Кафедра иностранных языков





Английский язык

Методические указания по развитию навыков и умений профессионального общения студентов теплоэнергетических специальностей





Алматы 2004



СОСТАВИТЕЛИ: А.К.Садыкова, С.М.Нарбаев Методические указания по  развитию навыков и умений профессионального общения (для студентов всех форм обучения теплоэнергетических специальностей).-Алматы: АИЭС,2004.- 32 стр.




Методические указания предназначены для развития навыков и умений профессионального общения на английском языке, а также для развития навыков и умений чтения и понимания профессионально-ориентированных текстов для студентов теплоэнергетических специальностей. При составлении данного методического указания авторы использовали новые интерактивные методы обучения, такие как организация дискуссии, участие в диалогах и т.д. Эти способы общения представлены в данном методическом издании. При отборе текстового материала основным критерием служила информативная ценность текстов и их соответствие интересам студентов теплоэнергетических специальностей. 



Рецензент:  ст. преп. каф. ИЯ Коробейникова Л.Я. 



Печатается по плану издания Алматинского института энергетики и связи  на 2004 г.


©   Алматинский институт энергетики и связи, 2004 г.



     Siemens Power Generation

     The Path to the Top in the Power Plant Market


     In 1847, Werner von Siemens, a Prussian military officer and engineer, and Georg Halske, a mechanic, set up a small backyard workshop called the Siemens & Halske Telegraph Construction Company in Berlin. This is where the first electrical pointer telegraph was made, and in only a few decades this small workshop developed into a global enterprise.

     By employing experts with a solid background in the natural sciences, and as a result of systematic research, this young company was soon able to set itself apart from various tinkers who had achieved only brief success. The business ventures undertaken by Siemens & Halske extended to encompass more and more areas of electrical engineering. In 1866, Werner von Siemens discovered the dynamoelectric principle, and the field of power engineering and electrical power generation were born.

     The “division of electric light” in 1879 made it possible to supply several lamps with electrical power from a single dynamo. Power generation facilities called central stations were built to light large buildings and public squares and streets. In 1881,  Siemens built the world’s first public power plant in the southern England town of Godalming and the first in Berlin in 1885. In 1888, Siemens & Halske established the Central Stations Department, the very beginning of today’s Siemens  Power Generation Group (KWU).

     From its earliest days, power plant business at Siemens was internationally oriented: Siemens built the lighting systems in Shanghai, large power plants in the empire of the Russian czars, the first hydroelectric power plant in Japan, the power supply system for Johannesburg and for mining installations in Transvaal, power plants in Central and South America, and of course throughout Europe. Siemens was soon represented by branch offices worldwide, having established an office in London in 1850, a cable factory in Woolwich in 1863 and an electrical equipment manufacturing plant in St. Peterburg in 1882, with Siemens & Halske also present in Chicago as early as 1892.

     The operating company Siemens Electrical Work was established in 1896 to provide a complete power plant service package.  it operated numerous power plants under contract to customers in Germany and elsewhere in Europe.

     Wherever power plants were built, there was also a substantial need for financing Consequently, Siemens  established a financing company in 1897, called Electric Light and Power Systems. As early as the turn of the century, Siemens was thus able to offer a complete package which included power plant financing, construction, operation and maintenance.

As the market for electricity grew, so did the importance of the power plant business at Siemens & Halske. As a result, an independent company was established in 1903 – Siemens-Schuckert-Werke GmbH – formed by the merger of the power engineering part of Siemens & Halske with Schuckert & Co of Nuremberg.

     In 1904, Siemens decided to enter into a cooperative venture (the Zoelly Consortium) with several turbine manufacturers. That made it possible to supply complete team turbine-generators and not just generators  alone. Siemens began to build turbines in 1927 with the purchase of a steam-turbine factory from Thyssen in Mulheum/Ruhr. Preparation began in 1939 for in-house development of a gas turbine, which resumed in 1948 after the war.

     In 1950, Westinghouse was again approached in order to renew the cooperation and patent sharing that had taken place since 1924, but which had been interrupted by the war. This cooperative agreement was expanded to include the nuclear sector when Siemens established its first reactor engineering department in 1957.

     That same year, production of small and medium-sized turbines designed especially for industrial applications was moved to a new manufacturing plant in Wesel so that the Mulheim plant could focus on large turbines with ever-greater power output.

     In the 1970s, Siemens also expanded its manufacturing efforts to include the Americas: In 1965, a manufacturing plant for hydroelectric generators was built in Sao Paulo, and in 1967 contact was re-established with mechanical equipment maker Allis Chalmers in Milwaukee to begin joint steam turbine manufacture.


     1 Answer the following questions

1.1   When & where was set up a small workshop Siemens & Halske Telegraph

           Costruction Company?       

     1.2 Why was that young company able to set itself apart from other tinkerers?

     1.3 Where & when were the first power plants built?

     1.4 In which countries did “Siemens” build its power plant in 19 century?

     1.5 For what was the operating company “Siemens Electrical Work established?

     1.6 Why did “Siemens “ establish a financing company called “Electric Light &

           Power System”?                     

     1.7 When did “Siemens” establish its first factor engineering department?


     2 Choose the correct variant


     2.1 Werner von Siemens and Georg Halske set up:

     a) power plant;

     b) backyard;

     c) electric station;

     d) general shop.


     2.2 Werner von Siemens discovered:

     a) the generation principle;

     b) the dynamo-mechanical principle;

     c) the nuclear power principle;

     d) the dynamo-electric principle.


     2.3 “Siemens” built the world’s first public power plant in:

            a) German;

     b) England;

     c) France;

     d) USA.


     2.4Wherever power plants were built, there was also a substantial need for:

     a) promotion;

     b) marketing;

     c) operation;

     d) financing.


     2.5 In 1957 “Siemens” established its:

     a) Power Generation Group;

     b) Central Station Department;

     c) First Reactor Engineering Department;

     d) Electric Light & Power Department.


3 Complete the following word combinations from the text and translate them             


     Backyard …, global …, solid …, systematic …, brief …, substantial …, power …


     4 Read the text and complete the table using information from the text

















     5 Match word (A) with their synonyms (B)


     A 1.power generation facilities; 2. extend; 3. enterprise; 4. establish;     5. operate.


