Некоммерческое акционерное общество


Кафедра Иностранных языков 




Технические тексты по переводу

для магистрантов по специальности 050719 – Радиотехника,

электроника и телекоммуникация


Алматы 2008

СОСТАВИТЕЛЬ: Л.Я.Коробейникова. Английский язык. Технические тексты по переводу для магистрантов по специальности 050719 – Радиотехника,  электроника и телекоммуникация. –Алматы: АИЭС, 2008. – 39 с.

Методические указания предназначено прежде всего для  приобретения, расширения  и закрепления  лексического минимума, необходимого при  работе с текстами, связанными с тематикой “Networking and Telecommunication”, а также для развития умений работать самостоятельно над текстами общетехнического характера.


Networking and telecommunication 

Network Basics

‘The grand irony of our times is that the era of computers is over. All the major consequences of standalone computers have already taken place. Computers have speeded up our lives a bit, and that’s it. In contrast, all the most promising technologies making their debut now are chiefly due to com­munication between computers—that is, to connections rather than to computations. And since communication is the basis of culture, fiddling at this level is indeed momentous’.

·                        Kevin Kelly, Wired Executive Editor 

Text 1. Basic Network Anatomy       

A computer network is any computer system that links two or more computers. Why is networking important? The answers to this question revolve around the three essential components of every computer system:

·   Hardware. Networks allow people to share computer hardware, reducing costs and making it possible for more people to take advantage of powerful computer equipment.

·    Software. Networks allow people to share data and software programs, increasing efficiency and productivity.

·   People. Networks allow people to work together in ways that are otherwise difficult  or impossible.

Important information is hidden in these three statements. But before we examine them in more detail, we need to look at the hardware and software that make computer networks possible.

As we know, information travels among the CPU, memory, and other components within a computer as electrical impulses that move along collections of parallel wires called buses. A network extends the range of these information pulses, allowing them to travel to other computers. A computer may have a direct connection to a network – for example, it might be one of many machines linked together in an office – or it might have remote access to a network through a phone line and a dial-up connection. For connecting directly the computer needs a  network interface card, for connecting through a phone line it generally needs a modem.

 Ex.1. List most essential components of a computer.

Ex.2. Answer the questions:

·    What is networking?

·   Why is networking important?

·    “Connections rather than computations?”.  Would you comment on the statement, that “ the era of  computers is over“ ( is being replaced by the era of communication between computers)?

Ex.3. Match these words (word partnerships) to their meanings.


1. bus

a) computer equipment

2. CPU

b) a piece of equipment that allows you to  connects computer to a  telephone line


c) a set of wires that send information from one  part of a computer    system to another


d) a connection that allows two pieces of computer equipment to work together

5.  interface

e) a set of computers connected to each other

6. modem

f) operated from far away; distant

7. hardware

g) the part of a computer that controls what it does


h) the part of a computer in which information,  instruction and programs are stored

9.dial-up (service or system)

i) used from your computer by means of a telephone line


b) computer programs

 Ex.4. Complete these sentences (or phrases) with words (word partnerships)

from  ex.3.

1.  For connecting directly the computer needs an ______________, for connecting through a phone line it generally needs a _________

2.   The point-and-click ___________ made life easier for users.

3.  All staff have access to a computer _____________

4.   We should keep in mind the ever-changing nature of computing _______ and _______.

5. A ______ or _____ can be used from your computer by means of a telephone line.

6.                     __________ bank  is the part of a computer where information is stored.

7.  All these theories seem very __________from our everyday experience in the classroom.

8.    A _____ is a set of wires that send information from one part of a computer system to another.

 Ex.5. Find words and phrases corresponding to the following Russian translations.

Рассмотреть более подробно; снизить стоимость; воспользоваться чем-л.; делиться информацией; повысить эффективность; дистанционный доступ.

 Ex.6. Match these words and phrases (on the left)  to their definitions or/and Russian equivalents (on the right). Consult a dictionary, if necessary.



a) the activity or skill of using computers or

computers programming


b) the process of calculating a number or amount

3. Computable

c) stored on computer, done using a computer

4. Computational

d) able to use a computer

5. Compute

e) to use computers to do a particular kind of work

6. Computed

f) involving the use of computers, relating to the ability to calculate numbers

7. Computerate

g) to calculate a number or amount

8. Сomputerize

h) исчислимый

 Ex.7. This task is for advanced students only. Try to choose the most appropriate meaning for the phrase: ‘fiddling at this level is indeed momentous’

a)  it is very important to try to develop the situation now;

b)   there is no point to beat about the bush;

c)   all this fuss about computation and communication is but temporary, though seems to be important;

d) There is no need to make quick decisions, it’s better to wait for the proper time.

 Text 2. The Network Interface

 All personal computers have ports—sockets that allow information to pass in and out. Parallel ports, commonly used to connect printers to a computer, allow bits to pass through in groups of 8, 16, or 32. Serial ports, on the other hand, require bits to pass through one at a time. Macintoshes don’t have built-in parallel ports; they generally have two multipurpose serial ports for connecting to printers, modems, and some networks. The standard serial port on an IBM-compatible computer is de­signed to attach peripherals like modems—not to connect directly to networks.

A network interface card (NIC) adds an additional serial port to the computer— one that’s especially designed for a direct network connection. The network interface card controls the flow of data between the computer’s RAM and the network cable. At the same time it converts the computer’s internal low-power signals into more powerful signals that can be transmitted through the network. The type of card de­pends on the type of network connection needed. The most common types of net­works today require some kind of Ethernet card in each computer. Ethernet is a popular networking architecture developed in 1976 at Xerox. (Most Macintoshes include an Ethernet port on the main circuit board and don’t need an additional card to connect to an Ethernet network.) Details vary—and there are many details— but the same general principles apply to all common network connections.

In the simplest networks two or more computers are linked by cables. But direct connection is impractical for computers that are miles or oceans apart. For comput­ers to communicate over long distances, they need to transmit information through other paths. 

Ex.1. Find words and phrases corresponding to the following Russian translations.

Встроенный; с другой стороны…; общие принципы; преобразовывать; зависит от; специально предназначенный для; многоцелевой; совместимый; самые распространенные виды сетей; поток информации.

 Ex.2. Choose the correct word to complete each sentence - Compute, computing, computation, computerize, computerization.

a)   The ____________of the manufacturing division will be expensive in the short term, but cost-effective in the long term.

b)   We should be able to_________ our profit for next year fairly accurately with the new programme.

c)   I could tell from all the__________ on the board that  a maths leson was in progress.

 Ex.3. Decide whether these statements are true or false.

a)   According to the text, most Macintoshes need an additional card to connect to an Ethernet network

b)   As we can see from the text, the same general principles apply to all common network connections.

c)   For IBM-compatible computers to communicate over long disnances, they need to be linked by cables.

d)   All the most promising technologies are chiefly due to communication between computers- that is to connections rather than to computations.

 Ex.4. From text 2, write out two sentences with the Passive Voice.

 Ex.5. Answer the following questions.

1. What are ports, what are ports used for?

2. Do all personal computers have built-in parallel ports?

3. What are advantages and disadvantages of using cables for linking computers in the networks?

4.  The best way to transmit computer information is  through dial-up connection. Do you agree?

Ex.6. Match the following words and acronyms to their characteristics (one for each).


1. NIC

a) connects a computer’s serial port to a telephone line

2. Ethernet

b) includes a collection of computrers and peripherals

3. Macintoshes

c) pass messages between networks

4. modem

d) coordinates communication throughout the network

5. routers

e) don’t have built-in parallel ports

6. WAN

f) was developed in 1976 at Xerox

7. LAN

g) adds an additional serial port to the computer

8. NOS

h) extends over a long distance

 Ex.7. Suggest possible translations of the sentences  from the text.

a)     Details vary—and there are many details— but the same general principles apply to all common network connections.

b)      Serial ports, on the other hand, require bits to pass through one at a time.

 Ex.8. Read the following quotation and discuss it in pairs. Then tell the class what you think about it.

“The most desirable interaction with a network is one in which the network itself is invisible and unnoticeable. Planners often forget that people do not want to use systems at all – easy or not. What people want is to delegate a task and not to worry about how it is done.”

·    Nicholas Negroponte, director of MIT’s Media Lab

 Text 3. Communication a la Modem

 The world is outfitted with plenty of electronic communication paths: An intricate network of cables, radio transmitters, and satellites allows people to talk by tele­phone between just about any two places on the planet. The telephone net­work is ideal for connecting remote computers, too, except it was designed to carry sound waves, not streams of bits. Before a digital signal—:a stream of bits—can be transmitted over a standard phone line, it must be converted to an analog signal—a continuous wave. At the receiving end the analog signal first must be converted back into the bits representing the original digital mes­sage. Each of these tasks is performed by a modem (short for modulator/demodulator)—a hardware device that connects a computer’s serial port to a telephone line.

