ИНСТИТУТ ЭНЕРГЕТИКИ И СВЯЗИ
Методические указания по
развитию навыков и умений профессионального общения студентов
А.К.Садыкова, С.М.Нарбаев Методические указания по развитию навыков и умений профессионального общения (для студентов всех форм
обучения теплоэнергетических специальностей).-Алматы:
АИЭС,2004.- 32 стр.
предназначены для развития навыков и умений профессионального общения на
английском языке, а также для развития навыков и умений чтения и понимания
профессионально-ориентированных текстов для студентов
теплоэнергетических специальностей. При составлении данного методического
указания авторы использовали новые интерактивные методы обучения, такие как
организация дискуссии, участие в диалогах и т.д. Эти способы общения
представлены в данном методическом издании. При отборе текстового материала
основным критерием служила информативная ценность текстов и их соответствие
интересам студентов теплоэнергетических специальностей.
Рецензент: ст. преп. каф. ИЯ Коробейникова Л.Я.
по плану издания Алматинского института энергетики и связи на 2004 г.
Алматинский институт энергетики и связи, 2004 г.
Siemens Power Generation
The Path to the Top in the Power Plant
In 1847, Werner
von Siemens, a Prussian military officer and engineer, and Georg Halske, a
mechanic, set up a small backyard workshop called the Siemens & Halske
Telegraph Construction Company in Berlin. This is where the first electrical
pointer telegraph was made, and in only a few decades this small workshop
developed into a global enterprise.
By employing experts with a solid
background in the natural sciences, and as a result of systematic research,
this young company was soon able to set itself apart from various tinkers who
had achieved only brief success. The business ventures undertaken by Siemens
& Halske extended to encompass more and more areas of electrical
engineering. In 1866, Werner von Siemens discovered the dynamoelectric
principle, and the field of power engineering and electrical power generation
The “division of electric light” in 1879
made it possible to supply several lamps with electrical power from a single
dynamo. Power generation facilities called central stations were built to light
large buildings and public squares and streets. In 1881, Siemens built the world’s first public power
plant in the southern England town of Godalming and the first in Berlin in
1885. In 1888, Siemens & Halske established the Central Stations Department,
the very beginning of today’s Siemens
Power Generation Group (KWU).
From its earliest days, power plant
business at Siemens was internationally oriented: Siemens built the lighting
systems in Shanghai, large power plants in the empire of the Russian czars, the
first hydroelectric power plant in Japan, the power supply system for
Johannesburg and for mining installations in Transvaal, power plants in Central
and South America, and of course throughout Europe. Siemens was soon
represented by branch offices worldwide, having established an office in London
in 1850, a cable factory in Woolwich in 1863 and an electrical equipment
manufacturing plant in St. Peterburg in 1882, with Siemens & Halske also
present in Chicago as early as 1892.
The operating company Siemens Electrical
Work was established in 1896 to provide a complete power plant service
package. it operated numerous power
plants under contract to customers in Germany and elsewhere in Europe.
Wherever power plants were built, there
was also a substantial need for financing Consequently, Siemens established a financing company in 1897,
called Electric Light and Power Systems. As early as the turn of the century,
Siemens was thus able to offer a complete package which included power plant
financing, construction, operation and maintenance.
the market for electricity grew, so did the importance of the power plant
business at Siemens & Halske. As a result, an independent company was
established in 1903 – Siemens-Schuckert-Werke GmbH – formed by the merger of
the power engineering part of Siemens & Halske with Schuckert & Co of
In 1904, Siemens decided to enter into a
cooperative venture (the Zoelly Consortium) with several turbine manufacturers.
That made it possible to supply complete team turbine-generators and not just
generators alone. Siemens began to
build turbines in 1927 with the purchase of a steam-turbine factory from
Thyssen in Mulheum/Ruhr. Preparation began in 1939 for in-house development of
a gas turbine, which resumed in 1948 after the war.
In 1950, Westinghouse was again
approached in order to renew the cooperation and patent sharing that had taken
place since 1924, but which had been interrupted by the war. This cooperative
agreement was expanded to include the nuclear sector when Siemens established
its first reactor engineering department in 1957.
That same year, production of small and
medium-sized turbines designed especially for industrial applications was moved
to a new manufacturing plant in Wesel so that the Mulheim plant could focus on
large turbines with ever-greater power output.
In the 1970s, Siemens also expanded its
manufacturing efforts to include the Americas: In 1965, a manufacturing plant
for hydroelectric generators was built in Sao Paulo, and in 1967 contact was
re-established with mechanical equipment maker Allis Chalmers in Milwaukee to
begin joint steam turbine manufacture.
the following questions
1.1 When & where was set up a small workshop Siemens & Halske Telegraph
1.2 Why was that young
company able to set itself apart from other tinkerers?
1.3 Where & when were
the first power plants built?
1.4 In which countries did
“Siemens” build its power plant in 19 century?
1.5 For what was the
operating company “Siemens Electrical Work established?
1.6 Why did “Siemens “
establish a financing company called “Electric Light &
1.7 When did “Siemens” establish
its first factor engineering department?
the correct variant
2.1 Werner von Siemens and Georg Halske
a) power plant;
c) electric station;
d) general shop.