     B a)  plant; b) found; c) spread; d) manage; e) central station.


     6 Explain the following word combinations


     6.1 a power plant;

     6.2 to light building & streets;

     6.3 to customers;


    6.4 cooperative venture;

     6.5 in-house development.


     7 Work in pairs

     Read the text to find out information about:

     a) the beginning of the path to the top;

     b) the company’s activity after the II World War.


     Tell your partner what you have found.


     8 Put the questions to the answers

     8.1 Central stations were built to light large buildings & public squares and streets.

     8.2 From the earliest days, power plant business at Siemens was internationally


     8.3 The operating company “Siemens Electric Work” was established to provide a

     complete power plant service package.

     8.4 As the market for electricity grew, so did the importance of the power plant

     business at “Siemens & Halske”.


     9 Make the sentences putting the words in right order

     9.1 undertaken, extended, to, encompass, the business, Siemens & Halske, more

     9.2 more, engineering, ventures, of, areas, electrical, by.

     9.3 Central and South America, Siemens, power plants, in, built.

     9.4 1927, Mulheim/Ruhr, Siemens, turbines, began, in, to built, in.


     10 Retell the text (matching only significant events)



     Reforming Electric Power Industry in 1992-1997


     The electric power industry is the basic industry in Russia. Its capacity is enough to meet the demands of the Russian producers and households for electric power and export electricity supplies by the existing agreements.

     The history of the electric power industry of Russia consists of several consecutive stages of unification and organization of parallel work of the Regional Power systems and establishment of inter-regional  unified power systems and their final incorporation into the Unified Power System. Establishment of the integral system was of great success of the Russian power industry in spite of the fact that the connections between the European and Siberian parts of it and Siberia and the Far East were rather weak.

     Russia's transition to the market economy and federal state structure set up in place of a Unitarian state brought about necessity to carry out restructuring of the electric power industry and develop new forms of internal and external economic relations.

     In 1992 the sharing of the Unified Power System was carried out, and partial privatization of industrial enterprises began. Before putting this program into reality a preliminary restructuring of the power industry was fulfilled, which was conditioned by the peculiarities of the existing system of the country's power supply with uneven location of the generation capacities, relatively little reserve capacities, high concentration of electric and heat loads around big industrial centers separated from each other by long distances (from 500 to 1000 km) and dependence of the majority of the Russian Regions on the inter-system flow-overs of electricity and power.

     To preserve reliable power supply, centralized control of the established wholesale market and advantages of the joint work within the Unified Power System of Russia and Regional Utilities and to carry out and co-ordinate the investment programs in the electric power industry the Russian Joint Stock Company (RAO) –the Unified Energy System of Russia (UESR) was set up in December 1992 by the  Presidential Decrees № 922, 923, 1334. It was meant to incorporate the important inter-system objects, such as: all big thermal power plants (with the capacity of 1000MW and higher) and hydraulic power plants (with the capacity of 300 MW and higher), having the total capacity of 95 00 MW (about half the total installed capacity of the country), the system-setting high voltage lines, as well as the Central dispatcher Board and Dispatcher Boards of the Regional Utilities, and other enterprises and institutions in the electric power sphere. All these structures became subsidiary companies of RAO UESR with 100%  shares belonging to the mother-company. Besides, every Regional Utility (AO-Energo) handed over 49% of their shares to RAO UESR. (these Regional Utilities were set up on the basis of the former regional power amalgamations, except for big power plants and network  objects which were withdrawn from them and incorporated into RAJ UESR).  To preserve its control over the electric power industry the state retained the control package of ordinary shares of RAO UESR.

     The main challenge of RAO UESR was to set up a Federal wholesale electricity market (FOREM), which would work on the principles of competition between the market subjects.

     In fact the preliminary plan of the power industry restructuring was not fully put into practice. As a result of the compromises achieved in the course of difficult talks with the administrations of the Federal Subjects RAO UESR got only 34 out of 51 power plants included into Annex of the Presidential  Decree № 923. Seven power Plants out of 34 (with total installed capacity of 12 000 MW) were leased by RAO UESR to the Regional Utilities (AO-Energos) which independently execute their management and pay rent to RAO UESR. The rest of the power plants which were retained by the Regional Utilities and became joint stock companies agreed on compromise and handed over more than 49% of their shares to RAO UESR.

     On the whole despite all the difficulties RAO UESR managed to accumulate resources for setting up an inter-regional wholesale market of electricity andpower having put an end to the monopoly position of the majority of the regional power systems by putting onto wholesale market of 23 power plants with total capacity of 43 000MW, as well as 9 state-owned Nuclear power plants with the total installed capacity  of 21 000 MW.

     Setting up of RAO UESR as a holding company made it possible to preserve the principles and methods of the Unified Power System despite the disintegration of the USSR Power System onto separate national power systems, as well as provide for sustainable power and heat supply to the consumers in the period of transition from the centralized planning to the market economy, having almost no state financing and very high rate of inflation and the sharp crisis of non-payments in the long run. At the same time this structure facilitated integration of the country's regions and social support of the population. It has preserved technological and created favorable structural perquisites for developing a competitive Federal  wholesale market.

     At present RAO UESR is the World's largest highly automated compile[ for generation, transmission and distribution of electricity having a centralized operational and technological control over these processes. It includes 440 thermal and hydraulic power plants with the total installed capacity of 140 and 44 mln. kW accordingly, and nuclear power plants with total installed capacity of 21 mln.kW, as well as 2.5 mln. km of electric lines of all voltages including more than 30 000 km of the main system-setting high voltage lines of 500, 750 and 1150 kV.


     1 Answer the questions based on the information found in the reading

     1.1 What is this text about?

     1.2 What is the name of the Russian Joint Stock Company?

     1.3 When was this company set up?

     1.4 Who is at the head of this company?

     1.5 What was the main challenge of RAO UESR?

     1.6 Why was the preliminary plan of the power industry restructuring not fully put

      into practice?

     1.7 What was a result of the compromises achieved in the course of difficult talks

      with the administrations of the Federal subjects?