An internal modem is installed on a circuit board inside the computer’s  chassis. An external modem sits in a box linked to the serial port. Both types use phone cable to connect to the telephone network through standard modular phone jacks. Modems differ in their transmission speeds, measured in bits per second (bps). Many people use the term baud rate instead of bps, but bps is technically more accurate for high-speed modems. Modems today commonly transmit at 14,400 bps to 56.6K (56,600) bps over standard phone lines. In general, communication by modem is slower than communication between computers that are directly connected on a network. High­speed transmission isn’t usually critical for small text messages, but it can make a huge difference when the data being transmitted includes graphics, sound, video, and other multimedia elements—the kinds of data commonly found on the “World Wide Web”, for example.

 Ex.1.  Try to decipher the following abbreviations, use the words below:

LAN;   NOS;  WWW;  NIC;  CPU;  IBM;   Bps; modem; WAN.

(Wide (2), processing,  network(4), per, modulator-, machines ,local ,area(2), business, unit, system, web, interface, world, card, second, demodulator, operating, central, international, bits.)

 Ex.2.  What common communication paths do you know?

1. Discuss in pairs advantages and disadvantages of  possible ways of connecting remote computers.

2. What tasks can be performed by a modem?

 Ex.3. Match each noun or adjective in column 1 to two of the nouns in column 2 to make word patnerships.


1. digital

a) cable


c) message

2. analog

a) mobile phone

b) industry

c) computation

3. sound

a) signal

b) channel

c) misconduct

4. network

a) architecture

b) superconductivity


5. remote

a) connection

b) computer

c) simulation


a) workstations

b) turbulence


7. high-speed

a) transmission

b) modem

c) autocracy

8. baud

a) per mile

b) pace

c) rate

 Ex.4. Suggest possible translations of the underlined parts of sentences  from the text.

a) It allows people to talk by telephone between just about any two places on the planet.

b) High-speed transmission isn’t usually critical for small text messages.

c) The term bps is technically more accurate for high-speed modems.

 Ex.5. Match these words and phrases (on the left)  to their definitions or/and Russian equivalents (on the right). Consult a dictionary, if necessary.


1. Chassis

a) to complete an action or activity, especially a complicated one

2. Vary

b) detailed in design or structure, complicated and difficult to understand or learn

3. Critical

c) equipped

4. Convert

d) a piece of electronic equipment with electrical connections or computer chips in it

5. Perform

e) very important

6. Intricate 

f) рама, блок

7. Circuit board

g) to change from one system, use, or method to another

8. Outfitted

h) differ

 Text 4. Networks Near and Far

 “Never in history has distance meant less”  —Alvin Toffler in“Future Shock”

 Computer networks come in all shapes and sizes, but most can be categorized as either local area networks or wide area networks.

A local area network (LAN) is a network in which the computers are close to each other, usually in the same building. A typical local area network includes a col­lection of computers and peripherals; each computer and shared peripheral is an in­dividual node on the network. Nodes are directly connected by cables, which serve as information highways for transporting data between machines. In a wireless net­work each node has a tiny radio or infrared transmitter connected to its network port so it can send and receive data through the air rather than through cables. Wire­less network connections are especially convenient for workers who are constantly on the move, but they aren’t common in offices because they cost more than other types of networks.

All computers on a LAN do not have to be the same brand or use the same

op­erating system. For example, a single network might include Macintoshes, Windows PCs, and UNIX workstations. The computers can be connected in many different ways, and many rules and industry-defined standards dictate what will and won’t work. Most organizations depend on network administrators to take care of the be­hind-the-scenes details so others can focus on using the network.

A wide area network (WAN), as the name implies, is a network that extends over a long distance. In a WAN each network site is a node on the network. “Wide area networks are possible because of the web of telephone lines, microwave relay towers, and satellites that span the globe. Some WANs are private operations de­signed to link corporate offices. Others are public or semipublic networks used by people from a variety of organizations.

In today’s internetworked world, communication frequently happens between LANs and WANs. Bridges, routers, and gateways are hardware devices that can pass messages between networks and, in some cases, translate messages so they can be understood by networks that obey different software protocols. 

Ex.1 . Read the  quotation and discuss it in pairs.(“Never in history has distance meant  less”). Then tell the class what you think about it.

 Ex.2. Match these words and phrases (on the left)  to their definitions or/and Russian equivalents (on the right). Consult a dictionary, if necessary.



a) a point on a computer network where a message can be created or received

2. node

b) suggest

3. protocol

c) устройство или программа маршрутизации

4. categorize

d) often

5. router

e) a written agreement between countries and a method of  sending information between computers

6. gateway  

f) a computer operating system that can be used by     several people at the same time

7. imply

g) classify

8. frequently

h) a way of connecting two computer networks so that information can pass between them

 Ex.3. Match each noun or adjective in column 1 to a noun (nouns) in column 2 to make word patnerships. Use the words only once.


1. industry-defined

a) transmitters

2. behind-the scenes

b) protocols

3. semipublic

c) details

4. microwave relay

d) standards

5. software

e) highways

6. information

f) towers and satellites

7. infrared

g) netwoks

 Ex.4. Decide whether these statements are true or false.

a)    All computers on a LAN are always the same brand and have to use the same op­erating system.

b)    Some WANs are public or semipublic networks. It means that they are de­signed to link corporate offices.

c)   Computer networks have to obey different software protocols and industry-defined standards.

d)    Wire­less network connections are especially convenient for people who work in different places, who are constantly on the move.

e)    Most organizations prefer wireless network connections because they don’t cost more than other types of networks.

 Text 4a.  Defining a Network

 A network is a group of two or more computers that intelligently share hardware or software devices with each other. A network can be as small and simple as two computers that share the printer and CD-ROM drive attached to one of them or as large as the world’s largest network: the Internet.

Intelligently sharing means that each computer that shares resources with another computer or com­puters maintains control of that resource. Thus, a switchbox for sharing a single printer between two computers doesn’t qualify as a network device; because the switchbox—not the computers—handles the print jobs, neither computer knows when the other one needs to print, and print jobs can interfere with each other.

A shared printer, on the other hand, can be controlled remotely and can store print jobs from different computers on the print server’s hard disk. Users can change the sequence of print jobs, hold them, or cancel them. And, sharing of the device can be controlled through passwords, further differentiating it from a switchbox.

Virtually any storage or output device can be shared over a network, but the most common devices include:

■   Printers                                                               ■ Fax machines

■   Disk drives                                                          ■ Tape backup units

■   CD-ROM and optical drives                               ■ Scanners

■   Modems

Entire drives, selected folders, or individual files can be shared with other users via the network.

In addition to reducing hardware costs by sharing expensive printers and other peripherals among multiple users, networks provide additional benefits to users:

■   Multiple users can share access to software and data files.

■   Electronic mail (e-mail) can be sent and received.

■   Multiple users can contribute to a single document using collaboration features.

■   Remote-control programs can he used to troubleshoot problems or show new users how to perform a task.

■ A single Internet connection can be shared among multiple computers.

Ex. 1.  What are the most common devices that can be shared over a network?

·      What advantages can multiple network users acquire?

Ex. 2. Suggest synonyms (probably, more, or less formal) to the following. Use the text or/and  the list of words in part B.

A.1.     from a distance; 2.  save (information); 3. the order (of events or tasks); 4. via; 5. benefits; 6. troubleshooting; 7. reduce; 8. complete.

B. a) advantages; b) solving problems; c) perform; d) through; e) sequence; f) store; g)  lower; h) remotely.

 Ex.3. Make up an  interrogative sentence on each of the  paragraphs 1, 2 and 3 of text 4a.

 Ex.4. Translate paragraphs 1, 2 and 3 of text 4a.

 Text 4b. Types of Networks

 Several types of networks exist, from small, two-station arrangements to networks that interconnect offices in many cities:

■  Local area networks. The smallest office network is referred to as a local area network (LAN). A LAN is formed from computers and components in a single office or building. A LAN can also be built at home from the same components used in office networkings, but special home-networking components now exist to allow the creation of what can be called a home area network (HAN).

■  Home area networks. A home area network (HAN) often uses the same hardware components as a LAN, but it is mainly used to share Internet access. Powerline, low-speed wireless, and phone-line networks are used primarily in HAN rather than LAN environments. HANs are often referred to as small-office/home-office (SOHO) LANs.

■   Wide area networks. LANs in different locations can be connected together by high-speed fiber-optic, satellite, or leased phone lines to form a wide area network (WAN).