2.2 Werner von Siemens discovered:
a) the generation principle;
b) the dynamo-mechanical principle;
c) the nuclear power principle;
d) the dynamo-electric principle.
2.3 “Siemens” built the world’s first
public power plant in:
2.4Wherever power plants
were built, there was also a substantial need for:
2.5 In 1957 “Siemens”
a) Power Generation Group;
b) Central Station
c) First Reactor Engineering
d) Electric Light &
Complete the following word
combinations from the text and translate them
Backyard …, global …, solid …, systematic
…, brief …, substantial …, power …
4 Read the text and complete the table using
information from the text
5 Match word (A) with their synonyms (B)
A 1.power generation facilities;
2. extend; 3. enterprise; 4. establish;
plant; b) found; c) spread; d) manage; e) central station.
the following word combinations
6.1 a power plant;
6.2 to light building & streets;
6.3 to customers;
6.5 in-house development.
7 Work in
Read the text to find out information
a) the beginning of the path to the top;
b) the company’s activity after the II
Tell your partner what you have found.
8 Put the
questions to the answers
8.1 Central stations were built to light
large buildings & public squares and streets.
8.2 From the earliest days, power plant
business at Siemens was internationally
8.3 The operating company “Siemens
Electric Work” was established to provide a
complete power plant service package.
8.4 As the market for electricity grew,
so did the importance of the power plant
business at “Siemens & Halske”.
9 Make the
sentences putting the words in right order
9.1 undertaken, extended, to, encompass,
the business, Siemens & Halske, more
9.2 more, engineering, ventures, of,
areas, electrical, by.
9.3 Central and South America, Siemens,
power plants, in, built.
9.4 1927, Mulheim/Ruhr, Siemens,
turbines, began, in, to built, in.
the text (matching only significant events)
Reforming Electric Power Industry in 1992-1997
The electric power industry is the basic
industry in Russia. Its capacity is enough to meet the demands of the Russian
producers and households for electric power and export electricity supplies by
the existing agreements.
The history of the electric power
industry of Russia consists of several consecutive stages of unification and
organization of parallel work of the Regional Power systems and establishment
of inter-regional unified power systems
and their final incorporation into the Unified Power System. Establishment of the
integral system was of great success of the Russian power industry in spite of
the fact that the connections between the European and Siberian parts of it and
Siberia and the Far East were rather weak.
Russia's transition to the market economy
and federal state structure set up in place of a Unitarian state brought about
necessity to carry out restructuring of the electric power industry and develop
new forms of internal and external economic relations.
In 1992 the sharing of the Unified Power
System was carried out, and partial privatization of industrial enterprises
began. Before putting this program into reality a preliminary restructuring of
the power industry was fulfilled, which was conditioned by the peculiarities of
the existing system of the country's power supply with uneven location of the
generation capacities, relatively little reserve capacities, high concentration
of electric and heat loads around big industrial centers separated from each
other by long distances (from 500 to 1000 km) and dependence of the majority of
the Russian Regions on the inter-system flow-overs of electricity and power.
To preserve reliable power supply,
centralized control of the established wholesale market and advantages of the
joint work within the Unified Power System of Russia and Regional Utilities and
to carry out and co-ordinate the investment programs in the electric power
industry the Russian Joint Stock Company (RAO) –the Unified Energy System of
Russia (UESR) was set up in December 1992 by the Presidential Decrees № 922, 923, 1334. It was meant to
incorporate the important inter-system objects, such as: all big thermal power
plants (with the capacity of 1000MW and higher) and hydraulic power plants (with
the capacity of 300 MW and higher), having the total capacity of 95 00 MW
(about half the total installed capacity of the country), the system-setting
high voltage lines, as well as the Central dispatcher Board and Dispatcher
Boards of the Regional Utilities, and other enterprises and institutions in the
electric power sphere. All these structures became subsidiary companies of RAO
UESR with 100% shares belonging to the
mother-company. Besides, every Regional Utility (AO-Energo) handed over 49% of
their shares to RAO UESR. (these Regional Utilities were set up on the basis of
the former regional power amalgamations, except for big power plants and
network objects which were withdrawn
from them and incorporated into RAJ UESR).
To preserve its control over the electric power industry the state
retained the control package of ordinary shares of RAO UESR.
The main challenge of RAO UESR was to set up a Federal wholesale
electricity market (FOREM), which would work on the principles of competition
between the market subjects.
In fact the preliminary plan of the power
industry restructuring was not fully put into practice. As a result of the
compromises achieved in the course of difficult talks with the administrations
of the Federal Subjects RAO UESR got only 34 out of 51 power plants included
into Annex of the Presidential Decree №
923. Seven power Plants out of 34 (with total installed capacity of 12 000 MW)
were leased by RAO UESR to the Regional Utilities (AO-Energos) which
independently execute their management and pay rent to RAO UESR. The rest of
the power plants which were retained by the Regional Utilities and became joint
stock companies agreed on compromise and handed over more than 49% of their
shares to RAO UESR.
