АЛМАТИНСКИЙ ИНСТИТУТ ЭНЕРГЕТИКИ И СВЯЗИ
Кафедра иностранных языков
Особенности грамматики для чтения технических текстов
СОСТАВИТЕЛИ: Л.Я. Коробейникова, С.Б. Бухина. Английский язык. Особенности грамматики для чтения технических текстов. Методические указания. – Алматы: АИЭС, 2005. – 43с.
В методических указаниях рассматриваются основы перевода, грамматические и лексические трудности перевода научно-технической литературы с английского языка на русский.
Методические указания предназначаются для студентов радиотехнического направления, занимающихся техническим переводом.
Рецензент: ст. преподаватель кафедры иностранных языков
Печатается по плану издания Алматинского института энергетики и связи на 2005 г.
© Алматинский институт энергетики и связи, 2005 г.
1 Unit 1
Text. Seven Rays, One Family
Грамматические основы перевода, упражнения.
Перевод сказуемого группы Indefinite, Continuous (Active and Passive)
Перевод разных случаев употребления многофункционального глагола “to be”
Лексические основы перевода, упражнения.
Перевод терминов типа: «существительное + существительное».
Перевод существительных с суффиксами -ity, -ness, -ance, -ancy, -ence, -ency, -age.
Read the title of the following text. Can you guess what the text might be about?
Study the text . Try to understand all details. Use a dictionary if necessary:
1.1 Text. Seven Rays, One Family
1. "Isn't it a small world."1 You have probably heard this exclamation many times. People often say it when they find that acquaintances they had met at different times and places, and whom they never connected with each other, turn out to be related to each other. Scientists often have a similar experience with occurrences in nature2. Things or events that at first seem to have nothing to do with3 each other turn out to be related after all. We shall repeat this experience with seven kinds of rays. We find them in different places, and use them in different ways, but they are close relatives. They are members of one family, the family of electromagnetic waves.
2. The kind of ray that mankind has known for the longest time is light. It helps us see the objects that surround us, when the objects reflect the light into our eyes. Because our eyes can detect light, we call it a visible ray. The other rays are invisible.
3. We find three types of invisible rays in use in our homes. When we listen to a radio program, we are using the rays that are called radio waves. When we cook a meal on an electric cooker, we are using infrared rays, sometimes referred to as heat rays. When we sit under a sun-tan lamp, we are using ultraviolet rays. We meet the other three types of rays outside the home. Inside the hospital we shall find X-rays, produced by X-rays machines, and used for taking pictures of the insides of our bodies. At airports everywhere we shall find microwaves used with radar equipment to detect planes in the air, or guide them in to land. Also in hospitals we find gamma rays used as invisible bullets to kill cancer cells.
4. These seven types of rays resemble each other in that they are all electromagnetic waves. What makes them different from each other is their frequency or their wavelength. The distance that the wave moves during the time it takes for one complete cycle of vibration is called the wavelength of the wave. The frequency is the number of cycles in a second. Notice that radio waves are the longest of the electromagnetic waves and have the lowest frequency.
1.2 Memorize the words:
exclamation — восклицание, to be related to — иметь отношение к… have similar experience — иметь подобный опыт, to have nothing to do with — не иметь ничего общего с …, to turn out — оказываться, after all — в конечном счете, to refer to — ссылаться; называть, sun-tan lamp — лампа для загара, to guide — направлять, вести, bullet — пуля, cancer — рак, раковая опухоль, to resemble — иметь сходство; напоминать, complete — полный, законченный.
- Isn't it a small world — мир тесен
- occurences in nature — явления в природе
- things or events that at first seem to have nothing to do with ... — предметы или события, которые, как кажется на первый взгляд, ничего не имеют общего ...
1.3 Tasks to the text:
1.3.1 Find the information explaining why we call light a visible ray.
1.3.2 Name the types of visible rays we find in use: a) in our homes; b) outside the home.
1.3.3 Say briefly what each paragraph is about.
1.4 Grammar exercises
1.4.1 Define the parts of the following simple sentences. Translate the sentences into Russian:
1. In the first year the students have many general subjects. 2. This article is about the story of radio. 3. She began to translate the text yesterday. 4. Every student is present at the lecture today. 5. The methods of radio engineering are now used in various fields of science and technology. 6. There are thousands of radio amateurs in our country. 7. One cannot read such articles without a dictionary. 8. It is necessary to help him. 9, We usually take measurements with great accuracy. 10. It becomes cold in autumn. 11. There were many explanations of the phenomenon of light. 12. In January it snowed all the time. 13. Several types of microphones are in wide use now. 14. Nobody could solve this problem. 15. One may determine the wave frequency. 16. Let us take part in the expedition. 17. To read is necessary. 18. Energy is the ability to work. 19. By reading English books we increase our vocabulary. 20. They offered me some interesting work. 21. There exist various types of radio receivers. 22. Every day at 8 o'clock in the morning the students come to the Institute.
1.4.2 Define the tense-forms of the verbs in the following sentences and translate them:
1. Yesterday the students of our group came to help me with mathematics. 2. Our scientists will further develop various kinds of computers. 3. Radio waves are the longest members of the family of electromagnetic waves. 4. Where did the first international conference on radio take place? 5. Modern orbital stations weigh up to 20 tons. 6. If you work much, you will get good results. 7. My friend does not like sports. 8. Will you go to the library tomorrow? 9. When the lectures are over, we shall go to the reading hall. 10. We shall meet tomorrow at the same place. 11. According to the time-table, the train arrives at half past eight. 12. I left school three years ago. 13. I completely agree with your opinion. 14. She not only sings, she plays the guitar as well. 15. You found the lost book, didn't you? 16. He spoke to me in a very friendly way. 17. Which part of the concert did you like most? 18. It was so warm yesterday that we decided to go to the river. 19. She speaks English well. 20. Electricity cables stretch over the fields. 21. We shall not leave home until you come. 22. She never listens to the advice I give her.
1.4.3 Translate the following sentences into Russian:
1. He will give you the book when you need it. 2. If we put water into a tube, it will take the shape of the tube. 3. I'll solve this equation if you help me. 4. Unless it is too late, we shall go there. 5. The circle will become an ellipse after you compress it. 6. We shall use this substance in the experiment provided it has the necessary properties. 7. As soon as you return from the lab, we'll begin our work. 8. I won't be able to explain this phenomenon if I do not analyze all the data. 9. Your experiment will not give good results until you change the speed of the reaction. 10. My friend will translate the text if you give him your dictionary. 11. I shall do it if it is necessary. 12. If he concentrates his attention on his studies, he will pass his exams successfully.
1.4.4 Translate the sentences into Russian. Pay attention to the verbs in the Indefinite Passive:
1. Sounds are produced by the vibration of matter, 2. The translation from one language into another will soon be performed by the computers. 3. Waves are carried in all directions from the vibrating body. 4. The first-year students are not taught special subjects. 5. Many problems of great interest are discussed at our seminars. 6. A lot of us were invited to the conference. 7. The methods of radio engineering are now applied in various fields of science and technology. 8. The agreement was signed ten years ago. 9. The research will be carried out over a period of four months. 10. Much attention is given to the development of radio engineering. 11. Lasers are now used for many scientific, medical and industrial purposes. 12. The laboratories of our Institute are equipped with modern devices. 13. The results of these experiments will be published in a scientific journal. 14. The importance of sport is known to everybody. 15. We were provided with the necessary literature. 16. The equations were solved by the machine. 17. The young scientist was invited to take part in the conference.
1.4.5 Say the following sentences in the Indefinite Passive. Use the underlined words as the subjects of your sentences:
Example: Scientists use crystals in electronic devices. -
Crystals are used by scientists in electronic devices.
1. Scientists developed several types of lasers. 2. I shall inform you about the new discovery. 3. Solar batteries generate electricity. 4. The researcher carries out the experiments at high temperatures. 5. You always make the same mistakes. 6. He will bring the book next time. 7. Radio employs electrical energy to transmit sounds, images and signals. 8. The lecturer spoke about the latest works in the sphere of radioelectronics. 9. He showed me the articles from the latest magazine. 10. Mendeleyev presented his table in 1869. 11. New data will support the results of our research. 12. These devices distribute the electric energy. 13. Heat converts ice into water. 14. A.S.Popov invented the first radio receiver. 15. The engineer will check the apparatus in the lab. 16. Their laboratory occupies a separate part of the building. 19. Radio devices perform various communication tasks. 18. We use such devices for amplification of radio signals.