■  The Internet. The World Wide Web is the most visible part of the world’s largest network, the Internet. Although many users of the Internet still use modems over a dial-up connection rather than a LAN or WAN connection, any user of the Internet is a network user. The Internet is really a network of networks, all of which are connected to each other  through the TCP/IP protocol. Programs such as Web browsers, File Transfer Protocol (FTP) clients, and newsreaders are some of the most common ways users work with the Internet.

■  Intranets. Intranets use the same Web browsers and other software and the same TCP/IP protocol as the public Internet, but intranets exist as a portion of a company’s private network. Typically, intranets comprise one or more LANs that are connected to other company networks, but, unlike the Internet, the content is restricted to authorized company users only. Essentially, an intranet is a private Internet.

■  Extranets. Intranets that share a portion of their content with customers, suppliers, or other businesses, but not with the general public, are called extranets. As with intranets, the same Web browsers and other software are used to access the content.

 Ex.1. In the text, find synonyms, words and phrases corresponding to the following definitions.

1.   to be called or mentioned as...; 2. able to be seen; 3. limited; 4. (users) having official permission or access; 5. clients, buyers of goods and/or services;

 Ex.2. Write full words for the following abbreviations (don’t be surprised if some of them you met in previous tasks). The words in a random order are given below:


(home, file, small, network, board, central, wide, internet, operating, on-line, office, local, transfer, protocol, card, contrtol, unit, processing, bulletin, system).

 Text 5. Communication Software

 “Pretty soon you’ll have no more idea of what computer you’re using than you have an idea of where your electricity comes from.”

·       Danny Hillfe, developer of the Thinking Machines supercomputer

Whether connected by cables or a combination of modems and telephone lines, com­puters need some kind of communication software to interact. To communicate with each other, two machines must follow the same protocol—a set of rules for true ex­change of data between a terminal and a computer or between two computers. One such protocol is transmission speed: If one machine is “talking” at 56,600 bps and the other is “listening” at 14,400 bps, the message doesn’t get through. Protocols in­clude prearranged codes for messages such as “Are you ready?,” “I am about to start sending a data file,” and “Did you receive that file?” For two computers to un­derstand each other, the software on both machines must be set to follow the same protocols. Communication software establishes a protocol that is followed by the computer’s hardware.

Communication software can take a variety of forms. For users who work ex­clusively on a local area network, many communication tasks are taken care of by a network operating system (NOS) such as Novell’s Netware or Microsoft’s NT Server. Just as a personal computer’s operating system shields the user from most of the nuts and bolts of the computer’s operation, a network operating system shields the user from the hardware and software details of routine communication between ma­chines. But unlike a PC operating system, the NOS must respond to requests from many workstations and must coordinate communication throughout the network. Today many organizations are replacing their specialized PC-based network operating systems with intranet systems—systems built around the open standards and protocols of the Internet, described in more detail in the next chapter.

The function and location of the network operating system depend in part on the LAN model. Some LANs are set up according to the client/server model, a hier­archical model in which one or more computers act as dedicated servers and all the remaining computers act as clients. Each server is a high-speed, high-capacity com­puter containing data and other resources to be shared with client computers. Using NOS server software, the server fulfills requests from clients for data and other re­sources. In a client/server network the bulk of the NOS resides on the server, but each client has NOS client software for sending requests to servers.

Many small networks are designed using the peer-to-peer model, which allows every computer on the network to be both client and server. In this kind of network every user can make files publicly available to other users on the network. Some desktop operating systems, including newer versions of “Windows and the Macintosh OS, include all the software necessary to operate a peer-to-peer network without an additional NOS. In practice many networks are hybrids, combining features of the client/server and peer-to-peer models.

Outside of a LAN one of the most common types of communication software is the terminal program, which allows a personal computer to function as a character-based terminal. This kind of program (sometimes called a terminal emulator) han­dles phone dialing, protocol management, and miscellaneous details necessary for making a personal computer and a modem work together. With terminal software and a modem, a personal computer can communicate through phone lines with an­other PC, a network of computers, or, more commonly, a large multi-user computer. The “Windows operating system package includes a basic terminal emulation pro­gram. Many integrated packages, including ClarisWorks for the Macintosh, contain terminal emulation communication modules.

These basic terminal emulators are fine for bare-bones computer-to-computer connections, but they have serious limitations for modern telecommunication. For one thing their character-based user interfaces can be confusing to people who are used to the friendlier graphical user interfaces of Windows and the Macintosh, “What’s more, they can’t be used to explore media-rich on-line destinations on or off the World Wide Web. That’s why most on-line explorers today use modern Web browsers and other specialized graphical client software instead of generic terminal programs.

At the other end of the line the communication software is usually built into the multi-user operating system of the host system—the computer that provides services to multiple users. This software allows a timesharing computer to communicate with several other computers or terminals at once. The most widely used host oper­ating system today is UNIX.

 Ex.1. Read the quotation before the text. Exchange opinions with your neighbour.

 Ex.2. Suggest possible translations of the sentences (or italicized parts of the sentences)  from the text.

a)   many communication tasks are taken care of by a network operating system (NOS);

b)   Pretty soon you’ll have no more idea of what computer you’re using than you have an idea of where your electricity comes from.

c)   “I am about to start sending a data file”.

d)   What’s more, they can’t be used to explore media-rich on-line destinations on or off the World Wide Web.

f)     A personal computer’s operating system shields the user from most of the nuts and bolts of the computer’s operation

g)    Each server is a high-speed, high-capacity com­puter containing data and other     resources to be shared with client computers.

 Ex.3. Choose prepositions which usually come with the following words.

(of, at, on, at, through, on,  by, for, on,  up, on, through, over, up,  through, for, at, between, of, over, for, by, through)

To take care___(1)communication tasks ; to set ___(2)a business;  ___(3)once; one___(4)a time;  depend__(5); to be followed___(6)smth./ smb.; to receive data___(7)cables;  ___(8) the Net; ___(9)the other end; ___(10)the line; to pass messages___(11) networks. Nodes are directly connected ____(12) cables, which serve as information highways ____(13) transporting data ____(14) machines. Wire­less network connections are especially convenient ___(15) workers who are constantly___(16)the move.  WAN is a network that extends ____(17) a long distance. Serial ports,___(18) the other hand, require bits to pass ____(19)one ____(20) a time. Computers have speeded___(21) our lives a bit.  The era of computers is ___(22).  ___(23) connecting ___(24) a phone line the computer generally needs a modem.

 Ex.4. Match these words ( word partnerships) to their meanings.


1. protocol

a) a piece of software that does the same as another       piece of software but works with a different type of computer

2. host system

b) the most basic features or details

3. browser

c) the computer that provides services to multiple users.

4. emulator

d) a network within an organization

5. the bare bones

e) a set of rules

6. intranet

f) a computer program that allows you to look at and search through information on the Internet

Ex.5.  Answer the questions.

1. What are the tasks handled by a terminal emulator?

2. What do the function and location of the network operating system depend on?

3. Are “miscellaneous details” (par.5) a) various and numerous? b) difficult to deal with? c) not very important?

4. What is the role of protocols in data exchange between computers?

 Ex.6. Find words and phrases corresponding to the following Russian translations.

Предоставлять услуги; серьезные ограничения; базисная (централизованная) система; люди, привыкшие к более удобным графическим интерфейсам.

 Text 6. The Network Advantage

 Before you read, what do you think are the reasons people use networks?

Do you often use networks, what kind of networks, and for what purposes? Share your vision and experience to the class.

 “A network becomes more valuable as it reaches more users.”  -  Metcalfs Law, by Bob Metealf, inrentor of Ethernet

 With this background in mind let’s reconsider the reasons people use networks.

·     Networks allow people to share computer hardware, reducing costs and making it possible for more people to take advantage of powerful computer equipment.

When computers and peripherals are connected in a local area network, com­puter users can share expensive peripherals. Before LANs the typical office had a printer connected to each computer. Today it’s more common to find a small number of high-quality printers shared by a larger group of computers and users. In a client/server network each printer may be connected to a print server—a server that accepts, prioritizes, and processes print jobs.

While it may not make much sense for users to try to share a printer on a wide area network, WAN users often share other hardware resources. Many WANs in­clude powerful mainframes and supercomputers that can be accessed by authorized users at remote sites.

·   Networks allow people to share data and software programs, increasing efficiency and productivity.

In offices without networks people often transmit data and software by sneakernet—that is, by carrying diskettes between computers. In a LAN one or mote computers can be used as file servers—storehouses for software and data that are shared by several users. With client software a user can get software and data from any server on the LAN without taking a step. A large file server is typically a dedicated computer that does nothing but serve files. But a peer-to-peer approach, allowing any com­puter to be both client and server, can be an efficient, inexpen­sive way to share files on small networks.