On the whole despite all the difficulties
RAO UESR managed to accumulate resources for setting up an inter-regional
wholesale market of electricity andpower having put an end to the monopoly
position of the majority of the regional power systems by putting onto
wholesale market of 23 power plants with total capacity of 43 000MW, as well as
9 state-owned Nuclear power plants with the total installed capacity of 21 000 MW.
Setting up of RAO UESR as a holding
company made it possible to preserve the principles and methods of the Unified
Power System despite the disintegration of the USSR Power System onto separate
national power systems, as well as provide for sustainable power and heat
supply to the consumers in the period of transition from the centralized
planning to the market economy, having almost no state financing and very high
rate of inflation and the sharp crisis of non-payments in the long run. At the
same time this structure facilitated integration of the country's regions and
social support of the population. It has preserved technological and created
favorable structural perquisites for developing a competitive Federal wholesale market.
At present RAO UESR is the World's
largest highly automated compile[ for generation, transmission and distribution
of electricity having a centralized operational and technological control over
these processes. It includes 440 thermal and hydraulic power plants with the
total installed capacity of 140 and 44 mln. kW accordingly, and nuclear power
plants with total installed capacity of 21 mln.kW, as well as 2.5 mln. km of
electric lines of all voltages including more than 30 000 km of the main
system-setting high voltage lines of 500, 750 and 1150 kV.
the questions based on the information found in the reading
1.1 What is this text about?
1.2 What is the name of the Russian Joint Stock Company?
1.3 When was this company
1.4 Who is at the head of
1.5 What was the main
challenge of RAO UESR?
1.6 Why was the preliminary
plan of the power industry restructuring not fully put
1.7 What was a result of the
compromises achieved in the course of difficult talks
with the administrations of
the Federal subjects?
1.8 What does RAO UESR
represent at present?
households; internal and external economic relations; preliminary
all possible questions to these answers
3.1 Reforming electric power industry
took place in 1992-1997.
3.2 The electric power industry is the
basic industry in Russia.
3.3 In 1992 the sharing of the Unified
Power System was carried out and partial
privatization of industrial enterprises
3.4 The Unified Energy System of Russia
(UESR) was set up in December 1992
by the Presidential decrees № 922, 923,
3.5 Seven power plants out of 34 were
leased by RAO UESR to the Regional
3.6 RAO UESR includes 440 thermal and
hydraulic power plants with total
installed capacity of 140 and 44 mln.
4 Find in the text definitions of the
terms you find to be most important for you
the correct variant
5.1 Reforming electric power industry took place in____:
5.2 At the head of this company is____:
Regional Utility (AO-Energo) handed over_____ of their shares to RAO UESR:
present RAO UESR is the World's largest highly automated complex for_______:
a) generation and transmission of
b) generation and distrubition of
c) generation, transmission and
distribution of electricity.
6 Read the text again and complete the
table using information from the text
7 Talking point
Divide the group into two small
groups. One group represents in a short
electric power industry of Russia, the
other group represents the electric power
industry of Kazakchstan.
8 Complete the following word
8.6 A person who purchases a product for
his own personal use.
( coal, consumer, raw-materials, import,
9 Gas the main word
9.1 A person who purchases a product for
his own personal use?
9.2 Quantity or supply of something kept
for use as needed?
9.3 Any air-like substance, used chiefly
of those that do not become liquid or solid
at ordinary temperatures and usually is
used for lighting and heating?
9.4 Capacity for, power of,
9.5 Black mineral that burns
and supplies heat, and from which gas is
10 Say a few words about energy
resources of today. Use the following words and
word combinations for your
traditional power sources, non-traditional sources of energy, energy
promising energy source, oil and gas industry enterprises, the country’s
generation potential, the energy of sun, power transmission lines, ocean
hydrogen fuel, nuclear power station, present-day requirements
11 Conduct a round table
discussion on “ New sources of energy”
Speak about Power Engineering of Kazakhstan using the following words and
ower stations (plants)
forecast: Do you think that in future the storage of oil and gas in Kazakhstan
will be enough to provide all people?
How can you
describe the export and import policy in Kazakhstan?
Uran of Kazakhstan
Over 25% of the worlds
uranium reserves are concentrated in Kazakhstan.
Recently the only industrial
nuclear reactor operating in Kazakhstan was in Aktau; the power of this plant
was mainly used to desalinate water.
The construction of the new nuclear power station in Kazakhstan in the
near future is unlikely.
In the 1940s, at the
beginning of “the nuclear century”, the demand for uranium was determined
exclusively by the requirements of the US, German and Soviet military
industrials. At present, the world demand for uranium is determined primarily
by the requirements of nuclear plants,
17% of the total volume. The total capacity of nuclear stations was 352
GWt and they worked in 26 countries. The leader is USA, which produces 29% of
the world nuclear power.
Two of three decades ago it
seemed that nuclear power would enabled mankind to realize one of its dreams:
the dream of inexhaustible power source. Uranium nuclear decay produces 2
million times more power than the burning of the same quantity of first class
coal. One gram of obvious granite due to its’ uranium and thorium can produce
the same amount of power as 5 tons of oil!