1.4.6 Define the tense-forms of the verbs in the following sentences. Translate the sentences into Russian:
1. Our scientists are using the energy of atom in various spheres of life. 2. The engineers were attaching the wires to the devices when I came in. 3. At present they are studying various aspects of this problem. 4. When we listen to a radio program we are using the rays that are called radio waves. 5. The scientist was solving a new problem when we visited his laboratory last week. 6. What is she doing this week? 7. John was reading a book when I came to see him. 8. My friend is writing an article for the newspaper. 9. The student was carrying out this experiment for twenty minutes. 10. The plane was flying over the USA. 11. I'm working too hard this year. 12. Molecules in a gas are constantly moving. 13. The electron is circling in an orbit around a nucleus.
1.4.7 Read the following sentences and say which of them are in the Active and which are in the Passive Voice. Translate them into Russian:
1. While the experiment was being carried out nobody left the laboratory. 2. A new type of computing equipment is being produced at our plant. 3. At present scientific work is being done mostly by large groups of researchers. 4. The apparatus will be working when you come. 5. The scientists who are carrying out research into nuclear physics deal with the most difficult problems. 6. For twenty minutes the air in the laboratory was being purified by two ventilators. 7. The solar battery is converting the energy of sun rays directly into electric energy. 8. This experiment was being carried out under low pressure. 9. For a long time the electronic devices were being used for control.10. An interesting research in the field of electronics is being done at our Institute. 11. Prospects of the usage of solar energy are already understood by everybody. 12. Now solar energy is being studied by a lot of research groups. 13. Scientists and engineers are developing new types of electronic and cybernetic devices. 14. We were looking for a more simple method of solution but could not find it. 15. The engineers will discuss the advantages of this new system. 16. Our laboratory is housed in an old building.
1.4.8 Translate the following word-groups. Pay attention to the tense-forms of the predicates:
the problem occupied; the century began; they are obtaining; the scientists understood; the satellite was on its orbit; the property depended; the program is being broadcast; the physicist was searching; a new radio set was demonstrated; the elements constituted; the man thought; new results are being obtained; the chemist wrote; the discovery established; the particle became; the scientist was applying; the point of view differed; the engineer is measuring; the concept explains; the idea was supported; the particle will be divided; the phenomenon was explained; astronomy is studying; the telescope is built; the power plants were being controlled; the observation shows; the energy was converted; the data will be checked.
1.4.9 Analyze the functions of the verb “ to be”. Translate the sentences into Russian:
1. The results of the experiment are of great importance for our further work. 2. There are no chemical plants in our town. 3. The substance that we are speaking about is water. 4. We are to translate technical literature in the second year. 5. It was the study of natural phenomena that made it possible to formulate various laws. 6. Probably the most important use of electircity in the modern house is producing light. 7. Technical progress is now impossible without high-quality materials. 8. Electronics is being used more and more throughout the industry. 9. The electron is a particle. 10. The machine is of five parts. 11. Our task is to finish the test by 7 o'clock. 12. Radio was invented by a talented Russian scientist A.S.Popov. 13. Words in a dictionary are in alphabetical order. 14. Smoking is dangerous. 15. The temperature is three degrees above zero. 16. My friends are mostly students. 17. It is the only positive solution. 18. The British are very proud of their sense of humour. 19. This scientific discovery was the result of six years' research. 20. Our aim is to accomplish this task as soon as possible. 21. He will be an engineer in two years. 22. Their house is in the middle of the village.
1.5 Lexical exercises
1.5.1 Match up the words which are similar in meaning:
purpose, in the sphere of, to make, important, aim, proper, common, to work out, to vary, time, in the field of, significant, ray, to define, to operate, to develop, to differ, to show, method, to function, to demonstrate, technique, device, to determine, standard, to produce, suitable, beam, period, instrument.
1.5.2 Translate the terms (noun+noun) into Russian:
Pattern: acceleration factor
чего? ---- Коэффициент
Русский термин: коэффициент ускорения.
I. picture tube 5. range finder
2. antenna gain 6. fire adjustment
3. wind tunnel 7. water space
4. peak energy 8. load capacity
1.5.3 Form nouns using the suffixes and translate them into Russian:
-ity: equal, human, activ(e), relativ(e), productiv(e)
-ness: thick, black, great, rough
-ence: differ(ent), depend(ent), pres(ent)
-ency: effici(ent), depend(ent)
-age: us(e), pass, break, leak
1.5.4 Read the words and say what suffixes they have and what parts of speech they belong to:
use, useful, usefulness; invent, inventor, invention; transmit, transmitter, transmission; work, worker; special, speciality, specialist; practice, practical; contain, container; lecture, lecturer; create, creative, creation; accelerate, acceleration, accelerator; determine, determination; proper, properly, property; science, scientific, scientist; discover, discovery, discoverer; important, importance; react, reaction, reactor, reactivity; arrange, arrangement; capable, capability; apply, application.
2 Unit 2
Text. The Social History of Television as a Technology
Грамматические основы перевода, упражнения.
Перевод сказуемого группы Perfect, Perfect Continuous (Active and Passive)
Перевод разных случаев употребления многофункционального глагола “to have”
Перевод предложений страдательного залога.
Перевод разных значений служебных слов since; as, as well.
Лексические основы перевода, упражнения.
Перевод терминов типа: причастие I + существительное.
Перевод прилагательных с суффиксами -ic, -al, -ful и др.
2.1 Study the text. Try to understand all details. Use a dictionary if necessary:
The Social History of Television as a Technology
1. It is often said that television has altered our world. The invention of television was no single event or series of events. It depended on a complex of inventions and developments in electricity, telegraphy, photography and motion pictures1, and radio. It can be said to have separated out as a specific technological objective in the period 1875-1890, and then, after a lag, to have developed as a specific technological enterprise from 1920 through to the first public television systems of the 1930s. Yet in each of these stages it depended on inventions made with other ends in view2.
2. Television, as an idea, was involved with many of these inventions. It is difficult to separate it, in its earliest stages, from phototelegraphy. The means of transmitting still pictures and moving pictures were actively sought and to a considerable extent discovered. The list is long even when selective3: Carey's electric eye in 1875, Nipkow's scanning system in 1884; Braun's cathode-ray tube in 1897; Rosing's cathode-ray receiver in 1907.
3. Through this whole period two facts are evident: that a system of television was foreseen, and its means were being actively sought4, but also that, by comparison with electrical generation and electrical telegraphy and telephony, there was very little social investment to bring the scattered work together5. In 1923 Zworykin introduced the electronic television camera tube. Through the early 1920s Baird and Len-kins, separately and competitively, were working on systems using mechanical scanning. There was great rivalry between systems and there is still great controversy about contributions and priorities6.
4.What is interesting throughout is that in a number of complex and related fields, these systems of mobility and transfer in production and communication were at once incentives and responses within a phase of general social transformation. The decisive transformation of industrial production and its new social forms created new needs but also new possibilities, and the communications systems, down to television7, were their outcome.
it is often said — часто говорят, to a considerable extent — в значительной степени, by comparison with — по сравнению с, objective — цель, задача, lag — отставание , still — неподвижный, to foresee (foresaw, foreseen) — предвидеть, means — средство, способ, investment — вклад, competitively — в соревновании, путем соперничества, rivalry — соперничество,
incentive — стимул, мотив, response — реакция, отклик, to create new needs and possibilities — создавать новые потребности и возможности, outcome — результат.