     1.8 What does RAO UESR represent at present?


     2 Explain these terms:

     households; internal and external economic relations; preliminary restructuring;

     head loads


     3 Put all possible questions to these answers

     3.1 Reforming electric power industry took place in 1992-1997.

     3.2 The electric power industry is the basic industry in Russia.

     3.3 In 1992 the sharing of the Unified Power System was carried out and partial

     privatization of industrial enterprises began.

     3.4 The Unified Energy System of Russia (UESR) was set up in December 1992

     by the Presidential decrees № 922, 923, 1334.

     3.5 Seven power plants out of 34 were leased by RAO UESR to the Regional

     Utilities (AO-Energos).

     3.6 RAO UESR includes 440 thermal and hydraulic power plants with total 

     installed capacity of 140 and 44 mln.

     4 Find in the text definitions of the terms you find to be most important for you


     5 Choose the correct variant

     5.1 Reforming  electric power industry took place in____:

     a) 1992-1997;

     b) 1991-2000;

     c) 1992-1995;


     5.2 At the head of this company is____:

     a) Chodorkovskij;

     b) Chubais;

     c) Javlinskij;


     5.3 Every Regional Utility (AO-Energo) handed over_____ of their shares to RAO UESR:

     a) 50%;

     b) 37%;

     c) 49%;


     5.4 At present RAO UESR is the World's largest highly automated complex for_______:


     a) generation and transmission of electricity;

     b) generation and distrubition of electricity;

     c) generation, transmission and distribution of electricity.


     6 Read the text again and complete the table using information from the text


before 1992


at present






     7 Talking point


     Divide the group into two small groups.  One group represents in a short way the

     electric power industry of Russia, the other group represents the electric power 

     industry of Kazakchstan.


     8 Complete the following word combinations



     electric and heat__________         

     ____________power system                           


________economic relations                      


________support of the population

__________________power plants                   

     ___________achieved in the course     




     9 Work in pairs

     Make your own dialogue expressing your opinion about the electric power

     industry of Russia and Kazakchstan.


     10 Discussion

     Speak about "The present state of the power industry in your country".     



     Kazakhstan’s Oil and Gas


     The aim of this article is to provide a  description of Kazakhstan’s huge oil and gas energy resources. According to the World Bank in 1994 the country had reserves of oil and gas running to some 13.0 billion tones. The resources available in the oil fields runs to some 2.1 billion tons and there may be as much as 1.6 trillion cubic metres of gas in reserve. These deposits are to be found mainly in the West of the country. The main geographical divisions of Kazakhstan’s oil and gas deposits are: the Caspian, Mangistau, Usturt in the West and the South Torgai, Aral, mid-Syrdarya, Shusarysu, Balhash, Alakol, Zaisan. There is a possibility that there may be as many undiscovered deposits as those which are already known.

     The Caspian region has 83 main gas deposits which hold about 2 trillion cubic metres of natural gas. The Caspian fields account for the greatest part, approx. 90 % of oil and gas production in the country. Today and in the nearest future, oil production and export will provide a substantial part of Kazakhstan’s income.  The project of Caspian shelf development is a giant project that can involve companies with different business profiles and from different countries.

     Kazakhstan’s natural gas reserves come to 2.0 trillion cubic metres of concentrated in 29 condensate deposits and more than 1.0 trillion cubic metres of dissolved gas in 57 oil and gas condensate fields. The main volume of Kazakhstan’s gas reserves are to be found at the following fields: Karachaganak oil and gas condensated field with reserves of about 1.4 trillion cubic meters of gas. Tengis oil field with 0.3 trillion cubic metres. Zhanazhol field with 0.13 trillion cubic metres. Urikhtaus oil and gas condensate field with more than 40 billion cubic metres.

      The Karachaganak field alone holds 72% of this prospective gas resource. Karachaganak is a “Super Giant” oil and gas condensate field, discovered in 1979 in the Uralsky region in West Kazakhstan. It covers an area of around 500 square kilometers. The reservoir is deep-from 3,600 to 5,150 metres.

     Some of the biggest main gas pipelines go through Kazakhstan. The Central Asia has five gas pipelines: length  821 kilometres, diameter 1020-1420 mm, capacity up to 185 million cubic metres a day. Development of the gas pipeline network is among the top priorities in the general development of pipeline transport in the country.

     According to the experts by the year 2011 Kazakhstan’s known gas reserves will be some 3.0 cubic metres, 2.8 trillion of which will be concentrated in the Caspian region.

     The country’s population believes that Kazakhstan has the potential to become one of the most rich countries in the world. Sensible and rational use of the country’s natural resources will help turn this belief into concrete reality.


     1 Read the following word  combinations and put down their Russian equivalents


     oil and gas deposits____________________________

     oil and gas production__________________________

     gas condensate field____________________________

     giant project__________________________________

     main gas pipelines_____________________________

     natural resources______________________________

     prospective gas resources_______________________

     undiscovered deposits__________________________


     2 Put down the verbs corresponding to the given nouns and translate them


     discovery                to discover                  ашу             

     description             __________               __________

     production              __________               __________

     division                  __________               __________

     use                          __________               __________

     believe                   ___________              __________

     reserve                   ___________              __________

     transport                ___________              __________



     3 Think of questions about the following sentences


     3.1 The aim of this article is to provide a  description of Kazakhstan’s huge oil and

     gas energy resources.



     3.2 The main  Kazakhstan’s oil and gas deposits are to be found mainly in the

     West of the country.





    3.3 The Caspian region has 83 main gas deposits which hold about 2 trillion cubic

     metres of natural gas.


     What kind of_____________________________________________________


     3.4 Development of the gas pipeline network is among the top priorities in the

     general development of pipe-line transport in the country.



     3.5 The country’s population believes that Kazakhstan has the potential to become 

     one of the most rich countries in the world.



     4 Find in the text key words which can be used to speak about  Kazakhstan’s huge  

     oil and gas energy resources.



     5 Find in the text,read and translate the sentences describing the following

     a) Main gas deposits                                           c) Main oil deposits

     c) Oil and gas reserves                                       d)The Caspian region

     e)The Karachaganak field


     6 Complete the following word combinations

     6.1……...... energy

     6.2 fuel …...............

