АЛМАТИНСКИЙ ИНСТИТУТ ЭНЕРГЕТИКИ И СВЯЗИ
Кафедра иностранных языков
Проректор по учебно-методической работе
____________________ Сериков Э.А.
“______”________________ 2005 г.
СОГЛАСОВАНО Рассмотрено и одобрено на
Начальник УМО заседании кафедры ИЯ
_______________ Протокол №_5_от 28.03.2005 г.
Редактор _______ Ж.М.Сыздыкова Зав. кафедрой ИЯ
А.С.Мендыгалиева__________ “__”____2005 г.
Специалист по стандартатизации Составитель:
____________Н.М.Голева У.Ж. Жумабекова __________
«_____» _________ 2005 г. С.М. Нарбаев ______________
СОСТАВИТЕЛЬ:У.Ж. Жумабекова, С.М.Нарбаев.Английский язык. Технические тексты и упражнения для закрепления грамматических тем. Методические указания. – Алматы. АИЭС,
Методические указания предназначены для тренировки и закрепления грамматического материала. Грамматический материал закрепляется в специальных упражнениях. Некоторые из них предусматривают повторение уже известных грамматических явлений, нуждающихся в дополнительном закреплении и более глубоком изучении на базе научно-популярной лексики.
Рецензент: зав. каф. ИЯ КазНТУ им. Сатбаева К.
Печатается по плану издания Алматинского институт
энергетики и связи на 2005 г.
© Алматинский институт энергетики и связи, 2005 г.
Grammar: Infinitive, Gerund, Participle(simple forms)
to learn V1
learned V 3
To learn English is necessary in
необходимо в современной жизни.
Learning English is hard but necessary.
Изучение английского трудно, но необходимо.
a) I want to go to the USA.
b) I want you to go to the USA.
He likes driving.
Он любит водить машину.
(Ему нравится водить машину).
He heard Mr. Bill speaking over the telephone.
Он слышал, как Мистер Билл говорил по телефону.
(In order)To know English well you must study hard.
Чтобы хорошо знать английский, Вы должны усердно заниматься.
On hearing the news he got very angry.
Услышав новости, он очень рассердился.
(When) driving the car he enjoys it greatly.
Когда он водит машину, ему это очень нравится.
Having read the letter, he put it on the table.
Прочитав письмо, он положил его
This is a good book to read.
Это хорошая книга для чтения.
They saw a flying plane.
Они увидели летящий самолет.
The text translated by the boy is very interesting.
Текст, переведенный, мальчиком,
1 Translate the following sentences paying attention to the Infinitive, Gerund
1.1 To run modern machines workers must be educated.
1.2 Mastering a foreign language thoroughly is not easy.
1.3 People beginning to study languages often say that it is difficult to memorize words.
1.4 They started charging battery.
1.5 Testing the engine the engineer applied new tools.
2 Use Participle I, Participle I or the Gerund of the verb in brackets and
translate the sentences
2.1 The (launch) of artificial moon-satellites will make it possible to solve a number of scientific and engineering problems in the field of space exploration.
2.2 Don’t touch the (move) coil!
2.3 The method (use) depended on the material selected.
2.4 (read) such books you will improve your knowledge of this subject.
2.5 The part (break) by you should be repaired at once.
3 Study the following words and word combinations
3.1 to arrange in orderly fashion – располагать что-л. в правильном порядке
3.2 to make contribution to – вносить вклад
3.3 to depend on – зависеть от
3.4 to distinguish from – отличать что-л. от чего-л.
3.5 to have an influence on – оказывать влияние на что-л.
3.6 to be inseparable from – быть неотделимым от чего-л.
3.7 to be made up of – состоять из
3.8 common sense – здравый смысл
3.9 to reduce to plain common sense – сводить к простому здравому смыслу
3.10 to have room for – иметь место для чего-л.
3.11 search for – поиски чего-л.
3.12 to turn into – превращать что-л. во что-л.
4 Tasks to the text
4.1 Look through the text and say what is science and what distinguishes it
from other activities
4.2 Read the text and say what caused science to arise
4.3 Provide each paragraph with a summarizing sentence
4.4 Give an oral summery of the text
4.5 Underline sentences with the Infinitive, Participle I and Gerund
What Is Science?
1. To science we owe most of our comforts, our leisure, our health, our ability to mold the environment, to communicate instantly and to move swiftly over the earth.
2. Science arose out of man’s efforts to survive, his natural curiosity, his search for order in a seemingly capricious world. It arose from man’s efforts to understand nature and himself.
3. What is science? Science is first of all a human activity. In science you study nature and human nature, living nature and non- living nature. There is nothing too small or too large, too distant or too near. It is not so mush what a scientist studies as how he studies it, that makes the study of science, arranged in orderly fashion. A scientist is always trying to reduce confusion to plain common sense.
4. What distinguishes science from other activities is that it enables man to see the world “as it really is ”. This may mean different things to different men times. Over the ages, science has found the world to be flat at one time, round at another and more recently “egg-shaped”; to be the centre of the universe and, later only a speck in the cosmos; to be made up of four fundamental substances and, later of more than one hundred fundamental substances. This does not mean that science is unreliable. It means that science keeps pace with the time. Science is an occupation for people who are capable of putting their beliefs to many tests. There is always room for freshness, newness, brightness in it. The openness and freedom of science makes it the most advanced kind of thought mankind has so far developed.
5 Make up questions to the following sentences are the answer
5.1 To science owe our ability to communicate instantly and to move swiftly
over the earth.
5.2 Yes, the achievements of scientists have had a great influence on the
development of world science.
5.3 No, these achievements are inseparable from the fast progress in the natural
sciences and advanced new ideas of the 20th century.
6 State the function of the verbals (Infinitive, Gerund, Participle and verbal
noun)and translate the sentences into Russian
6.1 The generating of electricity fro solar energy presents a more difficult prob -
lem than using the sun’s energy for direct heating and cooling.