1. Motion pictures — кино
2. With other ends in view — с другими целями
3. The list is long even when selective — список длинный, даже если он сделан выборочно
4. Its means were being actively sought — шли активные поиски средств
5. To bring the scattered work together — соединить разрешенные работы вместе
6. There is still controversy about contributions and priorities — все еще идет полемика по поводу степени участия и приоритета
7. Down to television — вплоть до телевидения
2.2 Say whether the following statements are true or false:
1. The invention of television was no single event or series of events. 2. In each of the* stages the development of television depended on inventions made with other ends in view. 3. It is not difficult to separate television, in its earliest stages, from phototelegraphy. 4. The means of transmitting still pictures and moving pictures were discovered. 5. There was great rivalry between systems, but there is no controversy about contributions and priorities. 6. The decisive transformation of industrial production created new needs and possibilities.
2.3 Answer the questions on paragraph 1:
1. Has television altered our world? 2. Did the invention of television depend on a complex of inventions and developments in other fields of science? 3. Television has developed as a specific technological enterprise, hasn't it?
2.4 Find the information dealing with scientists'contribution to the development of television. Say it to your group-mate.
2.5 Grammar exercises
2.5.1 Define the tense-forms of the verbs in the following sentences. Translate them into Russian:
I have just turned the radio on. 2. Have you listened to the news? 3. He understood the text after he had read it again. 4. I have read this book three times. 5. He has never been abroad. 6. He has already seen this film. 7. Have you ever been to Saint Petersburg? 8. He had finished his work by 5 o'clock yesterday. 9. The technician will have recorded the data before you come. 10. I have not seen him since he graduated from the Institute. 11. We shall have completed our experiments by the end of the week. 12. My friend had prepared his report before we spoke to you. 13. Electronics has made a rapid progress. 14. He had published his article by the end of the month. 15. We've played lots of matches this season, but we haven't won many. 16. She has spent a great deal of time in the library. 17. They'll have finished their work by lunchtime. 18. Have you read anything interesting lately? 19. They've probably forgotten the time. 20. They have accepted the scientist's suggestion. 21. Moscow Radio has been transmitting its programs to other countries since the thirties. 22. We had been conducting this experiment for two hours before you came. 23. It has been two hours before you came. 23. When she arrived, I had been waiting for her for half an hour. 24. It has been raining since two o'clock.
2.5.2Translate the following sentences into Russian paying attention to the predicates in the Perfect Passive:
1.This theory has been used for analysing the experimental data. 2. In my opinion this result has not been proved by anybody. 3. The apparatus used in our research has been described recently. 4. We must compare our data with those that have been obtained by other investigators. 5. Many difficulties had been overcome before the researcher succeeded in his work. 6. After the new device had been tested it was installed in our laboratory. 7. The construction of this television centre will have been completed by the end of the next year. 8. In our country great progress has been achieved in developing all branches of science and engineering. 9. Many different devices have been created in order to improve the performance of communications, 10. The information has been based on the data received from a computer. 11. Much research has been carried out in order to establish the causes of this phenomenon. 12. This question has already been discussed at the conference. 13. By the end of the year a large variety of semiconductor devices will have been produced. 14. This equipment had been repaired before you came. 15. This text has just been translated. 16. Mendeleyev's periodic law has been accepted as a universal law of nature
2.5.3 Translate the following word-groups into Russian, pay attention to the tense-forms of the verbs:
the scientist has suggested; the motion had been caused; the theory has advanced; the methods have been developed; he has been developing; the progress has been made; the suggestion has been applied; the observation has shown; the question has been solved; the error will have been determined; the point of view has influenced; the chemist has written; the number has exceeded; the energy had been converted; the radio has been transmitting.
2.5.4 Compare the use of the Past Indefinite and the Present Perfect in the following sentences, translate them into Russian:
1. I have written several letters today. I wrote several letters yesterday. 2. They have made a new experiment this week. They made a new experiment last week. 3. She has been to the theatre this month. She went to the theatre last month. 4. Have you ever been to London? Yes, I've been there once. I went there in 1980. 5. Have you ever seen "Hamlet"? Yes, I've seen "Hamlet" several times. I saw it at our theatre three years ago and at Moscow theatres in 1975 and 1980. 6. He has graduated from the Moscow University. He graduated from the Moscow University in 1978. 7. He has seen this film. He saw this film yesterday. 8. He has improved his device; you may use it. He improved his device a week ago. 9. He prepared his report ahead of time. Have you prepared your report? 10. The results of this research were published long ago. My friend has tlready published the results of his discovery.
2.5.5 Define the functions of the verb “ to have “ in the following sentences. Translate them:
1. They have already passed the examination in electrical engineering. 2. Automated systems have a number of advantages. 3. Siberia has now been transformed into a big construction site. 4. Gamma rays have no electric charge. 5. Cosmic television has a great future. 6. He had to work hard to complete his investigation in time. 7. The engineer will have to improve the accuracy of this machine-tool. 8. A new method has been used in order to investigate this problem. 9. I have to do this work now. 10. We had to repeat the experiment. 11. Our planet has powerful sources of energy. 12. You will have to go to the library to get this book. 13. I had to leave early because I wasn't feeling well. 14. We've got a new teacher. 15. She has a lot of character and energy. 16. Yesterday I had a bad headache, 17. She will have many new subjects next term. 18. The scientist had to stop the experiment. 19. Besides literature, we have to study history and philosophy. 20. The electron has almost the same mass as the proton.
2.5.6 Define the meanings of the word “ since” in the following sentences (поскольку; так как; с тех пор как; после, с) Translate them:
1. Color television has been functioning in our country since 1967. 2. More than eighty years have passed since the day when A.S.Popov demonstrated his radio receiver. 3. Many expeditions have been here since then. 4. I've known her since we were children. 5. Since you are here, I may go home. 6. There is no flow of electrons since the electric current is broken. 7. We've lived in three different towns since last year. 9. Since you weren't at the meeting, we took the decision without you. 9. How long is it since you left school? 10. London has been a capital since 1066. 11. Telescopes are being used since their invention. 12. People wished to handle atom since ancient times. 13. It's ages since I saw you last. 14. He left for the Crimea and has been living there since. 15. Since your first letter, we haven't heard from you. 16. Since you have not got anything to read, let's talk.
2.5.7 Translate the following sentences, pay attention to the different functions — as, as well.
1. As the chief engineer is here we shall ask him to examine the instrument. 2. As an engineer you must know all the working processes of your department. 3. Years and decades go by but A.Pushkin is as popular as ever among all readers. 4. By means of television we can see as well as listen to programmes as they take place many kilometres away. 5. This young research worker is an expert in physics and in chemistry as well.
2.5.8 Translate the following sentences, pay attention to the meaning of the word as.
as: 1) так как, 2) в то время как, 3) поскольку, 4) столько — сколько, 5) как, 6) по мере того, как.
1. As the time passed, stone tool were substituted by metal one. 2. There are two kinds of transformations, which are known as physical and chemical changes. 3. The synthetic materials of which the house in made can be relied upon as they are of high quality. 4. Every second the Sun sends into space as much energy as mankind consumed during the whole period of its existence. 5. The outer and inner walls of the house are as thick as 40 centimetres. 6. At present plastics as well as metals are widely used in various branches of industry.
2.6 Lexical exrcises
2.6.1 Translate the terms (Participle I + noun) into Russian.
Pattern: actuating mechanism
приводит в действие
Русский термин: приводной механизм.
1. actuating pressure 5. reacting region
2. actuating cylinder 6. detecting element
3. translating system 7. adding element
4. halving circuit 8. alternating current
2.6.2 Form the Adjectives using suffixes and translate them into Russian.
-ic: period, metr(e), atmospher(e)
-al: physic(s), natur(e), experiment, mathematic(s)
-able: valu(e), change, measur(e), compar(e)
-ant: import, resist
-ent: differ, insist
-ive: effect, act
-ful: help, wonder, use, power
-less: base, help, power, motion, weight.
2.6.3 Match up the words which are opposite in meaning:
to stop, frequently, high, charge, to start, important, first, part, common, rarely, low .complicated, discharge, the whole, quick, transmitter, to heat, unimportant, increase, receiver, to cool, light, decrease, simple, heavy, to begin, slow, special, last, to finish.
3 Unit 3
Text. Ultraviolet and infrared
Грамматические основы перевода, упражнения.
Перевод модальных глаголов и их эквивалентов,
Перевод разных значений служебных слов after, before.