Wouldn’t it be better to use an element which seems to have been
specially created by nature for mankind’s power requirements than to use other
kinds of fuel? The actual nuclear plant’s efficiency, of course, is not so
fantastic, but nevertheless, reactor produces the same volume of power per 1
ton of uranium as electric power station produce per about 10 000 tons of oil
or 15 000 tons of coal.
Today the future of
nuclear power seems less bright. The term “nuclear winter” was coined 20 years
ago. Now the West demonstrated a growing interest in Kazakhstan uranium. In the
next few decades we can expect developing of more safer nuclear stations. We
can also hope for the development of more efficient long distance power
1 Answer the questions
1.1 What countries are
interested in Kazakhstan uranium?
1.2 When did the demand for
uranium increase? Why?
1.3 How many countries have
1.4 What are the advantages
1.5 What kind of power
plants are in use nowadays?
1.6 For what reason are
nuclear power plants being built instead of fossil-fuel
steam electric plants?
2 Look at the words again and get ready to write a spelling
quiz on them
reactor, fuel, efficiency, inexhaustible, thorium, prognose
3 Form the other parts of speech
according to the model. Translate them.
Model: to protect – protection – защита
to product, to demonstrate,
to supply, to require, to grow, to create, to realize
4 Translate into Russian
uranium reserves, production
of uranium, industrial nuclear
reactor, the world
demand of power,
inexhaustible power source, “nuclear winter”, nuclear power
plants, industry experts,
nuclear plant’s efficiency, mankind’s
5 Give synonyms to the following words and memorise them.
nuclear – a) atomic, b) hydrogen, c) solar
to reinforce – a) pump, b)
charge, c) insulate, d) strengthen
turn (into) – a) cause, b) convert, c) dump
store – a) build, b) function, c) seem, d) get
6 Complete the sentences.
6.1 Over 25 % of the world’s uranium……………..
6.2 In the 1940s, at the
beginning of “the nuclear century”………..
6.3 The total capacity of
nuclear power stations was……………
6.4 The term “nuclear
winter” was coined…………………………
6.5 The development of
nuclear power in our country……………
7 Write the degrees of comparison of these adjectives.
Example: large – larger -
difficult – more difficult – (the) most
inexhaustible, prosperous, small, modern, exciting, advanced, efficient,
good, important, simple, strong
8 Fill in the gaps to complete the sentences.
energy, to drive,
stations, generators, falling,
fuel, coal, turbines,
8.1 Electric power is generated by converting heat, light, chemical
mechanical energy to electrical ............... .
8.2 Most electric energy is produced in large power....... by the
mechanical energy or heat.
8.3 The mechanical energy of ........water is used ........... turbine
8.4 The heat derived by burning........, oil or other ........ is used
steam.....or engines that drive electric generators.
8.5 Gas is delivered through gas ................................ .
9 Work in small groups in order
to make a decision. Fill your reason in the table.
plants have their advantages as well as
disadvantages. Their reactors and steam generators operate noiselessly.
The atmosphere is not polluted by dust and smoke. The disadvantage of power
plants utilising nuclear fuel is their radiation. Radioactive radiation
produced in the reactors is dangerous for people.
Atomic power plants have advantages
Atomic power plants have disadvantages
In what field of economy can atomic energy find its peaceful
The splitting of the atom has opened to man a new and enormous source of
energy. The most important results have been obtained by splitting the atom of
uranium. At present we only at the beginning of the application of atomic
energy and all its possible uses for peaceful purposes in power engineering.
11 Write the topic. Choose one of the following themes:
The nuclear century.
The peaceful uses of atomic energy.
Technical Operator of
1 Match words with their definitions and synonyms
1. joint stock
9. power supply
make e. to carry an electric current
b. consist of f.
to include yourself or someone in doing something
c. work with g.
delivery of electric energy
d. provide h.
Translate the following sentences paying attention to the Passive Voice
2.1 KEGOC is founded by the Government of
the Republic of Kazakhstan.
a new fuel and a new source of power are put to the service of Mankind.
Kazakhstan Electricity Grid Operating Company
1.Kazakhstan Electricity Grid Operating Company(
KEGOC) is an open joint stock company established in July 1997 by Resolution #
1188 of the Government of the Republic of Kazakhstan.
KEGOC, a state owned company was
founded by the
The corporate assets include
110 kV to 1,150 kV transmission lines and
Master substations forming
the National Power Grid that provides
interstate flows and power supply , from power plants connected there to the
regional power network companies and major customers.
KEGOC holds an important strategic position, it servers as a power bridge
between the power grids of Russia and Central Asia.
3.The Company is a Technical
Operator of the electricity wholesale
market of the Kazakhstan Single Power Grid (SPG),which includes power plants
and electric networks integrated into a single system of power generation,
transmission and distribution under general operational dispatchmanagement of
KEGOC. The centralized dispatch management
of the Single Power Grid is performed from Almaty via 9 regional
dispatch centers and 18 dispatch centers of district electricity network
4.KEGOC is involved in elaboration of power
sector development strategies, formulation of its technical
policies and drafting of long-term plans and programs.