     6.3 ecological  ...….

     6.4….......... storage

            6.5    raw …...............

     6.6 ….....  material

     6.7 …........ power

     6.8 ….......  station

     6.9…........ policy


     7 Explain these words

     Raw-materials, import, export, storage, coal, hydroelectric station, consumer, 



     8 Which words given in brackets denote

     8.1 Materials in their natural or unmanufactured  state which will be synthesized 


     8.2 analyzed to produce marketable products.

     8.3 Sending goods to another country.

     8.4 Bringing goods from a foreign country.

     8.5 Black mineral that burns and supplies heat and from which gas is made.

     8.6 A person who purchases a product for his own personal use.

      ( coal, consumer, raw-materials, import, export.)


     9 Gas the main word


































     9.1 A person who purchases a product for his own personal use?

     9.2 Quantity or supply of something kept for use as needed?

     9.3 Any air-like substance, used chiefly of those that do not become liquid or solid

     at ordinary temperatures and usually is used for lighting and heating?

     9.4 Capacity for, power of, doing work?

     9.5 Black mineral that burns and supplies heat, and from which gas is   made?


     10 Say a few words about energy resources of today. Use the following words and

     word combinations for your topic:

     traditional power sources, non-traditional sources of energy, energy supply,   

     promising energy source, oil and gas industry enterprises, the country’s power

     generation potential, the energy of sun, power transmission lines, ocean tides,  

     hydrogen fuel, nuclear power station, present-day requirements


      11 Conduct a round table discussion on “ New sources of energy”

     12 Topic.

     Speak about  Power Engineering of Kazakhstan using the following words and word combinations.


     potential possibility

     coal deposits

     geological storage


     hydroelectric energy

     ower stations (plants)

     export-import policy


     13 Discuss in pairs

Give your forecast: Do you think that in future the storage of oil and gas in Kazakhstan will be enough to provide all people?

How can you describe the export and import policy in Kazakhstan?


     Uran of Kazakhstan


      Over 25% of the worlds uranium reserves are concentrated in Kazakhstan.

     Recently the only industrial nuclear reactor operating in Kazakhstan was in Aktau; the power of this plant was mainly used to desalinate water.  The construction of the new nuclear power station in Kazakhstan in the near future is unlikely.

     In the 1940s, at the beginning of “the nuclear century”, the demand for uranium was determined exclusively by the requirements of the US, German and Soviet military industrials. At present, the world demand for uranium is determined primarily by the requirements of nuclear plants,  17% of the total volume. The total capacity of nuclear stations was 352 GWt and they worked in 26 countries. The leader is USA, which produces 29% of the world nuclear power.

     Two of three decades ago it seemed that nuclear power would enabled mankind to realize one of its dreams: the dream of inexhaustible power source. Uranium nuclear decay produces 2 million times more power than the burning of the same quantity of first class coal. One gram of obvious granite due to its’ uranium and thorium can produce the same amount of power as 5 tons of oil!  Wouldn’t it be better to use an element which seems to have been specially created by nature for mankind’s power requirements than to use other kinds of fuel? The actual nuclear plant’s efficiency, of course, is not so fantastic, but nevertheless, reactor produces the same volume of power per 1 ton of uranium as electric power station produce per about 10 000 tons of oil or 15 000 tons of coal.

     Today the future of nuclear power seems less bright. The term “nuclear winter” was coined 20 years ago. Now the West demonstrated a growing interest in Kazakhstan uranium. In the next few decades we can expect developing of more safer nuclear stations. We can also hope for the development of more efficient long distance power transmission systems.


     1 Answer the questions

     1.1 What countries are interested in Kazakhstan uranium?

     1.2 When did the demand for uranium increase? Why?

     1.3 How many countries have nuclear stations?

     1.4 What are the advantages of uranium?

     1.5 What kind of power plants are in use nowadays?

     1.6 For what reason are nuclear power plants being built instead of fossil-fuel 

     steam  electric plants?


     2 Look at the words again and get ready to write a spelling quiz on them


      uranium, radiation, reactor, fuel, efficiency, inexhaustible, thorium, prognose


      3 Form the other parts of speech according to the model. Translate them.

      Model: to protect – protection – защита


      to product, to demonstrate, to supply, to require, to grow, to create, to realize


     4 Translate into Russian

     uranium reserves, production of    uranium, industrial nuclear reactor, the world

     demand of power, inexhaustible power source, “nuclear winter”, nuclear power  

     plants, industry experts, nuclear plant’s efficiency,  mankind’s power requirements


     5 Give synonyms to the following words and memorise them.

      nuclear –  a) atomic, b) hydrogen, c) solar

      to reinforce – a) pump, b) charge, c) insulate, d) strengthen

      turn (into) – a) cause, b) convert, c)  dump

      store – a) build, b) function, c) seem, d) get



     6 Complete the sentences.

     6.1 Over 25 % of the worlds uranium……………..

     6.2 In the 1940s, at the beginning of “the nuclear century”………..

     6.3 The total capacity  of  nuclear power stations   was……………

     6.4 The term “nuclear winter” was coined…………………………

     6.5 The development of nuclear power in our country……………


     7 Write the degrees of comparison of these adjectives.

     Example: large – larger -  (the) largest

     difficult – more difficult – (the) most difficult


     inexhaustible, prosperous, small, modern, exciting, advanced, efficient, suitable,

     good, important, simple, strong


     8 Fill in the gaps to complete the sentences.


energy,   to drive,  stations,  generators,  falling,  fuel, coal,  turbines, pipelines 


     8.1 Electric power is generated by converting heat, light, chemical elements, or

     mechanical energy to electrical ............... .

     8.2 Most electric energy is produced in large power....... by the conversion of

     mechanical energy or heat. 

     8.3 The mechanical energy of ........water is used ........... turbine in hydroelectric 


     8.4 The heat derived by burning........, oil or other ........ is used to operate

     steam.....or engines that drive electric generators.