Лексические основы перевода, упражнения.
Перевод конструкций as high as, as low as.
Перевод многокомпонентных терминов типа: наречие + причастие I или прилагательное + существительное.
Перевод слов с суффиксами.
3.1 Study the text. Try to understand all details. Use a dictionary if necessary:
Ultraviolet and infrared
Visible light covers a very small part of the electromagnetic spectrum1. Just above and below the visible light range are ultraviolet and infrared light. The "ultra" in ultraviolet tells us that this light lies at frequencies higher than that of violet light lies; and the "infra" in infrared tells us that this light lies at frequencies lower than red.
Ultraviolet has a shorter, and infrared has longer wave lengths than visible light. The radiations2 were discovered long before anyone thought of electromagnetism. When light was passed through a prism and formed a spectrum on screen, scientists found that heating effect occur beyond the edges of the visible light spectrum.
Ultraviolet radiation produces many effects, some useful and some unpleasant. A certain amount of ultraviolet radiation is good for our health. It helps to form vitamin D in the skin. Ultraviolet light also kills microbes, and for that reason it is used in hospitals and to sterilize food.
Direct ultraviolet radiation is very bad for the eyes. This is one reason why it is dangerous to look directly at the sun. On the other hand, the human eye is quite capable of dealing with normal doses of scattered ultraviolet light3.
Infrared energy is being used in automatic regulation of chemical and biological processes, temperature measurement and control during manufacture of textiles, plastics and metals. New applications are appearing in navigation and aviation, weather research numerous scientific projects.
Other applications for infrared are found in photography aerial mapping4, communications and control techniques. Infrared energy is in use all around us. Infrared techniques are of great value in many industrial applications and are considered indispensable5 in many others. The possibilities of its application appear to be limited only by the imagination and skill of the user.
1. electromagnetic spectrum — спектр электромагнитных волн
2. radiation n — излучение, радиация
3. scattered ultraviolet light — рассеянное ультрафиолетовое излучение
4. photography aerial mapping — аэрофотографирование
5. indispensable — необходимый
3.2 Grammar exercises
3.2.1 Translate the following sentences, pay attention to the Modal Verbs and their equivalents.
1. The designers can always improve the operation of these receivers. 2. He could use any transmitter for this system. 3. The scientists are able to construct a new device by using semiconductors. 4. The designer was able to construct a new device by using semiconductors. 5. The engineers must test a new receiver for using it in this system. 6. We have to increase the current strength by decreasing the resistance of the circuit. 7. For improving the system operation the designer was to use low weight equipment. 8. Because of the electrical neutrality requirement, the space charge is to remain constant. 9. The engineers were to investigate new means of radio
communication. 10. After finishing of the experiment the scientists will have to discuss the results. 11. The students didn't have to conduct experiments in this field of science. 12. They didn't have to analyze these data. 13. We may say that photoelectric properties of transistor are largely used in TV sets. 14. The students might use all the laboratory equipment. 15. The students were allowed to show all the automatic devices. 16. The students will be allowed to conduct this experiment in the laboratory.
3.2.2 Translate the following sentences and explain the using the Modal Verbs.
1. Can you tell the time? 2. Can you speak English? 3. You can take this picture if you like it. 4. He can hardly have meant that. 5. He was not able to get there in time. 6.I shall be able to come on Saturday. 7. May I ask a question? 8. May I trouble you to explain me this problem? 9. Maybe he will help you. 10.I put on my raincoat because I thought it might rain. 11. Smoking is not allowed here. 12. I am afraid the teacher will not allow me to rewrite the composition. 13.I must get up early every day. 14. He must be ill. 15. He must be somewhere here. 16. To make the air hot enough the Diesel engine has to use higher pressure than the petrol engine.
3.2.3 Use the equivalents instead of the Modal Verbs and translate the sentences.
1. People cannot see well in the evening; in order to see well they must light a lamp. 2. You may come in and sit down. 3. My friend must go to a resthome in summer: then he will be strong again.
1. We cannot see many stars without a telescope because they are very far from us. 2. Many stars are very far from us, therefore we cannot see them without a telescope. 3. In order to see certain stars we must use a telescope. 4. Mercury is the closest planet to the Sun that is why it may receive more heat and light than any other planet.
3.2.4 Translate the following sentences, pay attention to the meaning words “before, after”
1. Before discovery of the structure of atomic nuclei, it was thought that there existed two general types of forces explaining all natural phenomena: electrical and gravitational forces. 2. The word "helium" come from the Greek word "sun" because element was discovered in the sun before it was discovered on the earth. 3. After it became clear that some mistake had been made in the calculation, the experiment was stopped. 4. After a period of discharge the battery can be restored to its original condition by supplying energy to it from an outside source. 5. For days or weeks after the reactor has been turned off, the radiation intensity is so great inside that repairs there are never attempted.
3.2.5 Translate the following sentences, pay attention to the meaning of words “before, after”
1. After another stage of the amplification the current is strong enough to operate the powerful loudspeaker. 2. After the blast furnace the molten iron is poured into the conductor. 3. After the nuclei have been broken up because of instability they give rise to heat. 4. Starting from zero, alternating current grows in one direction, reaches a maximum, decreases to zero, after which it rises in the opposite direction, reaches a maximum, again decreases to zero. 5. The direction of the air, after it leaves a symmetrical body, is the same as before it struck the body. 6 After all the ice has been melted, the temperature will again begin rising.
1.Some scientific theories existed very many years before they were proved to be true or false. 2. Before the diaphragm can move back, however, the next pulse enters the electro-magnet coil and the diaphragm is pulled a little closer. 3. The problem therefore is to devise a system that will build up the signal before it reaches the detector. 4. Before the war the Dnieper power station generated twice as much electrical energy a year as all the power-stations of tsarist Russia taken together. 5. Before going further let us be sure we understand the making of a graph. 6. Before Tziolkovsky no one ever considered interplanetary navigation to be within the compass of modern technical means.
3.2.6 Translate into Russian the following text and find the Predicates in Passive.
Electromagnetic waves is the super high frequency range, that is waves of between about 1 and 10 centimeters in length, are reflected by large solid object in much the same manner as light. They are however, able to travel greater distances than light in the Earth's atmosphere, because they are not reflected or diffused by small dust particles in the atmosphere. If, therefore, a transmitter sends out a beam of these centimetric waves, an adjacent receiver can be make to pick up any of the beam that is reflected back by a large solid object. In this way distant object that are not visible by light can be located. By suitable scanning arrangements, the position and shape of the object can be outlined on a cathode ray tube. Thus, electromagnetic waves of these frequencies, which are called radar frequencies, provide a method of "seeing" in the dark or in the fog.
3.2.7 Translate the following sentences, pay attention to the traslation "should, would, could, might + Infinitive".
1. Without electronic equipment space flights would be impossible. 2. It is required that natural piezo [pai'izou] electric crystals of quartz should be used in radio broadcasting transmitters. 3. Without quantum electronics these instruments could not be developed. 4. Modern complex controls can perform functions which man would not be able to carry out. 5. The engineer suggested this photographic cell should be used for measuring temperature. 6. Everything might have been solved long ago.
3.3 Lexical exercises
3.3.1 Translate the following word-combinations.
At a great height; at the height of 3 miles; a thick layer; a thin semiconductor layer; to bend at right angle; waves bending in the ionosphere; to lose weight; to lose electrons; to supply considerable energy; to supply .modern equipment; at low pressure; at low frequency; in the surrounding medium; medium radio waves;
the main quality of the semiconductor; to leave atmosphere; to leave the ground; to change the direction of travel; to move in upper layers of the atmosphere; to consist mainly of neutral molecules
3.3.2 Translate the following sentences, pay attention to the construction "as high as ., as low as " — до (перед цифрами).
1. Some people can hear sounds as high as 20,000 cycles. 2. In the chemical reaction the temperature of gases may be as high as 3,500° Centigrade. 3. The voltage dropped to as low as 25 volts. 4. The possibility of discharge large amounts of energy was demonstrated as early as 1919 by Rutherford. 5. The planet Pluto was discovered as recently as 1930.