5.KEGOC's position within he
power supply system makes it a natural monopoly that transmits and
dispatches electric power supplied to wholesale market participants.Tariffs for KEGOC services are regulated by he Kazakhstan Agency for Regulation of Natural
Monopolies,Competition and Small
the text again and match the paragraphs with these titles
a) State regulation of activity
b) Foundation of the company
c) Regional management of the company
d) Eurasian Electricity Grid Operating
2 Read the
text and complete the following questions
2.1 When … ?
2.2 Where …?
2.3 How … ?
many … ?
2.5 What … ?
3 What do these words from the text refer to ?
connect power bridge dispatch management
long – term power
KEGOC was established in
July1997 by Resolution #1188 of the Government of
the Republic of
4 Talking point
You are chief manager of KEGOC and after
the meeting you have press release.
Journalists are interested in the
4.1 KEGOC key objectives;
4.2 Pricing and tariff
4.3 Kazakhstan electricity
transmission rehabilitation project;
4.4 Cooperation with foreign
4.5 Future of atomic power.
5 Complete the dialogue
heading to it.
There are such power plants in Kazakhstan: the nuclear power plant, the thermal
power plant and the hydro power plant.
of electric power is produced by the thermal power plants, 8% by hydro power
plants and less than 1% by the nuclear power plants.
of thermal power plants use coal burning, the rest use gas and fuel oil.
Kazakhstan with his huge row materials
is nevertheless becoming more and more dependent on outside suppliers of
During recent year, the majority of hydro and heat power plants as well as heat
and electric supply systems have been privatized or taken in concession.
In order to solve this problem in 1997, the government established KEGOC.
There are also regional distribution companies.
The Kazakhstan companies operating the national electric system has the highest
Our Government has planned to build the nuclear power plant in Balkhash.
think that our natural resources enable us to develop the branch of power
engineering in our country.
1 A.Translate the following active words and do task B.
1.6 take into consideration
B Match the following words with their synonyms in A
f. take into account
i. go through
2 Complete the following sentences with the correct form of
the verbs in brackets
transmission lines (be carried) in Kazakhstan.
2.2 We (reduce) the current
in the transmission system by employing
2.3 KEGOC (sign) contracts
on supply of high voltage equipment.
2.4 Power loss in a line (not exceed) a definite value.
3 Translate the following sentences
paying attention to the Modal Verbs in the
3.1 Many interesting facts can
be found in this new article.
3.2 Copper and aluminum may
be justly considered as the best conductors.
3.3 It must be noted
that this invention will decrease the power lass.
Feasibility Study of the Construction of
Line ''North-South Kazakstan''
Transmission line 1150-500kV
North-South is provided for covering energy deficit of South Kazakstan region
from Ekibastuz GRESes (State regional power plants) with amounts 6.0 bln kWh in
1995 and in 2000 it will amount 7.0 bln
Cost price of energy production at Ekibastuzskaya
GRES-2 was 24.7 tiyn in 1994 or 0.38 cent per 1 kW, price cost of energy from
subject scheme 1.3 tiyn or 0.03 cent per 1 kWh.
High economic efficiency of
the construction of new transmission line is achieved by increasing energy
portion produced at cheap Ekibastuz coals instead of purchasing expensive
energy from Central Asian states and possibility of energy transmission to
South Kazakstan in case of construction of transmission line 1150-500 kV ''
North - South ''.
Development of transmission
- putting into operation of
OH line 1150 kV Ekibastuz - Topar ;
- construction of OH line
500 kV Topar - UKGRES, UKGRES - Zhambyl.
Due to it capacity will be
increased to 1150 MW which provides for transmission of 6-6.5 bln kWh at energy
cost price 0.06 cent per 1 KWh. And volume of energy which South Kazakstan will
get from Ekibastuzskaya GRES-2 will provide economy for the Republic of
Kazakstan at the amount to 200 mln dollars per annum comparing with energy to
Taking into consideration
stages of construction ( estimating on a per unit basis energy at Ekibastuzskaya GRES-2 and its transmission to
South with the cost 0.44 cent / kWh) expenditures for the 1 - st phase of the construction
which amount 526 mln dollars will be covered within. 4.0 years.
According to perspective
balances for the current moment and limited investments stages of the
construction are as follows :
1995-1997 OH line 1150 kV
Ekibastuz - Topar (353 km)
(temporary work under
voltage 500 kW)
1998 OH line 500 kV Topar -
Agadyr (166 km)
OH line 500 kV UKGRES -
Zhambyl (512 km)
OSY 500 kV Topar with passes
2000 OH line 500 kV Topar -
2001 SS1150 kV with transmission of OH line
1150 Ekibastuz - Topar to
1150 kV voltage.
2000-2005 SS 500 kV Chu with passes OH line 500 kV
UKGRES -Chu (180 km),
Chimkent – Kentau
with capacity 500 kW Kentau,
OH line 500 kV UKGRES-Kentau.