     8.5 Gas is delivered through gas ................................ .



      9 Work in small groups in order to make a decision. Fill your reason in the table.


     Atomic power plants have their advantages as well as  disadvantages. Their reactors and steam generators operate noiselessly. The atmosphere is not polluted by dust and smoke. The disadvantage of power plants utilising nuclear fuel is their radiation. Radioactive radiation produced in the reactors is dangerous for people.



Group 1

         Group 2

Atomic power plants have  advantages



Atomic power plants have  disadvantages




     10 Discussion:

In what field of economy can atomic energy find its peaceful application.


     The splitting of the atom has opened to man a new and enormous source of energy. The most important results have been obtained by splitting the atom of uranium. At present we only at the beginning of the application of atomic energy and all its possible uses for peaceful purposes in power engineering.


     11 Write the topic. Choose one of the following themes:

The nuclear century.

The peaceful uses of atomic energy.




     Technical Operator of  the Electricity


1 Match words with their definitions and synonyms

1.     joint stock

2.     establish

3.     found

4.     corporate

5.     network

6.     include

7.     perform

8.     involve

9.     power supply

10. supply

11. transmit

12. regulate


a.      make                           e. to carry an electric current

b.     consist of                    f. to include yourself or someone in doing something

c.     work with                   g. delivery of electric energy

d.     provide                        h. control


     2 Translate the following sentences paying attention to the Passive Voice

     2.1 KEGOC is founded by the Government of the Republic of  Kazakhstan.

     2.2 Now  a new fuel and a new source of power are put to  the service of Mankind.



Kazakhstan Electricity Grid Operating Company (KEGOC OJSC)


     1.Kazakhstan Electricity Grid Operating Company( KEGOC) is an open joint stock company established in July 1997 by Resolution # 1188 of the Government of the Republic of Kazakhstan.

KEGOC, a state owned company  was  founded  by  the  Kazakh State                         Property Committee.  

The corporate assets include 110 kV to 1,150 kV transmission lines and

Master substations forming the National Power Grid  that provides interstate flows and power supply , from power plants connected there to the regional power network companies and major customers.

     2.As KEGOC holds an important strategic position, it servers as a power bridge between the power grids of Russia and Central Asia.

     3.The Company is a Technical Operator of the  electricity wholesale market of  the  Kazakhstan Single Power Grid (SPG),which includes power plants and electric networks integrated into a single system of power generation, transmission and distribution under general operational dispatchmanagement of KEGOC. The centralized dispatch management  of the Single Power Grid is performed from Almaty via 9 regional dispatch centers and 18 dispatch centers of district electricity network distributors.

     4.KEGOC  is involved in  elaboration   of   power    sector    development   strategies, formulation of its technical policies and drafting of long-term plans and programs.

     5.KEGOC's position within he power supply system makes it a natural monopoly  that  transmits    and    dispatches   electric power  supplied to wholesale  market participants.Tariffs for KEGOC  services are regulated by he Kazakhstan  Agency for Regulation of Natural Monopolies,Competition  and Small Business Support.    

     1 Read the text again and match the paragraphs with these titles

     a) State regulation of activity

     b) Foundation of the company

     c) Regional management of the company

     d) Eurasian Electricity Grid Operating Company


     2 Read the text and complete the following questions

     2.1 When … ?

     2.2 Where …?

     2.3 How … ?

     2.4 How  many … ?

     2.5 What … ?



     3 What do these words from the text refer to ?

     establish      connect       power bridge        dispatch management

     long – term       power supply 

     For example:

     KEGOC was established in July1997 by Resolution #1188 of the Government of 

     the Republic of Kazakhstan.


     4 Talking point

     You are chief manager of KEGOC and after the meeting you have press release.

     Journalists are interested in the following question:

     4.1 KEGOC key objectives;

     4.2 Pricing and tariff policy;

     4.3 Kazakhstan electricity transmission rehabilitation project;

     4.4 Cooperation with foreign companies;

     4.5 Future of atomic power.


     5 Complete the dialogue

     Give a heading to it.



B. There are such power plants in Kazakhstan: the nuclear power plant, the thermal power plant and the hydro power plant.


B.91% of electric power is produced by the thermal power plants, 8% by hydro power plants and less than 1% by the nuclear power plants.


B.83% of thermal power plants use coal burning, the rest use gas and fuel oil.


B. Kazakhstan  with his huge row materials is nevertheless becoming more and more dependent on outside suppliers of electric power.


B. During recent year, the majority of hydro and heat power plants as well as heat and electric supply systems have been privatized or taken in concession.


B. In order to solve this problem in 1997, the government established KEGOC.


B. There are also regional distribution companies.


B. The Kazakhstan companies operating the national electric system has the highest credit rating.


B. Our Government has planned to build the nuclear power plant in Balkhash.


B. I think that our natural resources enable us to develop the branch of power engineering in our country.




     Power Transmission Line


     Active Words

     1 A.Translate the following active words and do task B.

     1.1 provide

     1.2 cover

     1.3 amount

     1.4 stage

     1.5 temporary

     1.6 take into consideration

     1.7 capacity

     1.8 feasibility

     1.9 pass

     1.10 estimate


     B Match the following words with their synonyms in A

     a. output

     b. level

     c. supply

     d. conceal

     e. realization

     f. take into account

     g. provisional

     h. evaluate

     i. go through

     j. quantity

     2 Complete the following sentences with the correct form of the verbs in brackets

     2.1 High-tension transmission lines (be carried) in Kazakhstan.

     2.2 We (reduce) the current in the transmission system by employing


     2.3 KEGOC (sign) contracts on supply of high voltage equipment.

     2.4 Power loss in a line (not exceed) a definite value.


     3 Translate the following sentences paying attention to the Modal Verbs in the

        Passive Voice

     3.1 Many interesting facts can be found in this new article.

     3.2 Copper and aluminum may be justly considered as the best conductors.

     3.3 It must be noted that this invention will decrease the power lass.


Feasibility Study of the Construction of Power Transmission

     Line ''North-South Kazakstan''


     Transmission line 1150-500kV North-South is provided for covering energy deficit of South Kazakstan region from Ekibastuz GRESes (State regional power plants) with amounts 6.0 bln kWh in 1995 and in 2000 it will amount  7.0 bln kWh.