3.3.3 Translate the following terms (adverb + participle I or adjective + noun).
Pattern: directly fed antenna
Русский термин: антенна с непосредственным питанием
I. continuously ajustable capacitor 2. electronically controlled filter 3. removely controlled plant
4. periodically operated switch 5. horizontally polarized antenna 6. aerodinamically supported missile 7. continuously measuring control system
3.3.4 Form verbs using the suffixes and translate them into Russian.
-en: length, strength, light, wid(e), broad, bright, hard
-ify: solid, pur(e), simpl(e), intens(e), electr(ic), qual(ity)
-ize: magnet, revolution, organ, crystal, character
4 Unit 4
Text: Transistors and Semiconductor Devices
Грамматические основы перевода, упражнения.
Перевод причастия I, II в функции определения и обстоятельства.
Перевод многофункциональных служебных слов it, one.
Лексические основы перевода, упражнения.
Перевод многозначного слова provide — глагола и provided— союза.
Перевод слов с префиксами semi-, trans-, поп-.
Study the text. Try to understand all details. Use a dictionary if necessary:
Transistors and Semiconductor Devices
1. Devices consisting of solid pieces of crystalline material which allowed alternating current to flow more readily in one direction than the other were known long before the invention of the thermionic valve. The crystal set1 which became so well known in the early days of radio depended on the rectifying action at the point of contact between the surface of certain crystals and a fine wire. Crystal valves3 using silicon crystals, were found to be more efficient for the very high frequency signals reaching radar receivers than any thermionic valves. The action of these devices was not understood, but they were all made from materials which we now classify as semiconductors: substances which let electric current pass through them more easily than insulators do but much.less easily than do true conductors.
2. In 1948 Bardeen and Brattain invented the point-contact transistor and Shockley invented the junction transistor shortly after. The transistor is a semiconductor triode possessing characteristics which are similar in many respects to those of thermionic triodes. At present transistors are widely used in amplifiers, receivers, transmitters, oscillators, TV sets, measuring instruments, pulse circuits, computers, and many other types of radio equipment.
3. The invention of transistors and solid-state devices led to an acceleration in the growth of electronics. Why were these new devices so important and why are they steadily replacing their older equivalents? A brief review of their advantages compared with thermionic devices will provide the answers to these questions. Transistors are made from parts which do not wear out. Transistors waste very little power. They require no heating to generate their free electrons. This means that equipment made with transistors is more efficient, lighter than comparable valve equipment.
4. Since no heating is required there is no delay in transistor equipment waiting for things to warm up, as there is with thermionic valves. This is a great advantage with 'entertainment' equipment, such as radio and television receivers, and it may be vital with some kinds, of measuring or recording equipment.
5. Their very small size and weight, combined with low heat dissipation3, permits very high density packing of components and, in combination with their reliability, this has made possible the design of the very compact circuits which are essential for such applications as computers, portable measuring instruments, satellite instrumentation, etc.
Thermionic valve - электронная лампа; to rectify – выпрямлять; fine wire – тонкий провод; rectifier – выпрямитель, детектор; radar receiver – радиолокационный приемник; point-contact transistor – точечно-контактный транзистор; junction – соединение; junction transistor – плоскостной транзистор;
1. crystal set — детекторный приемник
2. crystal valve — кристаллический прибор
3. heat dissipation — рассеяние тепла
4.1 Answer the following questions:
1. What is a transistor? 2. When was the first transistor invented? Where are transistors used?
4.2 Read paragraph 5 and say where the small size and weight of transistors is essential?
4.3 Write out of the text words and phrases describing the transistor.
4.4 Grammar exercises
4.4.1 Define the functions of Participle I in the following sentences and translate them:
1. The scientist working at this design is well known. 2. Carrying out the experiment he made use of some new instruments. 3. These new devices are replacing their older equivalents. 4. Speaking about the new method of work the engineer told us many interesting details. 5. Radio occupies one of the leading places among the greatest achievements of modern engineering. 7. Being cooled water turns into ice. 8.The electric current passing through a wire will heat it. 9. Transistors contain no moving parts. 10. The scientist is carrying on an important research. 11. Developing the new method they achieved good results.
4.4.2 Translate the following sentences:
1. Having improved this device they could use it for many purposes 2. When making the experiment he made notes. 3. The vibrations of a voice speaking into the microphone of a telephone cause vibrations in an electric current. 4. This varying current is carried along a wire to a receiver. 5. Electronics in our country has developed into hundreds of research institutes and laboratories employing tens of thousands of people. 6. Having been discovered many years ago this metal found a wide application in industry only last year. 7. While being checked the motor showed good performance. 8. The man introducing this famous scientist is the dean of our faculty. 9. Cybernetics is gaining a growing importance.
4.4.3 Define the functions of the Participle I in Passive and translate the sentences.
1.Being heated magnetized steel loses its magnetism. 2. The new measuring instrument being developed in this laboratory will be tested by that engineer. 3 The oscillations being produced in the antenna are weak. 4. New data being obtained are necessary for nature investigations. 5. Being perfected the device operated successfully under all conditions. 6. The new receiver being tested will be used in this system. 7. Being equipped with modern instruments the laboratory carried out important experiments.
4.4.4 Translate the following sentences paying attention to the functions of Participle П:
1.The discovery mentioned remained unknown to most scientists for a long time. 2. The equipment tested required further improvement. 3. When passed through a motor, electric current can do work. 4. The students have conducted all the experiments. 5. These instruments recorded the cosmic rays and the information obtained was sent back by the radar to the ground. 6. When heated, a magnet loses some of its magnetism. 7. The results received changed with material used. 8. Unless repaired, this part cannot be used in the radio set. 9. The substances investigated showed quite interesting properties. 10. When developed, the device was used for amplification of radio signals. 11. The developed technology enables us to improve the quality of articles produced. 12. The first laser was developed in 1960. 13. The methods introduced received general recognition. 14. If frozen, water becomes ice. 15. The device used in our work is up-to-date. 16. The apparatus tested is looked upon as an experimental one. 17. When required, these data will be applied in our practical work. 18. The investigation analyzed resulted in an interesting discovery.
4.4.5 Form Perfect Participles Active and Passive:
Model: to accept – having accepted; having been accepted.
to choose, to move, to complete, to divide, to convert, to raise, to design, to investigate, to find, to do.
4.4.6 Define the functions of it in the following sentences and translate them:
1. A material which allows electricity to flow through it is called a conductor. 2. It took five years to develop the machine. 3. The computer doesn't really remember what information is stored in it. 4. It is necessary to protect the human eye when laser beams are being used. 5. In Russia it was Lodygin who invented the electric lamp. 6. It is hard to overestimate the role of radio-electronics in technical progress. 7. Electronics is a young science. It belongs to the twentieth century. 8. I find it necessary to continue the experiment. 9. Electronics makes it possible to raise industrial automation to a higher level. 10. At present mathematics is the language of science and it becomes the stimulator of discoveries. 11. It is the computer that makes a machine a robot.
4.4.7 Define the functions of the word one in the following sentences. Translate them into Russian.
1. A given problem can have more than one algorithm for its solution. 2. The new devices have a number of advantages over the old ones. 3. A "negative ion" is one which has gained (получил) an electron. 4. A "positive ion" is one which lost an electron. 5. Circuits that can perform this logical operation and similar ones have been built and tested. 6. At present robot technology has two major branches, one technological and the other scientific. 7. Higher speeds are one of the basic features of modern technical progress. 8. One must always be careful when operating this machine. 9. Our old laboratory equipment was much worse than the new one. 10. The idea of automation is one of the most important ideas for modern industry.11. When one talks over a telephone, if is not the sound of the voice that travels over the wire, it is an electric current.
4.5 Lexical exercises
4.5.1 Translate the following sentences, pay attention to the word "provide" (снабжать, поставлять) as the verb and "provided" (при условии, если только) as the conjunction.