6.2 It is not at all easy finding (to find) a quite satisfactory explanation of some
6.3 A new way of producing electricity is generating (to generate) electricity
from geothermal energy, that is, from heat energy contained in steam, hot
water, or hot rocks that occur naturally in the earth.
6.4 A voltmeter is an instrument for measuring voltage.
6.5 Lunar gravitation is too weak to hold the gases of an atmosphere.
7 Complete the sentences using Infinitive, Gerund, Participle
7.1 Object usually expand when ….
7.2 Studying natural phenomena without ….
7.3 Translating the article, we….
7.4 Working (when working) with radioactive materials… .
7.5 Newton was the first to … .
7.6 … was the first to … .
7.7 To generate (for generating) electricity … .
8 Translate the sentences from Russian into English
8.1 Любознательность во все века служит великой движущей силой в
8.2 За последние шестьдесят лет человек сделал больше в управлении
силами природы, чем он сделал за сто тысяч лет до этого.
8.3 Большой прогресс достигнут в понимании поведения ядра.
8.4 Океаны, покрывающие 71% земной поверхности, содержат 97% всей
8.5 Чтобы получить постоянный ток, необходимо иметь его источник.
9 Translate the text from Russian into English paying attention to the Infinitive,
Gerund and Participle
Дмитрий Иванович Менделеев
Д.И. Менделеев родился в семье школьного учителя в Сибири. Когда ему было четырнадцать лет, он решил поехать в Петербург, чтобы получить хорошее образование. Уезжая из дома, он понимал, что ему придется много работать, чтобы получить необходимые знания. Приехав в столицу, он сразу начал усиленно работать.
Успешно окончив педагогический институт, Менделеев начал экспериментировать с химическими элементами. Заинтересовавшись чередующимися свойствами различных химических элементов, Менделеев сопоставил свойства данного элемента с весом атома. Он свел все тогда известные элементы в таблицу. Доказав соотношение свойств каждого элемента с весом его атома, Менделеев сделал смелые предположения о свойствах еще не открытых элементов, оставив для них свободные места в своей таблице.
За многочисленные важные открытия Д. И. Менделеев был избран профессором университета, где он работал много лет.
10 Make up dialogue using the text: D.I. Mendeleyev
Grammar: Participle (Simple and Perfect forms)
Infinitive as an attribute
Infinitive and Gerund as adverbial modifier of
The Nominative with the Infinitive construction
Some new word and word combination
to achieve a world reputation – получить мировое признание
to concentrate on – сосредоточиться
to be concerned with – иметь отношение
to confine to – ограничиваться; посвятить себя
despite – несмотря на
under guidance – под руководством
to meet with a success – иметь успех
to contribute to – сделать вклад
1 Tasks to the text
1.1 Look through the text and say what problems Kurchatov was concerned
1.2 Read the text and say a) where, when and whom Kurchatov started his
scientific career; b) when Kurchato’s work in nuclear physics began; c)
what discovery associated wit uranium was announced in 1940; d) what
role Kurchatov played in the post-war nuclear physics development.
1.3 Provide each paragraph with a suitable heading
1.4 Underline sentences with the Infinitive , Participle I, Participle II and
1. I.V. Kurchatov was born on January 12, 1903, in the Urals. Having graduated from University of the Crimea he was soon engaged in research. In 1925 he started
his scientific career in the Leningrad Physico-Technical Institute under academician A.F. Yoffe. Up to 1933 he carried out experimental and theoretical studies of dielectrics. His many researches on this subject were summarized in a book published in 1933.
2. Kurchatov’s nuclear physics work began in 1930’s.His works quickly yielded results and in 1932 he made some important discoveries in the field of artificial radioisotopes. In 1935 Kurchatov achieved a world reputation with the publication of a book on the problems of the atom. Three years later he was made director of the Nuclear Physics Laboratory of the Leningrad Institute. He and his fellow research workers concentrated on the development of cyclotrons.
3. In 1940 Kurchatov’s group was the first to announce that uranium fissions spontaneously. During the Second World War Kurchatov used his energy and experience for the defense of his country.
4. Having returned to nuclear research Kurchatov soon became the scientific head of all research concerned with the use of nuclear power. Kurchatov persistently worked in developing and perfecting atomic and hydrogen weapons in order to strengthen the defense of the country. Using his experience and knowledge he actively contributed to the construction of the world’s first industrial power plant.
2 Fill in the blanks with suitable words from the text
2.1 In 1925 Kurchatov … his scientific career … academician Yoffe.
2.2 Kurchatov did not … himself to … laboratory research.
2.3 In 1932 he made some important … in the field of radioisotopes.
2.4 The first nuclear … were … under his … .
2.5 In 1940 Kurchatov’s group was the first to announce that … .
3.State the functions of Participles and Gerund in bold type
Translate the sentences into Russian(Give all possible versions of translation)
3.1 Working (when working) with radioactive materials, a person must protect
himself from being injured by radiation.
3.2 Working (in working) with radioactive materials in the early days of
radioactivity scientists didn’t know how dangerous they were.
3.3 Having worked ( after having worked) for a while with radioactive
materials, Marie and Pierre Currie noticed that their fingers became red and
that the skin was coming off.
3.4 When heated (being heated, heated) in a vacuum some substances emit
3.5 Being a conductor of electricity, the earth may form part of an electric
4 Translate the sentences paying attention to the Infinitive used as an adverb
4.1 Newton was the first to solve the problem of gravitation.
4.2 The substance discovered has some peculiar to be examined before a final
conclusion is made.
4.3 Uranium was the first atom to be split by man in order to liberate a
tremendous amount of energy.
4.4 The first scientist to deduce scientifically an atomic theory was Dalton.
4.5 The conference to be held in a few months will consider various ways of
establishing contacts among scientists of different countries.