Cost  price of energy production at Ekibastuzskaya GRES-2 was 24.7 tiyn in 1994 or 0.38 cent per 1 kW, price cost of energy from subject scheme 1.3 tiyn or 0.03 cent per 1 kWh.

     High economic efficiency of the construction of new transmission line is achieved by increasing energy portion produced at cheap Ekibastuz coals instead of purchasing expensive energy from Central Asian states and possibility of energy transmission to South Kazakstan in case of construction of transmission line 1150-500 kV '' North - South ''.

     Development of transmission line scheme:

- putting into operation of OH line 1150 kV Ekibastuz - Topar ;

- construction of OH line 500 kV Topar - UKGRES, UKGRES - Zhambyl.

     Due to it capacity will be increased to 1150 MW which provides for transmission of 6-6.5 bln kWh at energy cost price 0.06 cent per 1 KWh. And volume of energy which South Kazakstan will get from Ekibastuzskaya GRES-2 will provide economy for the Republic of Kazakstan at the amount to 200 mln dollars per annum comparing with energy to be purchased.

     Taking into consideration stages of construction ( estimating on a per unit  basis energy at Ekibastuzskaya GRES-2 and its transmission to South with the cost 0.44 cent / kWh) expenditures for the 1 - st phase of the construction which amount 526 mln dollars will be covered within. 4.0 years.

     According to perspective balances for the current moment and limited investments stages of the construction are as follows :

1995-1997 OH line 1150 kV Ekibastuz - Topar (353 km)

(temporary work under voltage 500 kW)

1998 OH line 500 kV Topar - Agadyr (166 km)

OH line 500 kV UKGRES - Zhambyl (512 km)

OSY 500 kV Topar with passes

2000 OH line 500 kV Topar - UKGRES

2001 SS1150 kV with transmission of OH line

1150 Ekibastuz - Topar to 1150 kV voltage.


2000-2005  SS 500 kV Chu with passes OH line 500 kV

UKGRES -Chu (180 km), Chimkent – Kentau

with capacity 500 kW Kentau, OH line 500 kV UKGRES-Kentau.


     It must be pointed out that in the previous feasibility studies elaborated by the institute for the period to 2000 (1998-2000) it was substantiated necessity of the construction of direct current transmission line in section Agadyr - UKGRES with capacity 1500-2000 MW.

     However, according to today's estimation of energy need for South Kazakstan, considering supposed putting into operation of blocks at UKGRES

such  amount of energy transmission to South Kazakstan will not

be necesseary till 2010. Maximal amount of necessity will amount 1100-1200 MW, which can be provided without construction of direct current transmission line.

     There are two ways of development of energy network construction :

     - transmission to 1150 kV voltage, that is putting into operation off SS 1150 kV Topar considering commissioning of some blocks at UKGRES within 1999-2005 (capacity 2160 MW).

     - top priority construction of OH line 500 kV Topar - UKGRES with following transmission to nominal  voltage of OH transmission  line 1150 kV Ekibastuz - Topar, comissioning of UKGRES capacity can be considered according to necessity of balance capacity of South energy supply networks.


     1 Read  the text and complete the following question:




     How many…?




     2 Make up a plan of the text.


     3 Find the key-sentences of the text.


     4 What do these numbers from the text

        refer to?

     0.38    200    526   1995      2010   1150

For example:

Cost price of energy production at Ekibastuzskay GREC-2 was 24.7 tiyn in 1994 or 0.38 cent 1 kWh…


     5 According to the text, why is it a good idea to construct power transmission line                  “ North-South Kazakhstan”? List as many reason as possible.

For example:

Kazakhstan tries to become independent on outside suppliers of electric power.


     6 Explain why:




     We construct power station near the cities.

     We need new sources of energy.

     We need the power transmission line “North-South”





     7 Speak about:

     7.1 The prices for electric power and their changes.

     7.2 The deficit of electric capacity in Kazakhstan


     8 A Imagine that a new power station is going to be built your area. Make a list of

     advantages and disadvantages of the plan.





             Group 1



                   Group 2







a new power station;

the possibility of cheaper electricity;

more jobs for the local area.













an ugly building in the area;

environmental problems.


     B Work with a partner. One person is in favor of building the power station in the area, the other person is against it. Each individual must put forward opinions and encourage his or her parents to change ideas.



     Renewable Energy


      Active Words

1.     wideширокий

2.     provide снабжать

3.     identify – устанавливать

4.     pursue  - cледовать

5.     require – требовать

6.     exclude – исключать

7.     cause – 1.причина; 2.вызывать

8.     delay – откладывать

9.     result in – приводить к чему-либо

10. diminish – уменшать


1 Find synonyms of the followings words in A

     a. demand                                    d. reduce

     b. bring about                               e. follow

     c. supply                                       f. empty


     2 Translate the following sentences paying attention to the Passive Voice and    

      Participle II           

     2.1 Many research works were carried out.

     2.2 Oil, natural gas, coal and water power are used as traditional power sources.

     2.3 However, the efficiency of a solar power station is considerably reduced

           because  of the limited time of its work during the year.

     2.4 Geothermal power station operating on hot water-steam mixture from depth of

           about a kilometer were built in Kamchatka.


     3 Before reading the text “Renewable Energy”, answer the following questions



3.1 What energy sources are renewable?

3.2 What renewable energy source is in wide use?

3.3 How many sources of energy have identified by the World Energy Council?

3.4 How does hydro power cause environmental problems?

3.5 What is the way out?


     Text  A

    Renewable Energy


     Some renewable energy sources are well known and already in wide use. For example, hydroelectric power is generated by water in dams. In the U.S., hydroelectric power provides 10 percent of all electricity. Other alternative sources of energy are not well known to the public or are still in the developmental stages. The World Energy are not identified six sources of energy to pursue as alternatives to non-renewable fossil fuels:

Solar (energy from the suds rays)

Wind. (energy  from moving air)

Geothermal (energy from heat inside the earth)

Modem biomass (energy from plant and animal residue)

Ocean (energy from seawater movement and temperature changes)

Small hydroelectric (energy from small dams, such as those filled by melting snow)

It is worth pointing out why large hydroelectric (large dams that block rives) and traditional biomass (firewood and charcoal) were excluded from the Councils focus. These two renewable sources of energy often cause environmental problems and other adverse effects. Large hydroelectric projects usually require long planning and construction, which delays their benefit, and sometimes results in social problems, such as displacement of people living near rivers that are dammed. Traditional biomass (burning trees) results in air pollution and deforestation. A combination of these six other alternative sources of energy may prove to be our best hope to fill the energy void created as supplies of fossil fuels gradually diminish.