Of course, sharing computer software on a network can violate software licenses, if it’s not done with care. Many, but not all, licenses allow the software to be installed on  a file server as long as the number of simultaneous users never exceeds the number of licensed copies. Some companies offer site licenses or network licenses, which reduce costs for multiple copies or remove re­strictions on software copying and use at a network site.

Networks don’t eliminate compatibility differences between different computer operating systems, but they can simplify data communication between machines. Users of IBM-compatible computers, for example, can’t run Macintosh applications just because they’re available on a file server. But they can, in many cases, use data files and documents created on a Macintosh and stored on the server. For example, a poster created with Adobe Illustrator on a Macintosh could be stored on a file server so it can be opened, edited, and printed by users of Illustrator on Windows PCs. But file sharing isn’t always that easy. If users of different systems use programs with in­compatible file formats, they need to use data translation software to read and modify each other’s files.

On wide area networks the transfer of data and software can save more than shoe leather; it can save time. There’s no need to send diskettes by overnight mail be­tween two sites if both sites are connected to the same network. Typically, data can be sent electronically between sites in a matter of minutes.

 Ex. 1. Find words and phrases corresponding to the following Russian translations.

Дорогостоящие внешние устройства; устанавливать очередность (оказывать предпочтение); иметь смысл; упростить передачу данных; программа преобразования данных; в считанные минуты; снять ограничения на копирование программ; совместное использование файла; специализированный компьютер; машины (компьютеры), совместимые с IBM.

 Ex.2. Decide whether these statements are true or false.

1. Today you can hardly find a small number of high-quality printers shared by a larger group of computers and users.

2. Most users consider that it isn’t worth  sharing a printer on a wide area network.

3. It requires a lot of time and effort to transfer  data and software on wide area networks.

4. One can’t exclude cases of piracy when sharing computer software on a network.

5. Networks allow people to eliminate compatibility differences between operating systems.

6. Networks allow people to ignore site or network licenses.

7. Networks allow people to save time.

8. Networks allow people to buy more leather shoes.

 Ex.3. Choose the right form of the verb to fill in the gaps.

1. Typically, information_________electronically in no time.

a) must send; b) can be sent; c) may be sending; d) have been sent.

2. WAN users ______hardware resources.

a) often share; b) are often sharing; c) share often; d) have been often sharing.

 Ex.4. Write words with the opposite meanings. Use prefixes in-, mis-, un-, dis-,im-, ir-,il-.

Compatible; responsible; expensive; necessary; to connect; logical; practical; understanding; authorized; deliverable.

 Ex 5. Write a short summary on Text 6.

 Text 7.  Commercial On-Line Services   

 When you use a database service, most of the information flows in one direction: from the database to your computer. General-purpose commercial on-line infor­mation services like America Online allow users to send and receive information the way BBSs do, but they’re able to handle hundreds of users at a time. These ser­vices use timesharing computers with special software designed to make their ser­vices accessible to consumers. Some on-line information services can be accessed through standard Internet Web browsers. America Online, the largest on-line service, provides users with special client software that allows access directly to ail of its services.

Services include the following:

·    News. Most information utilities offer news, including politics, finance, sports, and weather, straight from the news wire services. News by computer can be more current, detailed, and relevant than TV or radio broadcasts. What’s more, an on-line user can ask for stories on a particular topic and receive a customized list of headlines; it’s like having an up-to-the-minute personalized newspaper with an index. For many people on-line news is a convenience; for others it’s a near necessity. A boat operator can monitor incoming storms before trips; a leg­islator can keep up with fast-breaking Capitol Hill reports from back in the home district; a visually impaired student can have a personal computer, equipped with a speech synthesizer, that reads headlines and stories aloud.

·   Research. Most utilities offer a variety of databases, encyclopedias, media re­views, and other reference tools for students, professionals, and curious browsers.

·    Shopping. Shopping services allow users to search catalog databases, order goods and services, and pay for them automatically with credit cards. Similar services allow travelers to peruse airline schedules and reserve tickets by computer.

·    Banking. Many subscribers pay bills, transfer money between accounts, and take care of other banking needs using special on-line banks. Banking by modem saves gas, and you don’t have to stand in line.

·    Games. On-line games can’t compete with home computer games for graphics and fast action, but many offer opportunities to play with others who happen to be logged in. One multiplayer game on CompuServe, for example, is a perpetual interstellar battle between space ships controlled by players scattered across North America.

·   Bulletin boards. Subscribers can mix with like-minded types using bulletin boards that cater to special-interest groups within the system. These bulletin boards work like special-interest BBSs within the context of a larger system.

·    Communication. Electronic mail, special-interest bulletin boards, teleconferences, and other communication services allow subscribers to connect with each other for business or fun. Gateways link the major on-line utilities and networks to the Internet, making it possible for subscribers of competing services to send messages to each other. On-line communication is not the same as sharing a face-to-face conversation over coffee, but many people develop deep and lasting connections with people they meet on line. There have even been on-line marriages!

The explosive growth of the Internet has forced on-line services to change the way they do business, Users who used to be content within the confines of a particu­lar service now want to have access to the World Wide Web. Many information ser­vices have responded to the Web’s popularity by becoming part of it, Before the Web, CompuServe was the largest on-line information service. In 1997, after several con­secutive years of declining enrollment, it converted to a fee-based subscription out­post on the World Wide Web. Not long afterward it was purchased by America Online (AOL), now the largest private information utility.

America Online’s customers still use special client software rather than a Web browser to connect and use its services. But today the AOL client software includes a Web browser so AOL users can explore the entire Web—not just the offerings in­side AOL. AOL also provides space for customers to build and display personal Web pages. By including Internet email and Web services in its package, AOL has become an Internet service provider for millions of customers.

Many experts question whether everything-under-one-roof services like America Online can successfully compete with the free-for-all World Wide Web. Others be­lieve there’ll always be a place for services that can simplify the on-line experience. One thing is certain: The Internet will continue to bring changes to these services, and the changes will come rapidly. 

Ex.1. Discuss different types of on-line services in pairs. What kinds of communication services do subscribers use to connect with each other for business or fun?

 Ex.2. Match each noun or adjective in column 1 to a noun (nouns) in column 2 to make word patnerships. Use the words only once, though  several word partnerships are possible. 


a) groups


b) schedules

3. special-interest

c) subscription

4. e-commerce

d) hours

5. speech

e) reviews

6. media

f) browser

7. current

g) business

8. peak

h) synthesizer

9. airline

i) news

 Text 7a. On-Line Survival Tips

 Whether you log into a BBS, an information service, or the Internet, you’re using a relatively new commu­nication medium with new rules. Here are some sug­gestions for successful on-line communication:

If you don’t have to be on line, go offline. Even if you’re not paying by the minute for connect time, you’re consuming network resources and possibly slowing things down for other users. Do your home­work before you log in so you don’t have to look things up while the meter is running. Compose, edit, and address messages before you log on. Plan your strategy before you connect.   

Avoid peak hours. Traffic on line comes in waves. If you avoid the peaks, you’ll save time and aggravation.

Let your system do as much of the work as possi­ble. If your email program can sort mail, filter mail, or automatically append a signature file to your mail, take advantage of those features. If you send similar messages over and over, store them, and recycle the relevant text. If you find yourself sending messages to the same group of people repeatedly, create an alias that includes all of those people—a distribution list that can save you the trouble of typing or selecting all those names each time. If you can automate repetitive processes like logging in and downloading mail, do it; the time you invest will be paid back over and over.    

Store names and addresses in an on-line address book. Email addresses aren’t always easy to remember and type correctly. If you mistype even a single character, your message will probably either go to the wrong person or bounce—come back to you with some kind of “undeliverable mail” message. An on­line address book allows you to select addresses with­out typing them each time you use them.

Protect your privacy. Miss Manners said it well in a 1998 Wired interview: “For email, the old post­card rule applies. Nobody else is supposed to read your postcards, but you’d be a fool if you wrote any­thing private on one.”

Cross-check on-line information sources. Don’t assume that every information nugget you see on line is valid, accurate, and timely. If you “hear” something on line, treat it with the same degree of skepticism that you would if you heard it in a cafete­ria or coffee shop.

Be aware and awake. It’s easy to lose track of yourself and your time on line. In his book Virtual Community, Howard Rheingold advises, “Rule Number One is to pay attention. Rule Number Two might be: Attention is a limited resource, so pay attention to where you pay attention.”