It must be pointed out that
in the previous feasibility studies elaborated by the institute for the period
to 2000 (1998-2000) it was substantiated necessity of the construction of
direct current transmission line in section Agadyr - UKGRES with capacity
However, according to
today's estimation of energy need for South Kazakstan, considering supposed putting
into operation of blocks at UKGRES
such amount of energy transmission to South
Kazakstan will not
be necesseary till 2010.
Maximal amount of necessity will amount 1100-1200 MW, which can be provided
without construction of direct current transmission line.
There are two ways of
development of energy network construction :
- transmission to 1150 kV
voltage, that is putting into operation off SS 1150 kV Topar considering
commissioning of some blocks at UKGRES within 1999-2005 (capacity 2160 MW).
- top priority construction
of OH line 500 kV Topar - UKGRES with following transmission to nominal voltage of OH transmission line 1150 kV Ekibastuz - Topar, comissioning
of UKGRES capacity can be considered according to necessity of balance capacity
of South energy supply networks.
1 Read the text and
complete the following question:
2 Make up a plan of the text.
3 Find the key-sentences of the text.
4 What do these numbers from the text
526 1995 2010
Cost price of energy production at Ekibastuzskay GREC-2 was 24.7 tiyn in
1994 or 0.38 cent 1 kWh…
5 According to the text, why is it a good
idea to construct power transmission line “ North-South Kazakhstan”? List as many reason as
Kazakhstan tries to become independent on outside suppliers of electric
6 Explain why:
We construct power station
near the cities.
We need new sources of
We need the power
transmission line “North-South”
7 Speak about:
7.1 The prices for electric
power and their changes.
7.2 The deficit of electric
capacity in Kazakhstan
8 A Imagine that a new power station is
going to be built your area. Make a list of
advantages and disadvantages of the plan.
a new power station;
the possibility of cheaper electricity;
more jobs for the local area.
an ugly building in the area;
B Work with a partner. One person is in
favor of building the power station in the area, the other person is against
it. Each individual must put forward opinions and encourage his or her parents
to change ideas.
wide – широкий
provide – снабжать
identify – устанавливать
require – требовать
exclude – исключать
cause – 1.причина; 2.вызывать
delay – откладывать
result in – приводить к чему-либо
diminish – уменшать
1 Find synonyms of the
followings words in A
a. demand d. reduce
b. bring about e. follow
c. supply f.
2 Translate the following sentences paying attention to the Passive
2.1 Many research works
were carried out.
2.2 Oil, natural gas, coal
and water power are used as traditional power sources.
2.3 However, the efficiency
of a solar power station is considerably reduced
because of the limited time of its work during the
2.4 Geothermal power station
operating on hot water-steam mixture from depth of
about a kilometer were
built in Kamchatka.
3 Before reading the text “Renewable Energy”, answer the
3.1 What energy sources are renewable?
3.2 What renewable energy source is in wide use?
3.3 How many sources of energy have identified by the World Energy
3.4 How does hydro power cause environmental problems?
3.5 What is the way out?
Some renewable energy sources are well
known and already in wide use. For example, hydroelectric power is generated by
water in dams. In the U.S., hydroelectric power provides 10 percent of all
electricity. Other alternative sources of energy are not well known to the
public or are still in the developmental stages. The World Energy are not
identified six sources of energy to pursue as alternatives to non-renewable
(energy from the suds rays)
(energy from moving air)
(energy from heat inside the earth)
biomass (energy from plant and animal residue)
(energy from seawater movement and temperature changes)
hydroelectric (energy from small dams, such as those filled by melting snow)
worth pointing out why large hydroelectric (large dams that block rives) and
traditional biomass (firewood and charcoal) were excluded from the Councils
focus. These two renewable sources of energy often cause environmental problems
and other adverse effects. Large hydroelectric projects usually require long
planning and construction, which delays their benefit, and sometimes results in
social problems, such as displacement of people living near rivers that are
dammed. Traditional biomass (burning trees) results in air pollution and
deforestation. A combination of these six other alternative sources of energy
may prove to be our best hope to fill the energy void created as supplies of
fossil fuels gradually diminish.
1 Complete the following sentences using the text A
1.1 … are six sources of energy.
1.2 Solar energy is ….
1.3 … cause environmental problems.
2 According to the text, Why is it a good idea of using
renewable sources of
energy. List as many reasons as possible
The price of fossil-based
oil is increasing.
3 What do these words from the text refer to?
renewable alternative cause
Some renewable energy
sources are well known and already in wide use.
4 What do these numbers from the text refer to?
5 Conduct a scientific meeting on: “Renewable Energy”
Use texts A and B as a
basis for the preparation of an oral
talk, short abstract, summery of the presentation and for the discussion of the
and Phrases of scientific communication at a scientific meeting, conference,
round-table discussion, symposium, seminar, conference etc.
Stages of meeting
Opening a meeting
Introducing a speaker
Interrupting a speaker
Opening the discussion
Ending a discussion
Ending a meeting
I declare the meeting open ….
Let me introduce Dr.(Prof.) … from ….
May I draw your attention to the fact that this
point will be discussed later ?
May I interrupt you?
Are there any questions to Dr…?