1. Solar batteries provided much energy for this system operation. 2. A sell supplies electric energy provided its electrodes are different materials. 3. The electrical properties of germanium may be changed, provided germanium is exposed to light. 4. A capacitor stores electric energy provided that a voltage source is applied to it. 5. These experiments provided necessary data for studying this phenomenon. 6. Provided the laboratory is equipped with up-to-date instruments we shall be able to carry out the important scientific researches. 7. A direct current flows provided a direct voltage source is applied to the circuit.
4.5.2 Translate the following words with the prefixes: semi-, trans-, nоn-.
Semiconductor(n), semicircle(n), semimonocoque(adj., semiautomatic(adj.
Transatlantic(adj.), transoceanic(adj., transcontinental (adj.)
Non-conductor(n), non-essential(adj.), non-standard(adj.), non-durable(adj.)
4.5.3 Match up the words which have an opposite meaning:
a) conductor, before, solid, alternating, early, high, receiver, new, important, advantage, little, light, possible, reliable;
b) impossible, unreliable, heavy, much, disadvantage, insulator, after, liquid, direct, late, low, transmitter, old, unimportant.
4.5.4 Make sure if you remember the meaning of the following verbs. Consult a dictionary if necessary:
to appear, to develop, to count, to contain, to serve, to use, to control, to prove, to require, to perform, to repeat; to start, to determine, to exist, to represent, to transform, to compose, to operate, to process, to bring.
4.5.5 Give the initial forms of the following words:
Devices, pieces, allowed, known, became, dependent, rectifying, crystals, valves, reaching, receivers, understood, substances, semiconductors, invented, advantages.
4.5.6 Translate the following word combinations and make up the sentences using them. Industrial purposes, the application of electrical energy, the invention of electronic devices, considerably enlarged, makes it possible to solve, alternating current, the problem of obtaining high-frequency, are the basis of radioengineering, television, and other branches, modern engineering.
5 Unit 5
Text. New generations of computers
Грамматические основы перевода, упражнения.
Перевод самостоятельного причастного оборота
Перевод многофункциональных служебных слов: there, that, but.
Лексические основы перевода, упражнения.
Перевод терминов типа:. cуществительное + причастие II + существительное.
Перевод слов с префиксами: sub-, dis-, super-, de-, mis-.
5.1 Study the text. Try to understand all details. Use a dictionary if necessary:
New generations of computers
1. Computer technology is one of the youngest and most dynamic branches of modern science and technology. The first generation of computers appeared in the 1950s and was designed on the basis of electronic vacuum tubes. But by the early 1960s a new generation of computers was developed, discrete semiconductor devices being used in it. The third generation of computers is based on electronic circuits containing hundreds of transistors and other devices in one tiny package.
2. Fourth and fifth generation computers based on very high-capacity integrated circuits contain tens of thousands of active electronic devices in tiny elements. Research is also being done on computers based on superconducting devices.
3. A major advance in the development of computer technology was the creation of microprocessors and microcomputers. The tiny and versatile computing devices are able to control complex operations from the control and monitoring of machine tools to playing a game of chess.
A functioning microprocessor is not simply a tiny piece of silicon which can replace a room full of data processing equipment. It requires many other components to make it work. The term "microcomputer" refers to the assembly of parts which make the microprocessor a useful working tool.
The microprocessor unit (MPU) is the "brain" of the system and directs all of the other parts to perform their function at the proper time.
An MPU is a complex integrated circuit. It is a highly miniaturized version of the minicomputers. A typical MPU will have the equivalent of about 7,000 transistors, diodes, resistors, etc., on a single piece of silicon less than 1/16 in.square.
The job of the microprocessor is to move or alter chunks of information in an orderly fashion. The chunks of information are reduced to coded form represented as binary numbers which the microprocessor can manipulate. The MPU can only do extremely elementary actions, such as move a piece of data, add two numbers, etc.
Each one of the elementary operations of an MPU has its own binary code. The sequence of codes which makes the processor do its intended function is called a program or software. The inherent flexibility of an MPU comes from the fact1 that instructions can be combined in limitless variations.
silicon — кремний; assembly — скомпонованный блок, сборка, монтаж; working tool — рабочий инструмент; microprocessor unit — блок микропроцессора; proper — подходящий, нужный; to alter— изменять, видоизменять; chunks of information — порции информации; in an orderly fashion — организованным (правильным) образом; to reduce to — сводить к; flexibility — гибкость;
5.1.1 In paragraph 1 find the sentence with the Absolute Participial Construction and translate it.
5.1.2 Answer the following questions on the contents of the text:
1. When did the first generation of computers appear? 2. What devices were used in the second generation computers? 3. What is the third generation of computers based on? 4. What is a microprocessor unit? 5. What are the chunks of information reduced to? 6. The MPU can perform only one operation at a time, can't it?
5.2 Grammar exercises
5.2.1 Insert the appropriate forms of the Participle from brackets; translate the sentences.
1. ... the position of the plant on paper, it was decided that the pipeline should go along the river (establishing, having established).
2. ... at the object from the front, or from the sides, the observer could not see the inside edges of the object (looking, having looked).
3. ... to the table it will be noted that the number of
loads hauled by
the wheeled tractor are more than that of a crawler tractor on a similar
length of haul (referring, having referred).
4.... the number of loads hauled per hour, the total cubic yards of material excavated may be easily calculated (knowing, having known).
5.2.2 Translate the following sentences, pay attention to the Absolute Participial Construction:
1. The experiments being demonstrated, all the students watched them with great attention. 2. There are two diagrams in this figure, one of them showing the relation between volume and temperature. 3. A new radio set having been shown to them, they began to examine its details. 4. Electrons leaving the surface, the metal becomes positively charged. 5. We defined the volume, all the measurements having been done with respect to the instruction. 6. The computer performing addition, two numbers to be added come from the memory. 7. Atoms consist of three kinds of particles — electrons, protons and neutrons, the number of particles determining the kind of element. 8. The workers increased the output of measuring instruments, new devices having been applied in all the shops of the plant. 9. The experiment having been carried out, the students left the lab. 10. I was writing the translation, my friend helping me. 11. Part of the energy being changed into heat, not all the chemical energy of the battery is transformed into electric energy.
5.2.3 Choose the sentences with the Absolute Participial Construction from the ones given below. Translate them into Russian:
1. Speaking about the new method of work the engineer told us many interesting details. 2. The temperature of a conductor being raised, the motion of the electrons in the conductor increases. 3. Special instruments measuring cosmic radio signals are being installed in the observatory. 4. Transistors are very sensitive to light, some of them reacting even to star-light. 5. The first man-made satellite having been sent up, it became possible to investigate various types of radiation. 6. Obtaining new data engineers can improve their knowledge. 7. The resistance being very large, the current in the circuit was small. 8. When improving the design the constructor made many calculations. 9. A great variety of substances are semi-conductors, germanium and silicon being the most important of them. 10. A series of attempts having been made, Lodygin came to a successful solution of the problem.
5.3 Lexical exercises
5.3.1 Translate the following sentences, pay attention to the different meanings of "but"(но, а; только, лишь; кроме)
1. It seems that the electron is nothing but electricity. 2. If but a few of the atoms of a body have had an electron removed the body has a small charge. 3. One can easily note how voltage increases during the first quarter-turn but then decreases during the next quarter turn. 4. The operator saw all the tubes but one function in the proper way. 5. We expect the current cycle and the voltage cycle to finish in step if they start in step. But in many a.c. circuits the current cycle does not get started as soon as the voltage cycle.
5.3.2 Translate the following sentences, pay attention to the different meanings of "that (those)" (тот, та; что; который; слово-заместитель для избежания повторения существительного)
1. The initial conditions in the electrical problem can be made the same as those in the mechanical problem. 2. Let us now obtain a more general formula that simplifies heat-conduction problems. 3. A concentrated force is a force that is applied on a point. 4. The necessary conditions for equilibrium in a system of forces are that the algebraic sum of all the force components in any direction must equal zero. 5. Normal stresses are those produced by tension and compression and are distributed on a plane perpendicular to the line of action of the external load reaction. 6. Hooke's Law states that a body acted upon by an external force has a deformation proportional to the stress, as long as the elastic limit is not exceeded. 7. A tool or machine must never be used for any purpose other than that for which it is intended.