5 Translate the sentences paying attention to Infinitives and Gerund used as
adverbial modifiers of purpose
5.1 Ocean tides have been used successfully to produce ( for producing)
electrical power in Russia and France.
5.2 Solar power can be used for heating and cooling with existing technology
and in the distant future it could be used to generate electricity (for genera –
5.3 In order to examine a report quickly and learn definitely what was found out
by the experiment, it is necessary to have a clear form of report.
5.4 To understand the nature of the nuclear force that constitutes the greatest
secret of the material universe, nuclear physicists have constructed power -
5.5 In modern computers transistors are used for performing complicated opera-
6 Fill in the blanks with the appropriate words from the list given below(pay-
ing attention to the Infinitive, Gerund and Participle)
Physics is concerned with phenomena of ___________ matter. __________ mathematics as a tool, it is an exact science of the material world and forms the basis of many other studies. The astronomer, the chemist, the geologist, the engineer, all need some knowledge of physics __________ better in their respective spheres of work.
Physics is an exact science it is also an actively ___________ imagination. As we have progressed from mechanics to nuclear physics, physics has become more and more difficult ____________. The deeper we go into the subject, the more we have __________ our imagination. Our ideas, however, are colourful by our experience in mechanics which has supplied us with the most fundamental concepts. Perhaps the most important one is energy as it is the concern of every physicist whatever his field may be. We should not be far from wrong _________
that physics is the science of matter and energy.
7 Put questions to the text
8 Prepare to discuss one of the scientists prominent in your field of science and
use the following words and word combinations
to be born, to graduate from, to be engaged in, to work under, to carry out, to
publish to achieve, to make a discovery, to be concerned with, to be awarded
with, to value highly
Grammar: Gerund and Gerundial Complex
Infinitive as an adverbial modifier of result
Some new word and word combination
to be associated with – быть связанным
to break up into – распадаться на
to consist of – состоять из
to be composed of - состоять из
to be different from – отличаться
to decompose into – распадаться на
to be due to – быть обусловленным
to keep on doing – продолжать делать
to tell from – отличать от
1 Tasks to the text
1.1 Look through the text and say in what states matter exist and give some
1.2 Read the text and a0 explain how to tell one state of matter from other: b)
state the law of conservation of matter; c) describe the physical and
chemical properties of matter.
1.3 Write down summarizing sentence for each paragraph
1.4 Give a brief summery of the text
1.5 Underline sentences with the Infinitive , Participle I, Participle II and
1. From the dawn of chemistry it was recognized that many substances cold exist in the form of gas, liquid or solid, depending on the temperature. Water is the most common example. Sufficiently cooled, it becomes solid ice, and sufficiently heated, it becomes gaseous steam. All other substances can also be found in all three states, but their melting and evaporation points vary widely.
2. The volume of a substance is seen to depend on the velocity of the molecules.
The higher the temperature, the faster they move, the more room they require, and the greater the volume.
3. All states of matter represent different degrees of organization to which there
correspond certain values of blinding energy. If the average kinetic energy exceeds the binding energy, the crystal structure breaks up and matter changes either into liquid or directly into a gas.
4. The characteristic of matter are its properties. We can tell one piece of matter fro m other by its properties. It may have colour or be colourless. It may be hard or soft . It may dissolve in some liquids or be indissoluble. Some kinds of matter can unite with each other and change into a different kind of matter. This kind of behaviour shows chemical properties of matter. In order to learn something about the nature of these changes it is necessary to go more deeply into the structure of matter.
5. All matter is known to be composed of tiny particles, called molecules. A molecule is the smallest part of any substance that still has the properties and the make up of that substance.
6. Matter has inertia. All bodies at rest tend to remain at rest. If a force is applied slowly. The body begins to move slowly. The body that is in motion tends to keep on moving. This property is called inertia.
7. The fundamental law of matter is that it can neither be created nor destroyed. This is known as the law of conservation of matter.
2 A Say whether the following statements are true or false
B Correct the false ones
2.1 There is no difference between compounds and mixtures. Both mixture and
compounds may vary in composition.
2.2 The melting and evaporation points of different substances vary widely.
2.3 The higher the temperature, the more slowly the molecules move.
2.4 The faster the molecules move, the more room they require, and the greater
2.5 All states of matter represent the same degree of organization to which
there correspond certain values of binding energy.
2.6 The ability of some kind of matter to unite with each other and change into
a different kind of matter shows chemical properties of matter.
3 State the functions of Gerunds and Gerundial Complexes proceeded by
Translate the sentences in all possible ways
3.1 In losing an electron, a neutron lead atom becomes positively charged.
3.2 Seven years after isolating radium chloride, Marie Curie obtained pure
3.3 After discovering atom nucleus, Rutherford continued bombarding atom
interiors with alpha bullets and succeeded in obtaining hydrogen ions out of
3.4 The X-rays and ultraviolet light upon reaching the earth from the sun
disturb the ionization layer in our atmosphere for which radio waves are
3.5 Iron is obtain from its ore by mixing the ore with limestone.
4 Fill in the blanks with the appropriate words from the list given below (pay-
ing attention to the Infinitive
Translate the sentences paying attention to the infinitive used as adverbial
modifier of result
4.1 Hydrogen and oxygen combine chemically ____________ the molecules
4.2 Lunar gravitation is too weak ____________ the gases of an atmosphere.
4.3 Lavas generally do not have crystals large enough ____________clearly
with an unaided eye.
4.4 The telescope showed that myriads of stars existed that were too dim _____
with an unaided eye.
4.5 The temperature of the sun’s surface is high enough ___________ any form
of matter, but not high enough __________ X-rays.