I have a question to ask…?
One question is, the second question is ….
I think you are right speaking about….
But I am not sure you are right.
May I propose that we stop there?
I declare the meeting closed.
Read the text B and complete the
When … ?
Where … ?
How many …?
of Renewable Energy
Since the early days of the Industrial
Age, industries and utility companies have relied on a variety of different
sources of power. The Dane were pioneers in wind-generated electricity,
building over 100 systems in 1890 to capture the North Sea winds. Coal was the
fuel of choice for steam-powered engines, which were widely used in
manufacturing and transportation. In fact, in the 1890s, more electric and
steam-powered cars were sold than those using gasoline. The world’s first
geothermal electric plant was built in Italy in 1904. Surprisingly,
photovoltaic (solar) cells were built as early as the 1880s, but it wasn’t
until Bell Labs developed silicon cells in 1954 that solar cells could be used
efficiently. In 1958, the Vanguard satellite was equipped with solar
photovoltaic cells. The world’s first power plant using the ocean tides was
built in France in 1966.
The global energy situation began to
change significantly in the second half of the last century. For example, in
the US., from 1950 to 1995, coal virtually disappeared as a heating source for
homes. By 1995, natural gas was used for heat in over 50 percent of US. homes,
and electricity was used in 27 percent of them. In about the same frame, per
capita electricity consumption rose by over 1,000 percent. Widespread ownership
of energy-hungry appliances such as air conditioners, refrigerators, and
clothes dryers contributed to this huge growth in energy consumption, while
individual automobile ownership created a heavy demand for new petroleum
supplies. By 1958, the US. Had begun to consume more fuel of various kinds than
it produced. Oil prices per barrel rose from about $5 in the 1960s to over $17
in October 1973, and further production limitations caused the price to rise to
about $34 in 1981.
By the mid-1980s, geologists and other
scientists began to make predictions about how long the world’s petroleum
supplies would last. By estimating future rates of oil consumption, then taking
into account the amount of proven petroleum reserves, they calculated that
supplies could last between 50 and 100 years longer. Of course, their
calculations can vary depending on fluctuations in consumption and discoveries
of new oil fields. Nuclear power, which had once been the energy hope of the
future, no longer seemed so attractive after accidents at Three Mile Island in
the U.S. in 1979 and Chernobyl in the Soviet Union in 1986 changed the publics
perception of its safety. France has continued to operate nuclear plants for 75
percent of its electricity, with a good safety record, however, other countries
have scaled back plants for building nuclear generating facilities, and the
disposal of spend radioactive fuel remains a problem.
1 Find the key sentences of the text.
2 Make up plan of the text.
Building Block of Materials
1 Look through the
text “Atom and Molecules” and translate the underlined
words using a
2 Take а look around you. Everything
around you is matter. Air you breath,
water you drink, bread you eat, clothes you wear аrе all
What is matter?
What does it mean?
What is it made of?
What does it consist of?
Anything that has mass and occupies
space is matter.
Every mattеr we know about is made from atoms. All nonliving оr
living things - rocks, water, soil, air, plants, animals and even you yourself
- are made from atoms.
What is the basic unit of а
What are atoms?
you have а sheet of aluminum. Cut it in half. If you cut the half in hall,
you could go on cutting each piece in half.
How many times could you cut each piece?
Is there а limit to subdivide each
The answer is
"yes". Eventually, you would not bе
able to divide а piece into smaller pieces. You would have аn
atom of aluminum. The .word "atom" comes from the Greek atomos,
meaning not to bе cut. The smallest piece of а substance, so called
element, which still has the properties of an element is called аn
atom. Atoms are so small that they can not bе seen even with а
sensitive microscope. Even a glass of water contains an enormous number
of atoms. If the atoms in this glass of water could be shared out
between all the people living in the world today, and every person counted the
atoms at а rate of 100 atoms in а minute, it would take 82 million years to
Structure of Atoms
An atom is the smallest
particle- that can be obtained bу chemical means.
One part of an atom is the central core, called the nucleus. Around the
nucleus is а sphere or cloud of negative charges. Scientists have made some
machines that can split atoms into even smaller particles. These particles can
not be studied by chemists. Scientists have found more than one hundred
smaller, or subatomic, particles. Chemists are usually concerned with
only three оf thеsе particles: electron, proton, and
The first part of an atom to
be discovered was the electron. An electron has а
negative charge. Its mass is almost zero. If 1* 1029 electrons were put together they
would have а total mass of only about 1 gram. The negatively charged electrons are
located outside the tiny, heavy, positively charged nucleus. Electrons move
about the nucleus at very high speeds.
Part I: Rub а
plastic реп or comb оn
your sleeve and then hold it n near some tiny
Part II:Rub а
plastic object оп your sleeve and then hold
it near (but not touching) а
thin stream of water
from a tap as in the figure below.
Part III:Rub a glass rod or a strip of cellulose acetate
on a piece of silk and hold it
tiny pieces of paper. Observe what happens?
As shown in the experiment,
when а plastic object or а glass rod is rubbed, it is electrically,
Objects become charged because the atoms of all substances contain both
negative and positive charges.