5.3.3 Translate the following sentences, pay attention to the different meanings of "there".
1. There can be no flow of water through a pipe unless there is pressure to cause it. 2. There will also be some pulsation as the brush bridges the insulated gap between two segments. 3. There will be exactly as many numbers current cycles as there are voltage cycles, but they may start at different times. 4. While these condensers will be found usually in direct current circuit, there is one type that is used on alternating currents for motor starting and the like. 5. There are two methods of storing an equal amount of energy in a condenser. 6. There are many different kinds of reactors varying in size, in the type of fuel used, and in the quality of fuel. 7. There is usually considerable sparking at relay contacts, particularly when they are attached to loads, which are inductive. 8. There are two other reasons for the use of such a relay.
5.3.4 Translate the following terms of type "noun+Participle II+noun ".
1. radio-controlled bomb
2. surface-launched missile
3. surface-cooled reactor
4. liquid-cooled engine
5. time-modulated beam
6. ground-based computer
7. engine driven pump
8. fission-produced particle
9. ramjet-propelled missile
10. cathode-loaded amplifier
11. pressure-operated switch
12. battery-fed receiver
13. rocket-powered booster
14. meson-produced star
5.3.5 Match up the words which have similar meanings:
a) different, hence, to watch, to receive, high, to keep, to allow, to start, to suggest, to shut, to wait, to try, to learn, to remain, to finish, to come, broad, to vary,
b) wide, to change, to arrive, to conclude, to stay, to study, to attempt, to expect, to observe, to obtain, tall, to hold, various, thus, to permit, to begin, to offer, to close.
5.3.6 Translate the following pairs of words, pay attention to the meaning of the prefixes.
division — subdivision, to appear—to disappear, to impose — to superimpose, to heat—to superheat, to connect—to disconnect, to energize — to deenergize, to magnetize — to demagnetize, to change — to interchange, to lead — mislead, to determine — to predetermine, to use — to misuse.
the following word combinations.
1. the communication establishment; 2.communication establishment possibilities; 3. long-distance communication establishment possibilities; 4. low temperature physics; 5. low temperature physics investigations; 6.a transmission line;7.the transmission line efficiency; 8. electrical control systems; 9. automatic control systems; 10. artificial radio-activity properties; 11. artificial radio-activity properties investigations; 12. a great energy source; 13. the electric power consumption; 14. semiconductor quantum generators; 15. light wave energy; 16. superspeed computer; 17. radio frequency quantum generators.
5.3.8 Make sure that you remember the meaning of the following verbs:
To calculate, to invent, to continue, to provide, to propose, to result in, to result from, to enable, to design, to store, to contain, to undertake, to complete, to need, to prove, to expect, to distribute, to measure, to equip, to produce, to create.
5.3.9 State to what parts of speech the words in black type belong:
1. By means of electronic computers it is possible to translate from one language to another. 2. Electric typewriters and keyboard devices are the common means of input. 3. We usually measure volume in cubic centimetres. 4. A kilogram is a unit of weight measure in the metric system. 5. Certain types of equipment handle input information and also function as output devices. 6. The atmospheric pressure is the function of the altitude above the sea level.
6 Unit 6
Грамматические основы перевода, упражнения.
Перевод герундия и герундиальных оборотов.
Перевод отглагольного существительного.
Перевод разных случаев употребления многофункционального глагола to do.
Лексические основы перевода, упражнения.
Перевод терминов типа: существительное + существительное + прилагательное + существительное.
Перевод многозначных слов.
Перевод слов с префиксами: un-, in-, re-, over-.
6.1 Study the text. Try to understand all details. Use a dictionary if necessary:
The term "semiconductor" means "half-conductor", that is, a material whose conductivity2 ranges between3 that of conductors and non-conductors or insulators.
They include great variety of elements (silicon, germanium, selenium, phosphorus and others), many chemical compounds (oxides4, sulphides5) as well as numerous ores6 and minerals.
While the conductivity of metals is very little influenced by temperature, conductivity of semiconductors sharply increases with heating and falls with cooling. This dependence has opened great prospects for employing semiconductors in measuring techniques.
Light, as well as heat, increases the conductivity of semiconducting materials, this principle being used in creating photo resistances. It is also widely applied for switching on engines, for coating parts on a conveyer belt, as well as various systems of emergency signals7 and for reproducing sound in a cinematography. Besides reacting to light, semi-conductors react to all kinds of radiations and they are therefore employing in designing electronic couters.
Engineers and physicists turned their attention8 to semiconductors more than fifty years ago, seeing in them the way of solving complicated engineering problems. Converting heat into electricity without using boilers or other machines was one of them.
Sunlight like heat can feed our electric circuit. Photocells made of semiconducting materials are capable of transforming ten per cent of sunray energy into electric power. By burning wood, which has accumulated the same amount of solar energy, we obtain only heat fractions of one per cent of electric power.
The electricity generated by semiconductor thermocouples can produce not only heat but also cold, this principle being used in manufacturing refrigerators.
Semiconducting materials are also excellent means of maintaining a constant temperature irrespective of the surrounding temperature changes. The latter can vary over a wide range, for example, from 50° below 0° to 100° above 0°.
Semiconductors are the youngest field of physical science. Yet even now they are determining the progress of radio engineering, automation, chemistry, electrical engineering and many other fields of science and technique.
1. semiconductor n — полупроводник
2. conductivity n — проводимость
3. range between — колебаться (в пределах)
4. oxide n — оксид
5. sulphide n — сульфид
6. ore n — руда
7. emergency signal— аварийный сигнал
8. to turn one's attention (to) — обратить чье-либо внимание (на что-то)
6.2 Grammar exercises
6.2.1 Find in the text the verbals and analyze them.
6.2.2 Define the functions of the Gerund in the following sentences and translate them:
1. A laser is a machine for making and concentrating light waves into a very intense beam. 2. Go on making the experiment. 3. The idea of using lasers came from A.Prokhorov and N.Basov. 4. The laser beam is made by exciting the atoms of a suitable material. 5. Measuring temperature is necessary in many experiments. 6. There can be no progress in science without experimenting. 7. Solving such problems helps us greatly. 8. Their wish is mastering the fundamentals of radioengineering. 9. The melting point of aluminium is 657°C. 10. I remember visiting this laboratory. 11. They succeeded in obtaining these data.
6.2.3 Choose the sentences with the Gerund from the ones given below and translate them:
Special instruments measuring cosmic radio signals are being installed in the observatory. 2. Penetrating into space was very important for mankind. 3. Applying the method we get better results. 4. Upon adding heat we can change the state of a substance. 5. When measuring the voltage we use a voltmeter. 6. A number of materials, including some gases and semiconductors, possess this property. 7. For many centuries men were interested in obtaining new sources of energy. 8. this problem. 9. The importance of scientific researches and discoveries is growing with every year.
6.2.4 Translate the following sentences. Note the words which help you to define whether the word with the suffix -ing is a Verbal Noun, a Gerund or a Participle:
1. Our aim is solving this complex problem. 2. They succeeded in obtaining good results working with this metal. 3. The building of the house will be finished next month. 4. In testing the devices they found some serious faults. 5. The growing importance of automatic equipment in industry attracts world-wide attention. 6. Russian scientists played a great role in the spreading of the metric system in Russia. 7. After graduating from Petersburg University A.S.Popov remained there as a post-graduate at the Physics Department. 8. After Hertz had published his experiments proving the existence of electromagnetic waves, A.S.Popov thought of a possibility of using Hertz waves for transmitting signals over a distance. 9. On March 24, 1896 he demonstrated the transmission and reception of a radiogram consisting of two words: Heinrich Hertz. 10. Using the new method it is possible to increase accuracy and speed of spectral analysis. 11. Thousands of scientists, using the most modern equipment, are studying the atmosphere.