Grammar: Infinitive, Gerund, Participle (Revision)
Текст-задание для самостоятельного перевода(с разметкой)
How prestressed concrete works
What happens when any beam carries a load? It bends and its center sags lower than its ends *(1). Thus the bottom fibers are stretched while the top fibers are compressed. Since concrete resists compression well, the designer puts enough of it in the top to absorb all the compression safety*(2).On the other hand, since the concrete has very little tensile strength – but steel has a lot – he inserts steel bars to take care of tensile stresses.
The trouble is that concrete shrinks as it hardens. The reinforcing bars, however, do not shorten much and consequently offer resistance to the concrete shrinkage, actually putting the bars in compression*(4;5). When the concrete is loaded, the load causes considerable tension in the reinforcement. Since this reinforcement started out with a slight compression, and then in turn is subjected to considerable tension, it is obvious that its change in lengths is of such magnitude that the concrete cannot usually follow; it cracks.
In prestressing, concrete’s virtue of high compressive strength is used to compensate for its lack of tensile strength through a very different concept in the use of reinforcing steel*(6;7).
Steel wires are strung through a concrete beam, for example, are stretched and then anchored at the ends of the beam when the concrete is hard, to put a “squeeze” on the beam. The wires either are strung through a hole in the beam provided by a mold, and are tensioned against the of the beam (we shall call this process post-tensioning), or else they are stretched first and held by some anchorage, after which the concrete is poured around them*(8). When the concrete is hard, the wires cut and ends of the wires return to their original shape outside the beam – because the stress is relived there – and act as wedges to help hold the wires bonded to the concrete in tension*(9).
In prestressing, the concrete in the beam is squeezed so that it is always in compression, and any tensile stresses that might appear due to loading, and cause cracks, are automatically canceled out. The application of the stresses before the beam is loaded is the basis for the name “prestressed concrete”*(10;11).
The advantage of prestressed concrete are:
a) It is economical of materials due to the of higher steel and concrete stresses.
b) It eliminates cracks because the concrete is always in compression.
c) It permits less depth of beam as related to the span, and hence gives more headroom.
d) Beam do not have to be cast at the site in one form, but may be cast in small section or blocks at the factory with reinforcing wires threaded through them. When the wires are stressed, the small units are brought together like one large beam.*(12).
e) It develops remarkable resistance to shear stresses.
In one case its resistance to this shearing action was 800 psi.
The items which contribute most to the higher cost of making prestressed concrete in comparison with regular reinforced concrete are the special form-work and devices required to anchor the prestressing steel on the ends of the beam, and the cost of the actual prestressing operation in the field*(13;14).
* Найдите в тексте следующие лексико-грамматические трудности:
1 глагол с узко специальным значением;
2 подчинительный союз;
3 глагол со специальным значением в данном случае;
4 Participle I в функции определения;
5 Participle I в функции обстоятельства;
6 Gerund в функции обстоятельства;
7 Infinitive в функции обстоятельства;
8 Participle II в функции определения;
9 причастный оборот;
10 Gerund в функции обстоятельства;
11 сложное сказуемое (состоит из модального глагола инфинитива)
12 Participle I в функции определения;
13 Gerund в функции определения;
14 Participle II в функции определения.
What is a computer? The electronic system of a computer is very complex. Its electronic brains produce information. It is a complex instrument made up of hundreds of electronic devices, miles of electronic wire. At a panel desk connected to the instrument, an operator feeds facts, figures, and symbols into the machine, to be stored on magnetic tape or punched cards. More than 100,000 pieces of information can be stored in one machine, and when the operator wants answers, he asks the machine in a special language to process the information taken from storage, and for solving the problem. How long did it take you to multiply the large numbers? In one third of a second a computer can multiply two 127-digit numbers. In one whole second, it can add 4,000 five-digit numbers; in two seconds it can complete 320 long-division problems. The same machine does the work of thousands of trained mathematicians in any given time period, and without the mistakes which human beings are bound to make. The machine can flash its answers on a screen, can print them on paper, store them away on magnet tapes or cards. The electronic machine can give any answer or combination of possible answers, from the information fed to it storage.
Bur … it is human beings who do the thinking, who feed information to the machines which help us to find answers and produce facts faster and more accurately. Machines work for us, but they do not think for us.
1 Прочитайте и переведите следующие словосочетания
electronic system, electronic devices, panel desk, magnetic tape, magnetic card,
digit numbers, long-division problems, human beings, automatic controls.
2 Слова для активизации
to store, storage, to train, to flash, to print, tape, card, channel desk, digit, brain,
digit numbers, to feed(fed, fed), symbols, to multiply, to process.
3.1 Is the electronic system of a computer very complex?
3.2 What do its electronic brains do?
3.3 What is a computer made up of?
3.4 What does an operator do at a panel desk?
3.5 How many pieces of information can be stored in one machine?
3.6 How does the operator speak to a machine?
3.7 How much time does it take a computer to process the information?
3.8 Where is the information of a computer stored?
3.9 How does a computer give its answers?
3.10 Machines work for us, do they?
4 Замените английскими эквивалентами русские слова в скобках
4.1 (Электронные мозги) called (цифровыми) computer (выдают,
4.2 A computer is a (сложный) instrument made up of hundreds of electronic
4.3An operator at a (пульте управление, вводит) facts, figures, and symbols
into the machine.
4.4 All these (данные, цифры и символы) are stored on magnetic (ленте) or
4.5 More than 100,000 pieces of information (могут храниться) in one
4.6An operator asks the machine in a special language (обрабатывать)
information taken from (хранилище).
4.7 In one third of a second a computer can (умножить) two 127-(цифровых
4.8 A computer can (закончить) 320 long-division problems in two seconds.
5 Выразите своё согласие или несогласие с данными утверждениями
5.1 A computer can …
multiply large digit numbers;
complete long-division problems;
answer without mistakes;
store the information.
5.2 A computer does the work of thousands of trained mathematicians.
5.3 A computer works for human being.
5.4 A computer a) can b) cannot think for us.
6 Определите типы придаточных предложений и задайте вопросы к ним
и к главной части предложений
6.1When the operator wants answers, he asks the machine in a special
6.2It is human beings who do the thinking, who feed information to the
machine which helps us to find answers.