Avoid information overload. When it comes to information, more is not necessarily better. Search selectively. Don’t waste time and energy trying to process mountains of on-line information. Information is not knowledge, and knowledge is not wisdom.

 Ex.1. Discuss the tips. Do you find them interesting and useful? Which of them do you consider the important, next most important?

 Ex.2.  “The e-commerce revolution will be as significant as the industrial revolution or perhaps even more so...”   -   Adam Rhodes, e-commerce entrepreneur.

Do you agree? 

Ex.3. We often use the words below to talk about e-commerce. Check that you understand their meaning. Match the words to their definitions.


1. browse

a) a word that you enter into a search engine in order to find sites with web pages that contain this word.

2. directories

b) lists of sites of similar organisations, or of sites with information on particular topics.

3. hits:

c) used as an adjective or adverb to talk about activities related to the Internet.

4. key word

d) to look through a series of web pages, perhaps those of a  particular site, or ones found by a search engine relating to a particular topic.

5. locate

e) a series of related screens with information about a     subject, organisation, etc.

6. Net

f) to look for particular information or a particular site, or the                                                   act of looking for it.

7. on-line

g) the number of visits that a particular site receives or the sites found by a search engine that contain the key word you entered.

8. search

h) the number of people looking at a site in a particular  period.

9.search engines

i) people who go and look at different sites, perhaps in a                random way with no particular purpose in mind.

10. site

j) sites like Google, Yahoo, AltaVista, etc. that allow you to find other sites with the information you are looking for by entering key words or expressions.

11. surfers

k) find information, a site, etc. that you are looking for.

12. traffic

l) another word for Internet.

 Ex.4Complete the beginnings of sentences below with the appropriate endings. 

1. An intranet operates

1 a) outside a company or organisation and is open to the public.

2. The Internet operates

b) inside a company or organisation.

3. An extranet operates

c) outside a company or organisation, but is not open to the public.

 Ex.5. Read the website descriptions. To which website does each sentence 1-7 refer?

a)        paralegal.com Fed up with paying exorbitant legal fees? Get leading-edge legal services at a fraction of the cost of going to a law firm. E-mail our legal team for low-cost advice on all aspects of company and tax law. Download specialist up-to-the-minute documents for a small charge. Conduct your own court cases with our help and save thousands of euros! No win, no fee!

b)        bespontaneous.com Be spontaneous! Do something on the spur of the moment. Book otherwise impossible-to-get tickets to theatre and sports events. Ready to fly tomorrow? Take a break to one of our popular destinations: beach or city. Worry-free booking by credit card on our secure server. Next-day courier delivery of tickets to your door.

c)        worldweather.com Want to see what the weather’s like anywhere in the world? Come to worldweather.com! Consult free forecasts for 100 world cities. Download stunning satellite pictures of the world’s increasingly unpredictable weather for free. Deluxe, framed versions of these pictures make beautiful gifts. Order on-line. Delivery within 48 hours.

d)        goinggoinggone.com Consumer electronics products auctioned daily: computers, TVs, washing machines, you name it. It’s so simple: put in your bid and we’ll notify you by e-mail of the competing bids. You can raise your bid as many times as you like over a three-day period. If your bid is the highest at the end of three days, pay by credit card and goods are delivered to you within 24 hours. 

1.You consult this site if you are not sure what clothes to take with you on a trip.

2.This site tries to reassure users who may be worried about giving their credit card details on-line.

3         .This site mentions a delivery method that does not use the ordinary post office  service.

4         .This site does not mention physical delivery of goods or documents.

5.On this site, you can order a picture to put on your wall.

6.On this site, you can offer a price for something, but you won’t necessarily get it.

7.On this site, there is a service that you may have to pay for or that may be free. 

Text 8. Computer networks today: A Reality Check 

“Computer chat lines can become every bit as addictive as cocaine. I have been hooked on both, and it was easier to get off coke.”

·                        A letter from an Alaskan to Ann Landers In 1996

Computer networks and on-line services are, for a small but growing number of peo­ple, as important as TVs and phones. People who spend lots of time on line learn to live with the shortcomings of today’s network technology: busy signals, protocol problems, response delays, system failures, endless menu layers, inconsistent com­mands, high costs, and unexplainable restrictions. For serious networkers these prob­lems are small when compared with the riches offered by the network: instantaneous communication, unlimited information, and an on-line community of kindred spirits.

Millions of people spend hours on line every day. For a few hard-core network­ers the world on the other side of the modem is more real and more interesting than the everyday physical world. While this may seem strange, it’s not unique. Many people feel the same way about television, spectator sports, or romance novels.

For most of us the keyboard-and-characters interface is simply too primitive to be addictive. The graphical user interfaces of the World Wide Web and America On­line are more fun, but far from irresistible. But not all computer-based communica­tion media are built around keyboards and mouse clicks.  

Ex.1. True or false?(according to the text)

1. The number of people who need on-line services hasn’t changed over the past six years.

2. People spending much time on line have to put up with multiple drawbacks of today’s network technology.

3. The graphical user interfaces of the World Wide Web are becoming dangerously addictive for millions of people visiting Internet sites. 

Ex.2. Try to find in the text the phrases, which could be translated into Russian as 1

«сообщество родственных душ», and  2.«сетевой костяк», или «истинные приверженцы Интернета». 

Ex.3. Work in pairs. One student makes a list of the riches offered by the network, all possible advantages. The other student writes down all disadvantages, possible harmful features and shortcomings of today’s network technology. Report your results to each other, then discuss them with the class. 

Ex. 4. What parts of speech are these words? Write antonyms for them using prefixes if possible.

1.        Small

2.        Important

3.        Failure

4.        Endless

5.        Consistent

6.        Explainable

7.        Limited

8.        Resistible

9.        Kindred

10.       Real

11.       Interesting

12.       Addictive


Text 9.  Alternative Communication Technologies 

“For time is the longest distance between two points.” -    Tennessee Williams 

So far we’ve discussed telecommunication technologies in which computers play a central and highly visible role. In other types of telecommunication, computers func­tion behind the scenes to coordinate communication. We’ll explore some examples in this section and then consider how different forms of telecommunication are com­ing together to provide completely new communication possibilities.

Some forms of telecommunication don’t require users to type commands and mes­sages or click on on-screen buttons. In fact, many people regularly use voice mail, facsimile transmission, video teleconferencing, and ATMs without even thinking about the fact that they’re using digital computer technology to communicate.

Ex. 1. Choose the most appropriate comment.

“Computers function behind the scenes” means that...

A) computers have become less important;

B) the role of computers is not so much related to communication;

C) computers’ performance is more autonomous and less visible;

D) computer technology has become more sofisticated.  

Text 9a. Facsimile Transmission 

A facsimile (fax) machine is a fast and convenient tool for transmission of informa­tion stored in paper documents, such as typed letters, handwritten notes, photographs, drawings, book pages, and news articles. When you send a fax of a paper document, the sending fax machine scans each page, converting the scanned image into a series of electric pulses and sending those signals over phone lines to another fax machine. The receiving fax machine uses the signals to construct and print black-and-white facsimiles or copies of the original pages. In a sense the two fax machines and the telephone line serve as a long-distance photocopy machine.

It’s not necessary to have paper copies of every faxed document, however. A computer can send on-screen documents through a fax modem to a receiving fax machine. The fax modem translates the document into signals that can be sent over phone wires and decoded by the receiving fax machine. In effect, the receiving fax machine acts like a remote printer for the document.

A computer can also use a fax modem to receive transmissions from fax machines, treating the sending fax machine as a kind of remote scan­ner. A faxed letter can be displayed on screen or printed to paper, but it can’t be immediately edited with a word processor the way  electronic mail message can. Like a scanned document, the digi tal facsimile is nothing more than a collection of black-and-white dots to the computer. Before a faxed document can be edited, it must be processed by optical character recog­nition (OCR) software. 

Text 9b. Voice Mail and Computer Telephony 

“Hi. This is Anita Chen. I’m either away from my desk or on another line. Please leave your name, number, and a message. If you prefer to talk to a receptionist, press 0.” The voice mail system that delivers this recorded message is more than an answering device; it’s a sophisticated messaging system with many of the features of an electronic mail system.

Your response is recorded in Anita’s voice mailbox. When she dials the system number from any telephone and enters her ID number or password on the phone’s keypad, she can listen to her messages, respond to them, forward copies to others, and delete unneeded messages. She can do just about anything she could do with an electronic mail message except edit messages electronically and attach computer documents.

In spite of its growing popularity, voice mail has detractors. Many people resent taking orders from a machine rather than being able to talk to a human operator. Many callers are frustrated by having to wade through endless voice menus before they can speak to a real person. Office workers often complain about the time-con­suming processes of recording and listening to messages. At least one corporation unplugged its voice mail system three months after installing it. Management con­cluded that communication simply went more smoothly without voice mail.

