn how to use chopsticks. One end of the chopstick is used for eating, and the other end for serving. Do not stick chopsticks straight up in the rice bowl; this makes them look similar to the joss sticks used in religious ceremonies.

*   Rice is seen as a filler, so do not eat extensive amounts of it. Leave most rice untouched during the last course; doing otherwise will imply that not enough food was provided.

* Among the Chinese, slurping and belching at the table are perfectly acceptable: these gestures are perceived as signs that you are appreciating your meal.

•    A very traditional Chinese restaurant might not provide napkins. Instead, you are expected to wipe your hands on the tablecloth. At such an establishment, leaving a messy tablecloth indicates that you have eaten well and enjoyed the food.


Leave-taking / Parting


•    Banquets are long, and guests generally leave shortly after the final course.

•    Tipping is not expected, but more and more people, especially the young, will expect tips for their service in hotels and restaurants.

 A dining interview. When conducting yourself for an interview over dinner it is important to remember certain codes of etiquette that can give you the competitive edge over other applicants:                                      *

Always wait for the interviewer to be seated before you seat yourself

 During the meal, sit up straight and avoid crossing your legs in order to maintain proper posture

Use the proper utensils for every meal course, i.e.    the outside fork is typically for salad and the inside for is used for the entrée

Place the napkin in your lap immediately and when getting up from the table, leave the napkin in your chair

 It is a cceptable to sip water before all guests arrive, wait until the interviewer has begun eating before you begin your meal

•  Do not order alcohol to drink at a dining interview, instead order water, juice or tea

•  Be polite and avoid complaints about the food ordered when it is not to your liking

*  Order foods that are simple to eat with a fork and knife

*  Take small bites in order to answer questions asked by the interviewer while eating


1.2. Dining with Style and Grace. Dining across Cultures


Business relationships are developed and strengthened in social situations. Mastering the art of fine dining adds to the competitive edge in today's social and business climate. The host and the guest each have a responsibility to ensure the overall success of the event.


Different cultures have different perceptions of leisure: a drink with friends and associates in a bar can be anathema to some cultures where alcohol is taboo. Likewise, regular physical exercise is not everyone's idea.

Discussions on family, etc. may be unwelcome between some cultures. Americans or Europeans asking about aspects of family life might be unacceptable to Saudis, for example.




Values    A value is the belief that a certain part of life is especially important. Every culture places different emphasis on family, work, religion, and love. Some cultures value family loyalty and romantic love. Other cultures emphasize independence from family and hard work. Still others emphasize religion and honor in the community.


In what business situations would you use the words and expressions below? Discuss your ideas with a partner.



1 don't mind.

I'm afraid...


Excuse me.


Make yourself at home.


Could you... ?

Help yourself.

It's on me.

That sounds good.


What would you say in the following situations?

1  You don't hear someone's name when you are introduced to them.

2  You have to refuse an invitation to dinner with a supplier.

3  You are offered food you hate.

4  You want to end a conversation in a diplomatic way.

5  You have to greet a visitor.

6  You have to introduce two people to each other.

7  You offer to pay for a meal.

8  You have to propose a toast.

9  Your colleague has been made redundant.

10 You arrive half an hour late for a meeting.


What can you say in the first five minutes of meeting someone? Choose the best answer a) to l) for each of the questions 1 to 10.

1 Is this your first visit to the Far East?                   a) At the Peninsula Hotel.

2 Oh really. What do you do?                                  b) Nearly ten years.

3 How long have you been there?                           c) No, I come here quite often.

4 Have you been to Hong Kong before?                 d) No. This is my first trip.

5 Business or pleasure?                                           e) I’m the Marketing Director for                     

6 How long have you been here?                              small import – export company.

7 How long are you staying?                                  f) Business, I’m afraid.

8 Where are you staying?                                        g) Till tomorrow night.

9 What's the food like?                                            h) A week.

10 So, what do you think of Hong Kong?               i) I really like it. There's so much

                                                                                  to do.

                                                                                 j) It's very good, but eating in the         

                                                                                 Peninsula can be quite expensive.