     1 Complete the following sentences using the text A

    1.1 …     are six sources of energy.

    1.2 Solar energy is ….

    1.3 …     cause environmental problems.


    2 According to the text, Why is it a good idea of using renewable sources of

      energy. List as many reasons as possible

      For example:

     The price of fossil-based oil is increasing.


     3 What do these words from the text refer to?

     renewable      alternative           cause            energy

     Example: renewable

     Some renewable energy sources are well known and already in wide use. 



     4 What do these numbers from the text refer to?

      six      two

     5 Conduct a scientific meeting on: “Renewable Energy”

Use texts A and B as a basis  for the preparation of an oral talk, short abstract, summery of the presentation and for the discussion of the theme.

Useful Words and Phrases of scientific communication at a scientific meeting, conference, round-table discussion, symposium, seminar, conference etc.


Stages of meeting


Opening a meeting


Introducing a speaker   


Interrupting a speaker



Opening the discussion





Ending a discussion


Ending a meeting

I declare the meeting open ….


Let me introduce Dr.(Prof.) … from  ….



May I draw your attention to the fact that this point will be discussed later ?

May I interrupt you?


Are there any questions to Dr…?

I have a question to ask…?

One question is, the second question is ….

I think you are right speaking about….

But I am not sure you are right.


May I propose that we stop there?



I declare the meeting closed.


     Read the text B and complete the following questions:

What …  ?

When … ?

How…  ?

Where … ?

How many …?


     Text B

     History of Renewable Energy


     Since the early days of the Industrial Age, industries and utility companies have relied on a variety of different sources of power. The Dane were pioneers in wind-generated electricity, building over 100 systems in 1890 to capture the North Sea winds. Coal was the fuel of choice for steam-powered engines, which were widely used in manufacturing and transportation. In fact, in the 1890s, more electric and steam-powered cars were sold than those using gasoline. The world’s first geothermal electric plant was built in Italy in 1904. Surprisingly, photovoltaic (solar) cells were built as early as the 1880s, but it wasn’t until Bell Labs developed silicon cells in 1954 that solar cells could be used efficiently. In 1958, the Vanguard satellite was equipped with solar photovoltaic cells. The world’s first power plant using the ocean tides was built in France in 1966.

     The global energy situation began to change significantly in the second half of the last century. For example, in the US., from 1950 to 1995, coal virtually disappeared as a heating source for homes. By 1995, natural gas was used for heat in over 50 percent of US. homes, and electricity was used in 27 percent of them. In about the same frame, per capita electricity consumption rose by over 1,000 percent. Widespread ownership of energy-hungry appliances such as air conditioners, refrigerators, and clothes dryers contributed to this huge growth in energy consumption, while individual automobile ownership created a heavy demand for new petroleum supplies. By 1958, the US. Had begun to consume more fuel of various kinds than it produced. Oil prices per barrel rose from about $5 in the 1960s to over $17 in October 1973, and further production limitations caused the price to rise to about $34 in 1981.

     By the mid-1980s, geologists and other scientists began to make predictions about how long the world’s petroleum supplies would last. By estimating future rates of oil consumption, then taking into account the amount of proven petroleum reserves, they calculated that supplies could last between 50 and 100 years longer. Of course, their calculations can vary depending on fluctuations in consumption and discoveries of new oil fields. Nuclear power, which had once been the energy hope of the future, no longer seemed so attractive after accidents at Three Mile Island in the U.S. in 1979 and Chernobyl in the Soviet Union in 1986 changed the publics perception of its safety. France has continued to operate nuclear plants for 75 percent of its electricity, with a good safety record, however, other countries have scaled back plants for building nuclear generating facilities, and the disposal of spend radioactive fuel remains a problem.  


     1 Find the key sentences of the text.

     2 Make up plan of the text.


     Building Block of Materials


     Before reading

     1 Look  through the text “Atom and Molecules” and translate the underlined  

      words using  a dictionary

     2 Take а look around you. Everything around you is matter. Air you breath,

     water you drink, bread you eat, clothes you wear аrе all matter.

     What is matter?

     What does it mean?

     What is it made of?

     What does it consist of?


     Anything that has mass and occupies space is matter.

Every mattеr we know about is made from atoms. All nonliving оr living things - rocks, water, soil, air, plants, animals and even you yourself - are made from atoms.

What is the basic unit of а substance?

What are atoms?

      Suppose that you have а sheet of aluminum. Cut it in half. If you cut the half in hall, you could go on cutting each piece in half.

How many times could you cut each piece?

Is there а limit to subdivide each piece?


             The answer is "yes". Eventually, you would not bе able to divide а piece into smaller pieces. You would have аn atom of aluminum. The .word "atom" comes from the Greek atomos, meaning not to bе cut. The smallest piece of а substance, so called element, which still has the properties of an element is called аn atom. Atoms are so small that they can not bе seen even with а sensitive microscope. Even a glass of water contains an enormous number of atoms. If the atoms in this glass of water could be shared out between all the people living in the world today, and every person counted the atoms at а rate of 100 atoms in а minute, it would take 82 million years to finish counting?


     Atoms and Molecules

     Structure of Atoms

     An atom is the smallest particle- that can be obtained bу chemical means.

One part of an atom is the central core, called the nucleus. Around the nucleus is а sphere or cloud of negative charges. Scientists have made some machines that can split atoms into even smaller particles. These particles can not be studied by chemists. Scientists have found more than one hundred smaller, or subatomic, particles. Chemists are usually concerned with only three оf thеsе particles: electron, proton, and neutron.