Many personal computers have telephony software and hardware that allow them to serve as speakerphones, answering machines, and complete voice mail sys­tems. A typical computer telephony system connects to a standard phone line through a modem capable of handling voice conversations. But it’s also possible to send voice signals through a LAN, a WAN, or the Internet, bypassing the phone companies (and their charges) altogether. So far this kind of network telephony isn’t as simple or reliable as commercial phone services, but it may soon pose a threat to phone company profits. 

Ex.1.Answer the questions.

1. Which of the following is not mentioned in Anita Chen’s answer to the phone call?

a)        name; b) address; c) number; d) message

2.        Why did at least on corporation unplugged its voice system three months after installing it?

3. Is voice mail system as simple and reliable as commercial phone services? Why?


Ex.2. Find words and phrases corresponding to the following Russian translations.

Несмотря на…; Пожалуйста, оставьте ваше сообщение; представлять угрозу кому-либо, чему-либо. 

Text 9c. Video Teleconferencing 

A video teleconference allows people to communicate face to face over long dis­tances by combining video and computer technology. In its simplest form video tele­conferencing is like two-way television. Each participant sits in a room equipped with video cameras, microphones, and television monitors.Video signals are beemed between sites so that... 

Ex.1. As you see, text 9c has only introductory sentences. Could you tell the class some more about video teleconferencing (what do you think is required for that - special rooms, video telephones ,video cameras, special high-speed computer systems, networks, etc.?)


Text 10.  

You are going to read the introductory part of an article. But first think of what you know about robots. What do you think robots will be like in some 20-30 years.

Are robots mere futuristic visions?  Definitely not — at least when it  comes to virtual robots on the Web. In fact, the time now seems right for such immaterial beings to begin helping us humans perform the in­creasingly complex and time-consum­ing tasks of everyday life.

When we think of robots, the first thing that comes to mind is the clank­ing monsters made of plastic and metal that were invented by science fiction authors. But even these crea­tures have learned to walk, smell and speak in the lab, and they’re now be­ing used to speed up production processes and entertain us. However, the real revolution is taking place in the realm of software — new, smarter software that doesn’t just react to the input fed to it via keyboard and mouse but also forms its own impression of the world, adapts to users’ needs and acts autonomously on their behalf.

These virtual helpers — or “agents” —are modules of pure software. They represent a milestone on the journey to true artificial intelligence. Accord­ing to the pioneers of this new devel­opment, agents will be able to relieve us of a multitude of daily routines in a world that is becoming ever more densely networked. They will plan our trips, do our shopping and manage our bank accounts. They will function as digital servants who guide us through our daily activities efficiently and without any mishaps. And they will also protect us from information overload. We will access them via an interface with a conventional com­puter program or through their ap­pearance as a friendly face smiling back at us from our computer moni­tor, cell phone display or other device.

Ex.1. Which of the fiollowing do you think would be the best  headline for the article?

1. The virtual monsters

2. Agents on the Web

3. Daily routines to be performed by digital servants

4. Futuristic vision or artificial intelligence?

5. Virtual helpers are coming to do our shopping and manage our bank accounts. 

Ex.2. In the text, find words and/or word combinations that best correspond to the following Russian translations.

Бестелесные существа; ускорять производственные процессы; в царстве компьютерных программ; приспосабливаться к; от имени или в интересах кого-либо; важное достижение, историческое событие; искусственный интеллект; масса повседневных обязанностей; счет в банке.


Text 11.  E-money 

When you strip away the emotional trappings, money is just another form of information. Dollars, yen, pounds, and rubles are all just symbols that make it easy for people to exchange goods and services. Money can be just about anything, provided people agree to its value. During the last few centuries paper replaced metal as the major form of money. Today paper is being re­placed by digital patterns stored in computer media. Most major financial transactions take place inside computers, and most money is stored on com­puter disks and tapes instead of in wallets and safe deposit boxes.

Money, like other digital information, can be transmitted through com-#M> purer networks. That’s why it’s possible to withdraw cash from your check­ing account using an automated teller machine (ATM) at a bank, airport, or shopping mall thousands of miles front your home bank. An ATM (not to be con­fused with the communication protocol with the same initials) is a specialized termi­nal linked to a bank’s main computer through a commercial banking network. An ATM can handle routine banking transactions 24 hours a day, providing the kind of instant service that wouldn’t be possible without computer networks.

An ATM isn’t necessary for electronic funds transfer to take place. Many people have paychecks deposited automatically in checking or savings accounts and have bills paid automatically out of those accounts. These automatic transfers don’t in­volve cash or checks; they’re done inside computer networks. Many banks allow you to use your home computer or your touch-tone phone to transfer money be­tween accounts, check balances, and pay bills.

Electronic funds transfer is one component of electronic commerce, or e-com-mercc—commercial activity that takes place through networked computers. But today e-commerce isn’t limited to transaction processing on private banking net­works. Recent years have seen rapid growth of e-commerce on the Internet. Even though the Internet is a shared public network, security procedures (discussed in later chapters) have been developed to make Internet financial transactions private and secure. 

Ex.1. Answer the questions.

1. What  is money, according to the definition given in paragraph 1?

2. Why do you think money is called “ just another form of information”? Exchange opinions with your  neighbour, and then explain your vision to your the class.

3. What are advantages and disadvantages of storing money on computer discs and tapes instead of in wallets and safe deposit boxes?

4. “Many banks allow you to use your home computer or your touch-tone phone to transfer money be­tween accounts, check balances, and pay bills”. Why “ many” but not all banks? What are the obsticles? 

Supplementary Reading 

Text 1.  Requirements for a Network 

Unless the computers that are connected know they are connected and agree on a common means of communication and what resources are to be shared, they can’t work together. Networking software is just as important as networking hardware because it establishes the logical connections that make the physical connections work.

At a minimum, each network requires the following:

■   Physical (cable) or wireless (infrared [IRDA] or radio-frequency) connections between computers

■   A common set of communications rules, known as a network protocol

■   Software that enables resources to be shared with other PCs and controls access to shared resources, known as a network operating system

■   Resources that can be shared, such as printers, disk drives, and CD-ROMs

■  Software that enables computers to access other computers with shared resources, known as a network client

These rules apply to the simplest and most powerful networks, and all the ones in between, regardless of their nature.  

Text 2. Client/Server Versus Peer Networks 

Although every computer on a LAN is connected to every other computer, they do not necessarily all communicate with each other. There are two basic types of LANs, based on the communication pat­terns between the machines—client/server networks and peer-to-peer networks.

Client/Server Networks

On a client/server network, every computer has a distinct role, that of either a client or a server, A server is designed to share its resources among the client computers on the network. Typically, servers are located in secured areas, such as locked closets or data centers, because they hold an organization’s most valuable data and do not have to be accessed by operators on a continuous basis. The rest of the computers on the network function as clients.


A dedicated server computer typically has a faster processor, more memory, and more storage space than a client because it might have to service dozens or even hundreds of users at the same time. High-performance servers also might use two or more processors, use the 64-bit version of the PCI expansion slot for server-optimized network interface cards, and have redundant power supplies. The server runs a special network operating system—such as Windows NT Server, Windows 2000 Server, Windows Server 2003, Linux, Unix, or Novell NetWare—that is designed solely to facilitate the sharing of its resources.

These resources can reside on a single server or on a group of servers. When more than one server is used, each server can “specialize” in a particular task (file server, print server, fax server, email server, and so on) or provide redundancy (duplicate servers) in case of server failure. For very demanding computing  tasks, several servers can act as a single unit through the use of parallel processing.


A client computer communicates only with servers, not with other clients. A client system is a stan­dard PC that is running an operating system such as Windows 9x, Windows Me, Windows 2000 Professional, or Windows XP. These versions of Windows contain the client software that enables the client computers to access the resources that servers share. Older operating systems, such as Windows 3.x and DOS, require add-on network client software. 

Text 3. Peer-to-Peer Network 

By contrast, on a peer-to-peer network, every computer is equal and can communicate with any other computer on the network to which it has been granted access rights. Essentially, every computer on a peer-to-peer network can function as both a server and a client; any computer on a peer-to-peer network is considered a server if it shares a printer, a folder, a drive, or some other resource with the rest of the network. This is why you might hear about client and server activities, even when the discus­sion is about a peet-to-peer network. Peer-to-peer networks can be as small as two computers or as large as hundreds of systems. Although there is no theoretical limit to the size of a peer-to-peer network, perfor­mance drops significantly and security becomes a major headache on peer-based networks with more than 10 computers. Also, Microsoft imposes a 10-station limit on computers running Windows 2000 Professional or XP Professional that are sharing resources with other systems. For these reasons, I recom­mend that you switch to a client/server network when your network climbs above about 10 stations.