In your opinion, which of these items of advice for a successful conversation are useful and which are not?

1  Listen carefully                                               5 Ask questions

2  Give only yes or no answers                           6 Stay silent

3  Interrupt a lot                                                   7 Keep eye contact

4  Be polite                                                           8 Be friendly


1.4 Your Point of View


 Individually, think of four values that are important in your culture and four values you think are important in the United States.

                                      My List

My culture

American Culture










 Form small groups of students from your country. Share your lists and decide which four values are most important in your culture and in American culture.


                                  Group List


Our culture

American Culture










1.5. Discussion


Share your group's list with the class and compare it to the lists made by students from different countries in File Card 2. Answer the following questions as a class.


1.   Do groups from different cultures choose different values to describe American culture? What are the differences?

2.   What do their descriptions of American culture tell you about their own culture?

3.   What influence does your own culture have on the way you see people from other cultures?

4.   How can you see people from other cultures without a bias from your own culture?



         1.6. Stereotypes. Cultural Generalizations. Read the following text


A stereotype is a belief that all people from a culture behave a certain way. It is an opinion based on one's own cultural values and prejudices and on little information about the other culture. For example, a woman from a culture that values hard work looks at a people from a fictional land called Zibi. In Zibi, people work at their jobs about five hours a day. So, the woman says, "People from Zibi are lazy.This is a stereotype because she states that every person from Zibi is the same and it is an opinion based more on the woman’s own values than on any thoughtful observation of Zibian values or lifestyle.


In this book we talk about different ways of doing business. We make cultural generalizations about different styles of business. This does not mean that every person who lives in a particular culture will do business in a way that fits the generalization. Within each culture there are many choices. There is, however, in every culture a standard way of doing things. The cultural generalizations describe those standards and the values that guide those standards. For example, one could make a generalization about Zibians and say, "People in Zibi usually work about five hours a day. They spend the rest of the day taking care of family and farming. Family life is highly valued." A generalization is based on observation, not prejudice. It explains the standard practices of a culture but does not determine how every person in that culture behaves.


1.7 Applying Your Knowledge

  With a partner, discuss the difference between a stereotype and a cultural generalization. Then read the following statements about the fictional country called Zibi. Decide which are stereotypes (S) and which are cultural generalizations (O). Circle the language that makes some of the statements stereotypes.

______   1.   Zibians are selfish.

______   2.   In Zibi gifts are often presented at the end of a negotiation.

______   3.   It may take two or three days to get an appointment with a Zibian.

______  4.   Zibians never let you know what they are thinking about. They always try to confuse you.

______   5.   In Zibi, main businesspeople invite their colleagues to their homes for

dinner to talk about work.

______6.   Arriving on time in Zibi usually means arriving ten minutes after the agreed time.

______7.   In Zibi nothing runs on time.

______   8.   It is common in Zibi to discuss every detail of an agreement before signing a contract.


______  9.   In Zibi, all the power in a corporation stays at the top. You can never get a middle manager to make an independent decision.

______   10.   Zibians spend too much time eating.


1.8. Responding to Stereotypes


 There are many ways of responding to stereotypes. The following Asian-American encounter illustrates that. Read the text.


An American man attending an international relations banquet was sitting across from a man who looked Asian. He wanted to start a conversation so he asked the man loudly and in very simple English, "Like food?" The man politely nodded yes, but said nothing.


During the dinner program, the master of ceremony introduced the Asian-looking man as an award winning professor of economics at an important university. The professor was invited to give a short talk about world trade issues. After a short discussion in perfect English the professor sat down. He then looked across to his neighbor and asked loudly and in very simple English, "Like talk?"


1.9. Discussion. Answer the following questions and share your answers in groups

1.    What stereotype did the American have about the Asian-looking man?

2.    How did the Asian-looking man respond to the stereotype?

3.   Do you like the way he responded to the stereotype? Why or why not?

4.   Have you ever been faced with stereotypes? How have you responded?

a.   with anger at the person

b.   with anger at the stereotype

c.   with a joke

d.    with an explanation of why the stereotype is wrong

e.   with silence