Analogue and Digital Computers
An analog computer is a device that simulates the behaviour of another system, usually a physical system, in all its states. A very simple and widely used analogue computer is the slide-rule on which distances are equivalent to logarithms of numbers. The devices known as analogue computers are assemblies of electronic or electrical circuits the behavior of which is analogous to another (mechanical) system’s behavior. The digital computer differs from the analogue computer in that it deals with numbers and not physical quantities. The simplest digital computer is the human hand, from which the decimal system is derived. The first man-made digital computers was probably the abacus, which is still used in many countries.
The evolution of the adding machine has culminated in electronic digital computers in which electronic signals are used as the operative discrete signals. When an ordinary desk calculating machine is used, the operator controls the sequence of operations. He supplies the input data and records the results. Also he may have to provide additional information from tables and other sources during the calculation. In the case of electronic computers, working at extremely high speeds, the human operators are replaced by automatic devices. It is necessary, however, to provide a store to hold both the numbers that are fed into the computer and the operating instruction.
The basic sections of digital computers are therefore:
Input: receives the “raw data” and instructions from external sources and
converts them into a suitable from for the computer to work on.
Store: memorizes numbers and instructions.
Calculator: does mathematical operations.
Control: initiates and follows the sequence of operations.
Output: presents the result of the calculations in an acceptable form.
1 Прочитайте и переведите следующие словосочетания
analog computers, digital computers, mechanical system, decimal system, physical quantities, electronic signals, the operative discrete signals, desk calculating machine, the sequence of operations, the input data, extremely high speed, the basic sectors, external sources.
2 Слова для активизации
analog, digital, to simulate, slide-rule, logarithms, assemblies, decimal, abacus, evolution, discrete, input, output, calculation, calculator, sequence, “raw data”, to differ, to derive, to deal with, to culminate, to supply, to record, to provide, to hold, to memorize, to initiate.
3.1 What is an analog computer?
3.3 The slide-rule is a very simple and widely used analog computer, isn’t it?
3.4 Can analogue computers be described as assemblies of electronic or
3.5 What is the difference between the digital computer and the analog one?
3.6 Where is the decimal system derived from?
3.7 Was the abacus the first man-made digital computer?
3.8 Has the evolution of the adding machine culminated in the creation of
electronic digital computers?
3.9 Are electronic signals used in digital computers as the operative discrete
3.10 What’s the task of the operator when using an ordinary desk calculating
3.11 The operator supplies the input data and records the results when working
with a desk calculating machine, doesn’t he?
3.12 Does the operator do the same job (supply the data and record the results)
in the case of electronic computers?
3.13 What job is done by the input?
3.14 Does the store memorize numbers and instructions?
3.15 The calculator does mathematical operations, doesn’t it?
3.17 What’s the task of the control?
3.18 What is the last section of the computer?
3.19 How many sections does the computer consist of?
4 Дайте английские эквиваленты русским словам в скобках
4.1 Electronic (цифровые) computers are used in many countries.
4.2 The (счёты) was the first (искусственный) digital computer.
4.3 In digital computers electronic signals are used as the (дискретные,
4.4 An operator supplies the computer with the (входными данными) and
(записывает) the results.
4.5 A human operator is replaced by (автоматическими приборами).
4.6 The (сырьё) and instructions for the computer are supplied by the input.
4.7 The (накопитель) (запоминает) numbers and instructions.
4.8 The (расчетчик, вычислитель) does mathematical operations.
4.9 The (задача) of the control is to (инициировать) and follow the
(последовательность) of operations.
4.10 The (выход, выходные данные) represents the results of the
(вычислений) in an (приемлемой) form.
5 Выразите своё согласие или несогласие со следующими утверждениями
5.1 An analog computer is a device that simulates …
the behaviour of another system;
does not simulate the behaviour of another system;
5.2 Analog computers are …
assemblies of electrical circuits;
assemblies of electronical and electrical circuits.
5.3 The digital computer …
differs from the analog computer;
is alike the analog computer.
5.4 The digital computer deals with …
5.5 The operator controls …
the sequence of operations;
the input data.
5.6 Automatic devices …
can replace the human operators;
cannot replace the human operators.
5.7 The digital computers have …
4 basic sections;
5 basic sections.
6 Определите типы придаточных предложений, задайте вопросы к ним и
к главной части предложений
6.1 The simplest digital computer is the human hand, from which the decimal
system is derived.
6.2 When an ordinary desk calculating machine is used the operator controls the
sequence of operations.
Signal and Signaling
Safe operation of freight and passenger trains requires a system of signaling. To inform the locomotive and train crew of the position of other trains in relation to their own, signals installed at frequent intervals give indications which are visible both by day and by night. Wayside signals installed along railroad tracks are called fixed signals.
We know that semaphore used to be the most common type of the signal. The relative position of the semaphore arm constituted the signal.
To indicate “stop” a horizontal arm was used. “Proceed” was indicated by a vertical arm. To give restrictive (i.e. cautionary) indications the arm was inclined up or down.
Colored light give the indications at night. The semaphore mechanism is equipped with lenses illuminated by a lamp, so that a red light shows when the semaphore is in the “stop” position, a green light – when the semaphore is in the “proceed” position, and a yellow light – when the semaphore is in the restrictive position. The color-light signal sometimes used in known to have semaphore arm and give both day and night indications be means of red, green and yellow lights. We know some signals to be operated by hand, others to be automatic.
Locomatives on some railroads are known to be equipped with apparatus located in the cab, which gives a continuous indication to the engineman identical with that shown by wayside signals.