The positive charges (called protons) are in the central соre оr
nucleus of the atom.
The negative charges (called electrons) are located in orbits round the
outer part of the atom.
the two kinds of subatomic particles that make the nucleus is the
proton. A proton has а mass more than 1840 times larger than an
electron. Yet the proton is still very small. The mass of mоге
than 6*1023 protons is about 1 gram. Protons аге
positively charged. The positive charge of one proton is the same size as the
negative charge of one electron. In an ordinary atom, there are always exactly
the same number of protons and electrons. The negative and positive charges are
balanced. Therefore, the atom has no overall charge.
Another subatomic particle
in the nucleus is the neutron. А neutron has about the same mass as а
proton. So neutrons, like protons, tend to make the nucleus very heavy. As its
name suggests, the neutron is neutral. It carries no electric charge.
See Figure 1.2 to locate the parts of аn atom.
Most of the space in an atom
is fi11ed by the negatively charged electrons. Imagine an atom to be the size
of а large football stadium. The nucleus would be the size of а pea
in center of the field. Almost all the mass of the atom is concentrated in the
nucleus.Electrons in an atom аre arranged in different orbits called energy levels
or shells. As shown in Figure 1.2 the first energy level can have no more than
two electrons. This is the closest level to the nucleus. The second energy
level can hold up to eight electrons. The third energy level сan
contain а maximum number of 18 electrons. Higher energy levels sometimes hold as
many as 32 electrons. The energy levels for atoms and the number of electrons
they can hold are in Таblе 1.
Table 1 Electrons in Energy
Maximum number of electrons in each level
Total number of electrons in the atom
Each atom has its own
special arrangement of particles. For example, a hydrogen atom has оnе
proton in its nucleus and one electron around the nucleus. An oxygen atom
contains 8 protons, 8 electrons, and 8 neutrons. А magnesium (Mg) atom
contains 12 protons, 12 electrons, and 12 neutrons. The electrons of the atoms аre
arranged in pairs within the energy levels.
1. What is
the relationship between protons and electrons in an atom?
2. How many protons and
electrons are in an atom of each of the following
helium (b) lithium (с) сагbоn
(d) сhlоrinе (e) potassium
3. How many energy levels
and how many electrons аrе in each energy
level for аn
atom of each element given in question 2?
You now know:
All matter is composed of
- Atom is the smallest part of an element;
- An element is a substance which contains only one
kind of atom;
- Protons, neutrons, and electrons are subatomic
- The positive charge of the protons in an atom is
equal to the negative charge of
- Protons and neutrons are found in the nucleus of an
atom. Electrons in an atom
in certain energy levels around the nucleus.
Elements - Isotopes
present, there are more than 109 different types of atoms. Atoms make up the
chemical elements. Element is а pure substance made of only оnе
kind of atom. Copper is аn element because it contains only copper
atoms. Carbon is аn element because it contains only сагbоn
atoms. Elements сan not be broken down into simpler substances bу
ordinary chemical means. About ninety of elements have bееn
found naturally оn the earth. The rest of elements have been made in the laboratory. Some
соmmоn elements are gold, iron, aluminum, oxygen and nitrogen. At room
temperature, most of these elements аге solids and some are gases.
Two elements, mercury and bromine, are in the states of liquid at room
temperature. The air we breathe is mostly the elements, oxygen and
Each element is given а
symbol. This is an abbreviation or shorthand way to represent an atom of that
element. Each element has а different symbol containing one or two
letters. Most symbols аre similar to the name of the element. Some
elements have symbols derived from their old Latin names. For example, the
symbol for iron, Fe, is taken from the Latin name for iron, ferrum. А
symbol always has а capital letter. When а symbol has two letters, the second one is
always written in small letter. Table 1.2 gives the names and symbols of some соmmоn
TABLE 2 Some Common Elements and
(a) Write the symbols for the following elements: fluorine, potassium,
bromine, helium, neon, barium
(b) Give the name of each of
the following elements: H, C, Cu, Fe, Mg, O, S, Zn.
Exercise 2 Given the elements: Al, Fe, O, Cl, Cu, Hg, C, Au, Br
(a) Which element do we need to breathe?
(b) Which element is used to make airplanes?
(c) Which element are
liquids at room temperature?
(d) Which element rusts?
(e) Which element is used to destroy harmful
microorganisms in water?
(f) Which element is used in thermometers?
(g) Which element is used to make jewelry?
(h) Which element(s) is (are) used to make
(i) Which element is black in color?
Siemens Power Generation…………………………………………
Elecrtic Power Industry………………………………..
Oil and Gas………………………………………….
Operator of the Electicity……………………………….
Block of Materials………………………………………..
Siemens Power Journal. 1997. №12.
2.Caspian. 1998. №6.
3. Сайт: http://www kegoc. kz
Сводный план 2004 г.,
Аида Кенесбековна Садыкова
Сабит Муталович Нарбаев
Методические указания по
развитию навыков и умений профессиональногообщения (для студентов всех форм
обучения теплоэнергетических специальностей)
Специалист по стандартизации Н.М.Голева
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