Peer-to-peer networks are more common in small offices or within a single department of a larger  organization. The advantage of a peer-to-peer network is that you don’t have to dedicate­ a computer to function as a file server. Instead, every computer can share its resources with any other. The poten­tial disadvantages to a peer-to-peer network are that typically less security and less control exist

because users normally administer their own systems, whereas client/server networks have the advan­tage of centralized administration. 

Text 4. Comparing Client/Server and Peer-to-Peer Networks 

Client/server LANs offer enhanced security for shared resources,greater performance, increased backup efficiency for network-based data, and the potential for the use of redundant power supplies and RAID drive arrays. Client/server LANs also have a much greater cost to purchase and maintain.

Window’s 9x, Windows Me, Windows NT, Windows 2000,  and Windows have peer-to-peer net­working capabilities built into them. Because Windows, from version 95 forward, uses Plug and Play technology, installing network interface cards in a collection of these systems is relatively easy. Simply connect them with the correct kind of cable, and build your own peer-to-peer network. 

Text 5. Network Protocols Overview 

The protocol you choose to run is the single most important decision you make when setting up a  local area network. This protocol defines the speed of the network, the medium access control mechanism it uses, the types of cables you can use, the network interface adapter you must buy, and the adapter drivers you install in the network client software.

The Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE) has defined and documented a set of standards for the physical characteristics of both collision-detection and token-passing networks. These standards are known as IEEE 802.3 (Ethernet) and IEEE 802.5 (Token-Ring). IEEE 802.11 defines wire­less versions of Ethernet. 

Text 6. Personal Digital Assistants 

For a growing number of people whose jobs keep them on the move and away from their offices, telecommunication is a critical part of the work day. Many of these mo­bile professionals are using portable personal digital assistants (PDAs) to meet many of their communication needs. A PDA typically combines a cellular phone, a fax modem, and other communication equipment in a lightweight, wireless box that re­sembles a pen-based computer. A personal communicator can serve as a portable phone, a fax machine, an electronic mailbox, a pager, and a personal computer, It can be hooked to a standard phone line or, in many locations, can function as a wireless communication device using the kind of radio transmitters and receivers used in cellular phones. Today PDAs are novelties to most people, but as these wireless technologies improve, many mobile professionals will be able to “stay in touch” all day, every day. 

Text 7. Bandwidth Basics 

The cause of most of these problerns on the Internet and other networks is a lack of bandwidth at some point in the path between the sending computer and the receiv­ing computer. The work has a technical definition, but in the world of computer net­works bandwidth generally refers to the quantity of information that can be transmitted through a communication medium in a given amount of time. In gen­eral, increased bandwidth means faster transmission speeds. Bandwidth can be af­fected by many factors, including the physical media that make up the network, the amount of network traffic, the software protocols of the network, and the type of network connection.

Some people find it easier to visualize bandwidth by thinking of a network cable as a highway. One way to increase bandwidth in a cable is to increase the number of parallel wires in that cable—the equivalent of adding more lanes to a freeway. An­other way is to increase the speed with which information passes through the cable; this is the same as increasing the speed of the vehicles on the freeway. Of course, it’s easier and safer to increase highway speed limits if you have a traffic flow system that minimizes the chance of collisions and accidents; in the same way, more effi­cient, reliable software can increase network bandwidth. But increasing a highway’s throughput doesn’t help much if cars pile up at the entry and exit ramps; in the same way, a high-bandwidth network seems like a low-bandwidth network if you’re con­nected through a slow modem.

The grand design keeps getting grander. A global computer is taking shape, and we’re all connected to it.

·                        Stewart Brand, in The Media Lab

Computer networks transmit text, numbers, pictures, sounds, speech, music, video, and money as digital signals. On the World Wide Web we’re seeing all kinds of interesting possibili­ties arising from mixtures of these diverse media. Video on demand, pay-by-the-song music shopping, interactive multiplayer games, picture phones, real-time customized news feeds, and more are available on the Web—if you don’t mind putting up with small, jerky videos, scratchy audio, grainy images, and (especially) long waits.



Text 1,ex.3: 1c,2g,3e,4f,5d,6b,7a,8j,9i,10h

Text 1, ex.4: 1) network interface card (NIC); 2) interface; 3) network; 4) hardware,software; 5) dial-up service or system; 6)memory; 7)remote; 8)bus

Text 1,ex.5: to examine sth in more detail,to reduce cost,to take advantage of,to share information, to increase efficiency, remote access

Text 1,ex.6: 1b,2a,3h,4f,5g,6c,7d,8e
Text 1, ex.7 :a)

Text 2ex.1: built-in, on th other hand, general principles, to convert, depends on, designed to, multipurpose, compatible, the most common types of networks, flow of data

Text 2ex.2:a)computerization b)compute c)computation
Text 2ex.3:a)false b)true c)false d)true
Text 2ex.6:1g,2f,3e,4a,5c,6h,7b,8d.
Text 3,ex.3: 1bc,2ac,3ab,4ac,5ab,6ac,7ab,8bc

Text 3,ex.4: a) между практически любыми,b) обычно не имеет большого значения, c) является технически более точным

Text 3,ex.5: 1f, 2h, 3e, 4g, 5a, 6b,7d, 8c
Text 4,ex.2: 1f,2a,3e,4g,5c,6h,7b,8d
Text 4,ex.3: 1d,2c,3g,4f,5b,6e,7a
Text 4,ex.4: c-true,d-true
Text 4a, ex.2: 1h, 2f, 3e, 4d, 5a, 6b, 7g, 8c

Text 4b,ex.1.:1.To be referred to as; 2.visible; 3.restricted; 4. authorized (users);  5. customers

Text 4b, ex.2: Home area network, File Transfer Protocol, small-office/home-office (SOHO) LANs, America Online, Bulletin Board System, Network Interface Card, Central Processing Unit, Network operating system, Local area network, Transfer Control Protocol/Internet Protocol, Wide area network.

Text 5 ex. 3: 1of, 2up, 3at, 4at, 5on, 6by, 7through, 8on, 9at, 10of, 11between, 12by, 13for, 14between, 15for, 16on, 17over, 18on, 19through, 20at, 21up, 22over, 23for, 24through.Text 5 ex. 4: 1e, 2c, 3f, 4a, 5b, 6d.

Text 5, ex.7: to provide services; serious limitations; host system; people used to  the  friendlier graphical interfaces

Text 6. ex.1. Expensive peripherals ; prioritize; make sense; simplify data communication; data translation software; in a matter of minutes; remove re­strictions on software copying; file sharing; a dedicated computer; IBM-compatible computers.

Text 6, ex.2: 2, 4, 7 true, 1, 3, 5, 6, 8 false.

Text 7, ex.2:  1-c,2 –f, 3- a, 4- g, 5 – h, 6 – e, 7 – i, 8 –d, 9 – b)

Text 7a,  ex. 2: 1a, 2e, 3d, 4b, 5c

Text 7a, ex.4: 1d, 2b, 3g, 4a, 5k, 6l, 7c, 8f, 9j, 10e, 11i, 12h.

Text 7a, ex.5: 1Net, 2 search engines, 3 traffic, 4 site, 5 search, 6 key word, 7. hits, 8 surfers, 9 on-line, 10 directories, 11 browse, 12 locate.

Text 7a, ex.6: 1b, 2a, 3c

Text 7a,ex.7: 1c, 2b, 3b, 4a, 5c, 6d,7a.

Text 8, ex.1: 1 false, 2t rue, 3 false.

Text 8, ex.2: “community of kindred spirits”, “hard-core networkers”.

Text 8. Ex. 4.: 1 – big, large, huge,; 2 – unimportant; 3 – success; 4 – instantaneous; 5 – inconsistent; 6 – unexplainable; 7 – unlimited; 8 – irreistible; 9 – different, strange, alien; 10 –unreal,  fake, false; 11 – uninteresting; 12 –indifferent, neutral.

Text 9b, ex.2: in spite of; Please, leave your message; to pose threat to..

Text 9b, ex.4: d)

Text 9c,ex.1. This is the end of the paragraph:”... between sites so that every participant can see and hear every other partici­pant on television monitors. Video teleconferencing is mainly practiced in special conference rooms by groups that meet too often to travel. But some businesses now use video telephones that transmit pictures as well as words through phone lines.