By cab signals the engine crew is supposed to be always informed of conditions ahead regardless of the weather that affects the man’s ability to see wayside signals. Locomotive cab signals are equipped to give audible warnings whenever the aspect changes to one more restrictive. A protective device is installed on some railroads to apply the brakes automatically and bring a train to a stop if, for any reason, a “stop” signal should be passed. It is called automatic train control. The first signals installed are known to have been hand-operated, usually by station employees.
1 Слова для активизации
to install, to proceed, to incline, to apply; indication, wayside, protective,
automatic train control.
2 Вопросы по тексту
2.1 Why is a system of signaling necessary?
2.2 What are fixed signals? Where are they installed?
2.3 What is the most common type of the signal?
2.4 What does a horizontal arm indicate?
2.5 What does a vertical arm indicate?
2.6 How does the arm give restrictive (cautionary) indications?
2.7 When are coloured lights used?
2.8 How do coloured lights indicate the positions?
2.9 Why do cab signals so important?
2.10 What for is a protective device installed on some railroads?
3 Переведите следующие словосочетания на русский язык
regardless of the weather, belt railway, elevated railway, multiple-track railway, street railway, suburban railway, suspended railway, classification tracks, dispatch track, passing track, marshalling track, track circuit, fail-safe rolling of locomotive, baggage-and-mail car, power-car, testing car, push car, rear-end car, flat car, autonomous car, brake axle, double(single)-arm semaphore.
4 Переведите следующие предложения на английский язык
4.1 Известно, что семафор раньше был самым распространенным
4.2 Железнодорожные сигналы устанавливаются с определенной
4.3 Мы знаем, что световые сигналы (красный, зеленый, желтый) дают
указания в ночное время.
4.4 Сейчас, как известно, многие сигналы являются автоматическими.
4.5 Известно, что локомотивы на некоторых железных дорогах
оборудованы аппаратурой, расположенной в кабине, которая даёт
машинисту такие же сигналы, как и те, что дают сигналы путевые (на
4.6 Предохранительное устройство, установленное на некоторых
железных дорогах, дает возможность применять автоматические
тормоза для остановки поезда.
4.7 Это устройство называется скоростная авторегулировка.
4.8 Известно, что раньше сигналы подавались вручную станционными
5 Определить функции инфинитива в следующих предложениях и переведите их на русский язык
5.1 It is known that a signal to be utilized by day is substituted by coloured lights at night.
5.2 A dispatcher had to control train movements over a section of track.
5.3 The terms of the reconstruction work to be carried out are given below.
5.4 The most difficult task for engineers to decide before beginning to build any railroad is to find a proper strip of land for this purpose.
5.5 The engineers wanted cab signals to be located in the locomotive cab.
5.6 The railroad engineers are said to be improving a protective device on the locomotives.
5.7 The efficiency coefficient of electric locomotives is stated to be much higher than of steam locomotives.
5.8 That railroad seems to have been the first in the world.
5.9 The coloured light is changed to put the signal into a restrictive position.
5.10 It was very important to install the block signals on all the railroads.
5.11 The system may be further developed to include control of the brakes to attain optimal braking effect.
5.12 Special signals to be installed along railroads will help enginemen to drive trains without accidents.
In a television system two separate transmitters are employed – one for the sound channel and the other for the picture channel. The sound transmitter is frequency-modulated and simultaneously transmitters the sound whish accompanies the image. Each transmitter has its own antenna.
The image being televised is received by the television camera whish converts electrical impulses into optical impulses. These electrical impulses are amplified by the video or picture amplifier. After proper amplification, the video signal modulates the high-frequency carrier of the television transmitter and is radiated into space by the aerial. The picture carried is amplitude-modulated. The antenna receives both modulated sound signals that are transmitted on carriers. The carriers differ in frequency so that are transmitted on carriers. The carries differ in frequency so that they may be separated in the receiver. The signals are passed to the radio frequency selector by means of which the necessary station is tuned in. The frequency-modulated signals of the sound channel and the amplitude-modulated signals of the video channel pass from the converter. These signal are amplified and separated by the circuit blocks. They reach the loud-speaker and the kinescope, respectively.
1 Прочитайте и переведите следующие словосочетания
sound channel, picture channel, television system, optical image, video amplifier, picture carrier, high frequency carrier, frequency modulated transmitter, low-frequency carrier, video-frequency carrier; proper amplification, radio-guided, ground-guided, air-controlled, radio-controlled, wire-controlled, wire-guided.
2 Слова для активизации
channel, frequency, carrier, to modulate, to tune in, to amplify, amplifier, video, optical, to convert.
3 Вопросы по тексту
3.1 What transmitters are employed in a television system?
3.2 What transmitter transmits the sound?
3.3 What accompanies the image?
3.4 What is the image received by?
3.5What part of the system converts electrical impulses into optical
3.6 What part of the system amplifies electrical impulses?
3.7 What does the video-signal modulate?
3.8 By what element of the system is the video signal radiated into space?
3.9 What signals does the antenna receive?
3.10 Where are these signals transmitted on?
3.11 Are the carriers alike in frequency?
3.12 Where are the signals passed?
3.13 How is the necessary station tuned in?
3.14 Where do the signals of the sound channel and the signals of the video
channel pass from?
3.15 What are these signals amplified and separated?
4 Переведите предложения, выразите своё согласие или несогласие с
4.1 In a television system …
two transmitters are employed;
the sound accompanies the image;
optical image is converted into impulses;
proper amplification is necessary.
4.2 The video signal …
modulates the high-frequency carrier;
is radiated into space;
is radiated by the aerial.
4.3 The video amplifier amplifies electrical impulses.
4.4 The sound transmitter is frequency-modulated. The frequency-modulated
sound transmitter is in use.
4.5 The picture carrier is amplitude modulated. The amplitude-modulated
picture carrier is in use.