     The first part of an atom to be discovered was the electron. An electron has а negative charge. Its mass is almost zero. If 1* 1029  electrons were put together they would have а total mass of only about 1 gram. The negatively charged electrons are located outside the tiny, heavy, positively charged nucleus. Electrons move about the nucleus at very high speeds.


Part I: Rub а plastic реп or comb оn your sleeve and then hold it n near some tiny

           What happens?

Part II:Rub а plastic object оп your sleeve and then hold it near (but not touching) а 

             thin stream of water from a tap as in the figure below.                                                                              

            What happens?

Part III:Rub    a glass rod or a strip of cellulose acetate on a piece of silk and hold it


             tiny pieces of paper. Observe what happens?


     As shown in the experiment, when а plastic object or а glass rod is rubbed, it is electrically, charged.

Objects become charged because the atoms of all substances contain both negative and positive charges.

The positive charges (called protons) are in the central соre оr nucleus of the atom.

The negative charges (called electrons) are located in orbits round the outer part of the atom.

     Onе of the two kinds of subatomic particles that make the nucleus is the proton. A proton has а mass more than 1840 times larger than an electron. Yet the proton is still very small. The mass of mоге than 6*1023 protons is about 1 gram. Protons аге positively charged. The positive charge of one proton is the same size as the negative charge of one electron. In an ordinary atom, there are always exactly the same number of protons and electrons. The negative and positive charges are balanced. Therefore, the atom has no overall charge.

     Another subatomic particle in the nucleus is the neutron. А neutron has about the same mass as а proton. So neutrons, like protons, tend to make the nucleus very heavy. As its name suggests, the neutron is neutral. It carries no electric charge. See Figure 1.2 to locate the parts of аn atom.

     Most of the space in an atom is fi11ed by the negatively charged electrons. Imagine an atom to be the size of а large football stadium. The nucleus would be the size of а pea in center of the field. Almost all the mass of the atom is concentrated in the nucleus.Electrons in an atom аre arranged in different orbits called energy levels or shells. As shown in Figure 1.2 the first energy level can have no more than two electrons. This is the closest level to the nucleus. The second energy level can hold up to eight electrons. The third energy level сan contain а maximum number of 18 electrons. Higher energy levels sometimes hold as many as 32 electrons. The energy levels for atoms and the number of electrons they can hold are in Таblе 1.


Table 1  Electrons in Energy Levels


Energy level

Maximum number of electrons in each level

Total number of electrons in the atom

















     Each atom has its own special arrangement of particles. For example, a hydrogen atom has оnе proton in its nucleus and one electron around the nucleus. An oxygen atom contains 8 protons, 8 electrons, and 8 neutrons. А magnesium (Mg) atom contains 12 protons, 12 electrons, and 12 neutrons. The electrons of the atoms аre arranged in pairs within the energy levels.



     1. What is the relationship between protons and electrons in an atom?

     2. How many protons and electrons are in an atom of each of the following  


     (а) helium               (b) lithium         (с) сагbоn        (d) сhlоrinе       (e) potassium

     3. How many energy levels and how many electrons аrе in each energy 

         level for аn atom of each element given in question 2?


     You now know:

     All matter is composed of atoms:

- Atom is the smallest part of an element;

- An element is a substance which contains only one kind of atom;

- Protons, neutrons, and electrons are subatomic particles;

- The positive charge of the protons in an atom is equal to the negative charge of  

         the electrons;

- Protons and neutrons are found in the nucleus of an atom. Electrons in an atom 

   are arranged in certain energy levels around the nucleus.


      Elements - Isotopes

     At present, there are more than 109 different types of atoms. Atoms make up the chemical elements. Element is а pure substance made of only оnе kind of atom. Copper is аn element because it contains only copper atoms. Carbon is аn element because it contains only сагbоn atoms. Elements сan not be broken down into simpler substances bу ordinary chemical means. About ninety of elements have bееn found naturally оn the earth. The rest of elements have been made in the laboratory. Some соmmоn elements are gold, iron, aluminum, oxygen and nitrogen. At room temperature, most of these elements аге solids and some are gases. Two elements, mercury and bromine, are in the states of liquid at room temperature. The air we breathe is mostly the elements, oxygen and nitrogen.


     Each element is given а symbol. This is an abbreviation or shorthand way to represent an atom of that element. Each element has а different symbol containing one or two letters. Most symbols аre similar to the name of the element. Some elements have symbols derived from their old Latin names. For example, the symbol for iron, Fe, is taken from the Latin name for iron, ferrum. А symbol always has а capital letter. When а symbol has two letters, the second one is always written in small letter. Table 1.2 gives the names and symbols of some соmmоn elements.


TABLE 2  Some Common Elements and Their Symbols










































     Exercise 1

(a)   Write the symbols for the following elements: fluorine, potassium, uranium, 

      bromine, helium, neon, barium

     (b) Give the name of each of the following elements: H, C, Cu, Fe, Mg, O, S, Zn.


     Exercise 2  Given the elements: Al, Fe, O, Cl, Cu, Hg, C, Au, Br

(a) Which element do we need to breathe?

(b) Which element is used to make airplanes?

      (c) Which element are liquids at room temperature?

(d) Which element rusts?

(e) Which element is used to destroy harmful microorganisms in water?

(f) Which element is used in thermometers?

(g) Which element is used to make jewelry?

(h) Which element(s) is (are) used to make cables?

(i) Which element is black in color?





Siemens Power Generation…………………………………………

Reforming Elecrtic Power Industry………………………………..

Kazakhstan’s Oil and Gas………………………………………….

Uran of Kazakhstan…………………………………………………

Technical Operator of the Electicity……………………………….

Power Transmission Line…………………………………………..

Renewable Energy………………………………………………….

Building Block of Materials………………………………………..





     1. Siemens Power Journal. 1997.12.

     2.Caspian.  1998.  №6.

     3. Сайт: http://www kegoc. kz





Сводный план 2004 г., поз. 35



Аида Кенесбековна Садыкова

Сабит Муталович Нарбаев



Английский язык

Методические указания по развитию навыков и умений профессиональногообщения (для студентов всех форм обучения теплоэнергетических специальностей)




                 Редактор Ж.М. Сыздыкова

Специалист  по стандартизации Н.М.Голева



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