With the addition of a video capture board, a video camera, and a high­speed network connection, a telephone-capable desktop computer can be used for video teleconferencing. These systems allow callers to see each other on their computer screens while they carry on phone conversations over high­speed computer networks, including the Internet. Some allow them to view and edit shared documents while they talk. Today most PC-based video tele­conferencing systems suffer from erratic video transmission, but the technol­ogy is getting better quickly”. 

Text 10, ex.1: 2.

Text 10, ex.2: immaterial beings,to speed up production processes, in the realm of softwares, to adapt to, on behalf of, milestone, artificial intelligence, a multitude of daily routines, a bank account. 


Addictive  - something that is addictive is so enjoyable that you want to do it or have it as often as possible

AOL –America Online

ATM – automated (automatic) teller machine, cash dispenser ; банкомат

Baud rate - скорость двоичной передачи (в бодах)

BBS - bulletin board system

Benefit - an advantage you get from a situation

Bps - bits per second: a unit for measuring the rate at which information can be sent over an Internet line

Browser - a computer program that allows you to look at and search through information on the Internet

Built-in - forming part of something, and not separate from it; встроенный

Bulletin board -  a place on a computer system or on the Internet where you can leave messages and read messages from other people

Bus - a set of wires that send information from one part of a computer system to another; шина

Categorize - to put people or things into groups according to their qualities,  CLASSIFY

CD-ROM - compact disc read-only memory: a CD that stores large amounts of information for use by a computer

Chassis – рама, блок

Circuit board - a board in a piece of electronic equipment with electrical connections or computer chips in it

Collaboration - the process of working with someone to produce something

Compatible – COMPUTING: if one piece of computer equipment or software is compatible with another, they can be used together; совместимый

Compete - to try to be more successful than other companies or people in business; конкурировать

CPU - a central processing unit: the part of a computer that controls what it does

Critical - very important

Curious - someone who is curious wants to find out about something

Customize - to change the way something looks or works so that it is exactly what you want or need

Data translation преобразование данных

Dedicated (computer) - made or used for just one purpose: dedicated hardware; специализированный

Delegate  -to give part of your work, duties, or responsibilities to someone who is junior to you; передавать полномочия, поручать

Due to - because of (owing to) something

Eliminate - to get rid of something that is not wanted or needed; to remove; устранять, исключать

Ethernet – TRADEMARK; a system in which several computers in an area are directly connected to each other by wires

Fee - an amount of money that you pay to be allowed to do something such as join an organization; плата, вступительный или членский взнос

Fiddle -  to touch or move something with many small quick movements of your fingers because you are bored, nervous, or concentrating on something else:

fiddle with: She fiddled with the sugar packet, avoiding his eyes.

1a. to touch, move, or change something many times in order to improve it or make it work better:

Kay was fiddling with the radio dial.

2 INFORMAL to produce false results or records, in order to get money or other benefits:

They all fiddle their taxes.

fiddle the figures/books/accounts: They accuse the government of fiddling the unemployment figures.

FTP - file transfer protocol: a set of rules for moving computer  files from one computer to another in a network, especially over the Internet

HAN – home area network

Hard core -  the people within an organization or group who are the most loyal to its principles and the most involved in its activities: can be followed by a singular or plural verb:

the hard core of the Labour Party membership

1a. the people in a group who are extremely committed or enthusiastic

Hardware - computer equipment. Computer programs are called software

Host system – базисная, централизованная система

IBM - International Business Machines ,”Интернэшнл Бизнес Мэшинз” (компания по производству ЭВМ)

In a matter of minutes –  very quickly, в считанные минуты

Intricate - very detailed in design or structure; very complicated and difficult to understand or learn

Kindred spirits, a kindred spirit/soul - someone who likes or cares about the same things as you do, родственные души

LAN - local area network: a system that allows computers in the same building or group of buildings to communicate with each other

Legislator - someone who has the power and authority to create new laws

Log in -  the process of performing the necessary actions to start using a computer program or system.

Miscellaneous - consisting of various kinds of people or things

Momentous - very important because of having an effect on future events

Network administrator – COMPUTING someone whose job is to develop and manage a computer network

NIC – network interface card

Node -  a point on a computer NETWORK where a message can be created or received;  узел

NOS – network operating system, software that enables resources to be shared with other PCs and controls access to shared resources.

Nuts and bolts, the nuts and bolts (of something) - the basic details of a job or activity

Outfit - MAINLY AMERICAN : to provide someone or something with the clothes or equipment they need for a particular purpose

Peripheral - a piece of equipment that you can connect to a computer, such as a printer

Peruse –FORMAL to read something; внимательно прочитывать

Piracy - the crime of making and selling illegal copies of computer programs, books, videos, or CDs

Port - a part of a computer that you fit a cable into so that you can connect another piece of equipment to it: the printer port

Prioritize -  to decide in what order you should do things, based on how important or urgent they are; to treat a particular job or issue as being more important than any others

Protocol - a set of rules for the correct way to behave on formal occasions:

diplomatic protocol; COMPUTING: a method of sending information between computers

RAM -  COMPUTING random access memory: the part of a computer that programs are loaded into while you are using them

Relevant - important and directly connected to what is being discussed or considered

Restriction - a rule, action, or situation that limits or controls someone or something

Router программа маршрутизации

Scatter - to throw or drop things so that they spread over an area:

I.         scattered some grain on the floor of the hen house.

scatter something on/over/around etc: The children had scattered toys all over the floor.2.if a group of people or animals scatter, they suddenly move away in different directions

Sequence - a set of related things that happen or are arranged in a particular order:

A computer can store and repeat sequences of instructions.

the sequence of events: Could you describe the exact sequence of events that evening?

the order in which a set of things happens or is arranged

Shield - to protect something, usually from being hit, touched, or seen; щит, заслонять, защищать

Save shoe leather : не истаптывать обувь, поберечь  бензин и пр., в общем, не перетруждаться

Software - the programs used by computers for doing particular jobs

Stand in line, line: - MAINLY AMERICAN a QUEUE of people waiting for something

Subscription - an agreement to pay an amount of money so that you will receive something such as a magazine or a service. You take out a subscription, usually for a year, and renew it if you want to continue the arrangement for another year.

an amount of money that you pay regularly in order to be a member of an organization or club

TCP/IP - abbreviation COMPUTING: transmission control protocol/Internet protocol: a set of rules used by all computers on the Internet that allow them to communicate with each other

Traveler - the American spelling of traveller

Troubleshooter -  someone whose job is to solve problems that an organization is having

UNIX – TRADEMARK; a computer operating system that can be used by several people at the same time

Via - using a particular method or person to send or deliver something:

It’s easy to check your bank account via the Internet.

Violate - to do something that is in opposition to a law, agreement, principle etc:

Companies that violate environmental laws will be heavily fined; to enter an area or place without permission

WAN –Wide area network; глобальная сеть 

Список литературы 

1. Macmillan English Dictionary: Maсmillan Publishers Limited, 2002.

2. MINI-LINK E and E Micro. Technical Description, Copyright, ERICSSON, 1999

3. Martin Sauter: Communication System for the Mobile Information Society, John Wiley, September 2006

4. В.К.Мюллерю. Англо-русский словарь. - Современная редакция. Москва: ЮНВЕС, 2004 


Networking and telecommunication....................................................................... 3

Text 1. Basic Network Anatomy........................................................................... 3

Text 2. The Network Interface.............................................................................. 5

Text 3. Communication a la Modem..................................................................... 7

Text 4. Networks Near and Far............................................................................. 9

Text 4a.  Defining a Network.............................................................................. 11

Text 4b. Types of Networks............................................................................... 12

Text 5. Communication Software........................................................................ 13

Text 6. The Network Advantage......................................................................... 16

Text 7.  Commercial On-Line Services................................................................ 18

Text 7a. On-Line Survival Tips........................................................................... 20

Text 8. Computer networks today: A Reality Check............................................. 23

Text 9.  Alternative Communication Technologies............................................... 24

Text 9a. Facsimile Transmission......................................................................... 25

Text 9b. Voice Mail and Computer Telephony.................................................... 25

Text 9c. Video Teleconferencing........................................................................ 26

Text 10.............................................................................................................. 27

Text 11.  E-money.............................................................................................. 28

Supplementary Reading...................................................................................... 29

Text 1.  Requirements for a Network................................................................... 29

Text 2. Client/Server Versus Peer Networks........................................................ 29

Text 3. Peer-to-Peer Network............................................................................. 30

Text 4. Comparing Client/Server and Peer-to-Peer Networks................................ 30

Text 5. Network Protocols Overview.................................................................. 31

Text 6. Personal Digital Assistants...................................................................... 31

Text 7. Bandwidth Basics................................................................................... 31

Keys:................................................................................................................. 32

Vocabulary........................................................................................................ 34

Список литературы.......................................................................................... 38