5 Дайте английские эквиваленты русских слов в скобках
5.1A television system (использует) а (звуковой) channel and a picture
5.2 Optical (образ) is converted by the television camera.
5.3 The video signal modulates the high-frequency (несущая).
5.4 The necessary station is (настраивается) in by the radio frequency selector.
5.5 The picture and the sound are (передаются) (одновременно).
5.6 These signals are (усиливаются) and (разделяются) by the circuit blocks.
6 Задайте друг другу вопросы, пользуясь следующими косвенными
6.1 Ask him/her how many transmitters are employed in a television system.
6.2 Ask him/her how many antennas the transmitters have.
6.3 Ask him/her how electrical impulses are converted into optical impulses.
6.4 Ask him/her what signals the antenna receives.
6.5 Ask him/her how the necessary station is tuned in.
The Television Transmitter
The Television Receiver
The television transmitter sends out special signals. These signals are
sent out in addition to the picture impulses. The signals synchronize the picture at the receiver with the picture picked up by the camera.
At the television receiver, the picture and audio signals are picked up simultaneously by a signal antenna. The voltages induced in the receiver; and the picture carrier and the sound carrier are converted by syperheterodyne conversion method into two separate intermediate frequency signals. One signal corresponds to the sound carrier and the other – to the video or picture carrier. Two separate intermediate frequency amplifier channels are employed, one for the picture signal and the other for the sound signal. The sound intermediate frequency signal is demodulated by a detector. After proper amplification by the audio amplifier, the sound signal is reproduced by the loudspeaker in the usual way. The picture intermediate frequency signal is amplified by several stages having wide-band frequency characteristics and is then fed into the video (picture) detector, where the intermediate frequency signal is the demodulated. The video (picture) signal which appear in the output of the detector is then amplified in a video amplifier , which corresponds to the audio amplifier in a sound receiver. Only it must pass a much wider range of frequencies.
The television receiver includes tube circuits for receiving, amplifying,
and synchronizing the signal, and a large cathode-ray tube called a kinescope. It converts the video impulses from the transmitting station into luminous spots on a fluorescent screen. In the kinescope the amplified video signals are applied to the grid, and trough it control the intensity of the electron beam.
1 Прочитайте и переведите следующие словосочетания
video impulses; video amplifier; audio amplifier; radio frequency stage;
detector output; picture and audio signals; picture and sound carrier; high- and
low-frequency signals; separate intermediate frequency signals; separate
intermediate frequency amplifier channels.
2 Слова для активации
to synchronize, to pick up, to feed, to correspond, to modulate, to
demodulate, to reproduce, to separate, to induce, single, conversion, wide-band,
output, grid, beam, spot, stage, luminous, fluorescent.
3 Сравните значения этих словосочетаний
3.1 super heterodyne conversion method – conversion method;
3.2 frequency signal – sound intermediate frequency signal;
3.3 wide band – wide-band frequency characteristics.
4 Прочитайте, переведите и выразите своё согласие или несогласие со
4.1 A television receiver includes tube circuits for receiving, amplifying and
4.2 A single antenna picks up the picture and audio signals.
4.3 Intermediate frequency signals correspond to the sound carrier and the
4.4 Video signals appear in the output of the detector.
5 Дайте английский эквиваленты русских слов в скобках
5.1 A (единая) antenna is used in the television (приёмнике).
5.2 The picture (несущая) and the sound (несущая) are converted into two
5.3 One of these signals (соответствует) the video carrier.
5.4 The video signals (появляются) in the output of the detector.
5.5 The television receiver (включает) tube circuits for (приёма), (усиления)
and (синхронизации) the signals.
5.7 The television receiver (превращает) the video impulses from the
(передающей станции) into (флюоресцирующем) spots on a () screen.
6.1What signals does the television transmitter send out?
6.2 What kind of signals are picked up simultaneously by a single antenna?
6.3 Where are they picked up?
6.4 What kind of carriers are converted by super heterodyne conversion
6.5 What are these carriers separated into?
6.6 How many intermediate frequency amplifier channels are employed?
6.7 What are these channels used for?
6.8 How many stages amplify the picture intermediate frequency signal?
6.9 When is the intermediate frequency signal demodulated?
6.10 Where is the video signal amplified?
6.11 What does the television receiver include?
6.12 What does the television receiver do with the video impulses?
Colour television is the transmission and reception of images in the full colour. The colour television system can produce programs both in colour on colour receivers and in black and white on monochrome receivers. Also, colour receivers receive monochrome pictures when they are being transmitted.
Colour transmission contains two basic components – brightness information and colour information.
Red, green and blue are the colours that are chosen for colour television.
In a colour camera an optical system separates the red, green, and blue image components of a picture and concentrates these three components in separate but identical colour camera tubes.
Thus, the output of one tube reacts to the red light image, another – to the green, and another – to the blue light image.
In a monochrome kinescope a single electron gun produces an electron beam. The brightness is controlled by an electron grid, which changes the electron beam density.
In a colour kinescope three electron guns produce three electron beams which are synchronized. The intensities of the beam are controlled by the voltage corresponding to the green, red and blue components respectively of the colour picture.
In a colour receiver the incoming signal goes through frequency and amplitude selective circuits. In these circuits the brightness component, the colour component and the horizontal and vertical beam-synchronizing components are separated. The brightness component is applied simultaneously to each of the three electron guns. The red, green and blue colour signal voltage components are obtained and are applied to the three respective kinescope electron guns. They combine with the brightness components voltage to produce beam intensities which reproduce the original picture.
1 Прочитайте и переведите следующие словосочетания
1.1 colour information; monochrome television; beam density; identical tubes; beam intensity; red image components; blue image components; green image components; red light image; brightness information; electron gun; electron beam; identical camera tubes; beam intensity control; red, green, and blue image components of a picture; electron beam density; identical colour camera tubes.
1.2 frequency selective circuits; amplitude selective circuits; frequency and amplitude selective circuits; brightness components; vertical beam-synchronizing components; brightness and colour components; horizontal and vertical beam synchronizing components.
2 Слова для активизации
colour, identical, incoming, selective, original, horizontal, vertical, reception,
monochrome, gun, intensity, density, brightness.
3 Произведите анализ сложных предложений в тексте, найдите
придаточные предложения и определите их функцию
4 Вопросы к тексту
4.1 What is colour television?
4.2 What programs can the colour television system produce?
4.3 Can colour receivers receive monochrome pictures?
4.4 What basic components does colour transmission contain?
4.5 What are the colours for colour television?
4.6 What does an optical system of a colour camera do?
4.7 What components does an optical system separate in a colour camera?
4.8 How many components does an optical system concentrate?
4.9 What components changes the electron beam density?
4.10 How do the output of identical colour camera tubes react to the light
4.11 How many electron guns are there in a monochrome kinescope?
4.12 How is the brightness in a monochrome kinescope controlled?
4.13 How many electron guns are there in a colour kinescope?
4.14 How many electron beams are produced by electron guns in a colour
4.15 How are the intensities of the beam controlled?
4.16 What circuits does the incoming signal go through?
4.17 What components are separated in the colour receiver?
4.18 What colour components are obtained in the receiver?
4.19 To what parts of the kinescope are these components applied?
4.20 With what component do they combine?
4.21 What images does a monochrome receiver receive?
4.22 What images does a colour receiver receive?
5 Дайте английские эквиваленты русских слов в скобках
5.1 Colour transmission (содержит) two basic components.
5.2 (Выход) of one tube reacts to the red light image.
5.3 The electron grid changes the electron beam (плотность).
5.4 An electron (пушка) produces an electron (луч).
5.5 The voltage (соответствует) the green, red and blue components of the
5.6 An optical system (отделяет) the red, green, and blue image components of
a picture and (сосредотачивает) these three components in (отдельный) but
(тождественный) colour camera tubes.
6 Переведите предложения, выразите своё согласие или несогласие с
6.1 Colour television contains …
brightness information and colour information;
identical camera tubes.
6.2 The output of the tubes reacts to the colour image.
6.3 An electron gun produces an electron beam.
6.4 The beam intensities are controlled by the voltage corresponding to the
green, red, and blue components, respectively.
6.5 The frequency and amplitude selective circuits …
receive the incoming signals;
separate the horizontal and vertical beam-synchronizing components.
6.6 The red, green, and blue signal voltage components …
are applied to the three respective electron guns;
combine with the brightness components voltage.
A Dialogue about Colour Television
Question : Can colour television signal be transmitted over the same distances as monochrome pictures?
Answer : Yes, the radio-frequency carrier frequencies in colour television transmission are the same as in black-and-white transmission. Colour video information in the characteristics of the television receiver.
Q : Does the colour television receiver require more servicing than the monochrome receiver?
A : Yes. There are more tubes and a great many more components used in the colour television receiver. The greater the number of components, the better the operational characteristics of the device. This is true of any device with a greater number of parts than another of identical character.
Q : Can monochrome television receivers be converted to receive colour broadcasts?
A : Practically speaking no. To convert a black-and-white receiver would require many special components since the colour tube and its auxiliary parts are very special. A special chassis for the additional parts would be necessary, plus additional tubes for the colour circuits plus 100 or so components.
Q : Does the colour television receiver consume more electrical power than the black-and-white receiver?
A : Yes, about one and a half times as mush power. It is logical that it should consume more electrical power because it contains more receiving tubes and circuits. The power consumption of a colour television receiver is between 300 and 400 watts, with from 150 to 250 watts consumption for a black-and-white unit. Colour images have some advantages which monochrome images do not have.
Q : Does a colour TV receiver require a special antenna or other elements as a part of the installation?
A : No. The colour television receiver parts are interchangeable with these of the monochrome television receiver installation now in use. The antenna used with a monochrome television receiver will be usable with the colour receiver, providing that the station or stations transmitting colour programs are the same as those which are transmitting monochrome pictures. If the colour receiver is to be used for the reception of a colour transmission from an ultra-high-frequency station and the monochrome receiver is to be used to receive programs from a very high-frequency station, an ultra-high-frequency antenna will be required. There are no such things as antennas specially designed for colour television reception.
Q : Does the colour television receiver reproduce monochrome transmissions?
A : Yes, it does, provided that the colour television receiver is tuned to the frequency of the monochrome transmitter.
Q : Is the colour receiver more complicated for operation than the black-and-white receiver?
A : Yes. The colour receiver is much more complicated for operation than the black-and-white receiver.
1 Прочитайте и переведите следующие словосочетания
television transmitter; colour television transmitter; colour video information; main parts; auxiliary parts; additional parts; special parts; television installation; monochrome television receivers; colour television receiver installation; ultra-high-frequency station; power consumption; colour images; monochrome images; a television screen; a television receiver picture tube screen; colour television; colour television signal.
2 Задайте вопросы к следующим предложениям
2.1Colour television was invented in 1952. (What? When? )
2.2 The red, green, and blue colour components are applied to the three
kinescope receiver electron guns. (What? Where? )
2.3 The colour television receiver consumes more electrical power than the
black-and-white receiver because it contains more receiving tubes and circuits.
(What? Why? )
3 Переведите, выразите своё согласие или несогласие со следующими
3.1 The colour television receiver installation …
requires more servicing than the monochrome television receiver installation.
consumes one and a half times as mush power as the monochrome television
has some components interchangeable with those of monochrome television
3.2 The colour television receiver installation reproduces monochrome
transmissions provided that it is tuned to the frequency of the monochrome
1. И.К. Берлина, М.Г Помпа Учебник английского языка. Москва, 1980.
2. Р.Ф. Пронина Перевод английской научно - технической
литературы. Москва, 1986.
3. С.А. Хоменко Tests in the use of technical English. Минск, 2003.
Сводный план 2005г., поз. 38
Умит Жунусбековна Жумабекова
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