6.2.5 Translate the following sentences paying attention to the functions of the Gerund:
1. Large-scale application of electronic technique is a
trend of technical progress capable of revolutionizing many branches of
industry. 2. Russian physicists have developed a method for using optical
quantum generators for spectral analysis. 3. When atoms or molecules
are excited they emit electromagnetic waves. By counting the number of waves in a certain period, a very accurate measure of time can be defined. 4. The operating speeds of these systems will be measured in nano-seconds.5. Telemetry is the science of seeing some place without being there. 6. Electronics is not so much a new subject as a new way of looking at electricity. 7. We know of Kondakov's having made the first synthetic rubber in the world. 8. Physicists saw in semiconductors the way of solving complicated engineering problems. 9. These scientists continue working in this promising field of knowledge. 10. We know of Yoffe's having contributed much to the research of transistors. ,
6.2.6 Translate the following sentences, pay attention to the Cerundial Constructions
1. We know of all substances consisting of atoms 2. We knew of glass having been invented some hundreds years ago. 3 Every student knows of copper being one of the first metals used by man. 4 The explanation lies m the product being more stable 5. We insisted on their being offered favourable terms of payment 6. The possibility of ethylene being converted into aromatic hydrocarbons is slight. 7. We object to their being denied the aspiration to test such new methods as may be suggested by fresh knowledge 8. He objected to the goods being paid in advance.
6.2.7 Translate the following sentences, pay attention to the different meanings of the verb "to do ".
1. When laying the main service pipe in a city, it is best to do connections late at night to cause a minimum of inconvenience. 2. It does not matter, however, whether the conductors cut the magnetic flux or the magnetic flux cuts the conductors, the action is the same. 3. We do insist on this experiment being made at the earliest possible opportunity. 4. In this position the molecular magnets possess potential energy which they had not before, and this came from the work we had to do to turn them. 5. At midnight a thermometer read 1 °C and at noon — 3 °C. How many degrees did the temperature change between midnight and noon?
6.2.8 Translate the following sentences, observe different meanings of the verb "to do ".
1. When the molecule is placed in the electric field, the electrons try to move and do so for instant. 2. If only a few of the insulator's molecules do release one electron each, the insulator at once completely breaks down and becomes a conductor 3. If by some means we can change the current in a coil without changing the flux rapidly, then the current may rise and fall as suddenly as it does in a purely resistive circuit. 4. The electrons, the motion of which constitutes the current, do not actually pass from one plate of the condenser to the other through the dielectric. 5. An important question for the radio engineer to consider has to do with the shape of current, which flows in a circuit connected to an alternator. 6. The emission or evaporation of electrons takes place at lower temperatures than does that of atoms.
6.3 Lexical exercises
6.3.1 Translate the terms which are composed of "noun+noun+ adjective+noun".
Pattern: air defence guided missile — управляемая ракета противовоздушной обороны
1 . gas turbine power plant
2. radio navigation land station
3 . picture signal carrier wave
4. radio-frequency high-voltage power supply
5. pulse-type high- voltage power supply
6. flight-path deviation indicator
7. pulse-type radio altimeter
` 6.3.2 Translate the following sentences into Russian, pay attention to the meaning of words in bold type.
1. Work is measured by the product of the moving force times the distance through which the force acts in overcoming the resistance. 2. It is best to have the value of an alternating current or varying voltage with time according to the sine wave. 3. The word "phase", when property used in a.c. terminology, refers to time. 4. The experiment was repeated many times, and the temperature conditions varied slightly. 5. With metal filament lamps the power radiated as light is nearly three times as great as the power radiated heat 6. We could study the reaction mentioned above very thoroughly-because it lasted over a long time. 7. Large turbines have an economy of three or four times that of steam units in a small plant. 8. We know that iron molecules are magnets at all times.
6.3.3 Translate the words paying attention to the prefixes.
invaluable, undesirable, unachievable, impossible, immeasurable, irregular, irresponsible, irrespective, unnatural, interconnection, to excavate, to superimpose, superheat, supersonic, to underestimate, to underline, to overrate, to overcharge, to mislead, to misuse, to misunderstand, discharge, to disappear, to dismount, to reconstruct, to retune, to detune, to demodulate, to counterclockwise, likewise, otherwise.
6.3.4 Translate the following word combinations into Russian.
1. to cause the increase of current; 2. to deflect beams; 3. cause beams deflection; 3. to push the particles inward; 5. to inject liquid into vessel; 6. to guide particles into a circular path; 7. to make narrow beams deflect; 8. to change the curvature of the path; 9. close to the charged object; 10. a suitable adjustment; 11. a rapidly changing path; 12. to keep the body at a mile distance; 13. moving exactly along a circular path; 14. a magnet surrounding the vessel.
6.3.5 Match up the words which are opposite in meaning:
a) conductor, before, solid, alternating, early, high, receiver, new, important, advantage, little, light, possible, reliable;
b) impossible, unreliable, heavy, much, disadvantage, insulator, after, liquid, direct, late, low, transmitter, old, unimportant.
6.3.6 Translate the sentences. Mind the different meanings of the word for (так как, за, для, на, в течение, чтобы – в инфинитивном обороте)
1. One must be very attentive in experimenting, for accuracy is indispensable here. 2. He has not been taking English lessons for several months. 3. The problem we are dealing with is very important for our laboratory. 4. Colonial countries fight for their independence. 5. I.V.Kurchatov was a passionate fighter for peace. 6. He brought some papers for me to look them through. 7. It is difficult for him to solve this problem by himself. 8. We stayed in London for nine days. 9. I shan't do it for the world. 10. My friend left for Moscow yesterday. 11. This room serves me for a study. 12. We all hoped for a change of the weather. 13. This young lady has a weakness for fine clothes. 14. He will prepare everything for the experiment. 15.I went to England for the first time ten years ago. 16. Einstein always answered all students’ questions for there were no foolish questions for him.
6.3.7 State to what parts of speech the following words belong:
information, install, speed, impressive, digital, television, conversation, conventional, protection, carrier, typically, inexpensive, versatility, data, travels, signals.
6.3.8 Find the roots of the following words:
using, electrical, relatively, pulsing, easily, digital, alternately, conduction, construction, addition, equipment, operating, interference, carrier, resistance, regenerator.
7 Unit 7
Text. Modern Light-Wave Communications Technology
Грамматические основы перевода, упражнения
Перевод предложений эмфатической конструкции.
Перевод конструкции have + существительное + причастие II.
Перевод конструкции havе + существительное + инфинитив.
Лексические основы перевода, упражнения
Перевод атрибутивных словосочетаний.
Перевод существительных с суффиксами: -er, -ion, -ation, -sion, -age, -ing.
Перевод синонимов и антонимов.
7.1 Read the text . Try to understand all details. Use a dictionary if necessary:
Modern Light-Wave Communications Technology
1. A decade ago, the concept of using light pulses instead of electrical signals1 to transmit information was only that — a concept. Today, lightwave communications systems are among the most sophisticated transmission systems in the telecommunications network. They are at once efficient, versatile and relatively inexpensive to install and maintain.
2. The efficiency of lightwave systems is perhaps their most renowned quality2. They carry enormous amounts of information over long distances at very high speeds. Consider, for example, the speed and capacity of the Bell System's long distance lightwave system. Light pulsing through a single, hair-thin glass fiber in this system can transmit the entire contents of Webster's unabridged dictionary4 — more than 2700 pages — over thousands of miles in only six seconds.
3. No less impressive than this tremendous speed and capacity is the versatility of light-wave systems. Because they are digital systems, they can transmit easily any of these types of information: voice signals, high-speed data signals, and television signals. Without undermining quality or efficiency, a single system can accommodate thousands of telephone conversations, and alternately handle data or video signals.
4. Finally, lightwave systems are inexpensive to install and operate compared to their wire-and-cable counterparts. Moreover, they allow considerable savings.
5. The reasons for such savings stem from the technology of lightwave communications. Conventional telecommunications transmission is based on the conduction of electrons through metal (usually copper wires). Lightwave systems, however, substitute protons for electrons and glass fibers for copper. These technological differences translate into big savings5, the most significant of which is in construction costs. Because lightguide cables are only a fraction of the diameter and weight6 of copper cables, they are easy to handle and take up far less space. They can be installed in existing underground ducts and rights-of-way7, sometimes right next to copper cables.
6. In addition, lightwave systems eliminate certain equipment and operating costs. They are immune to electromagnetic interference and therefore require no protection from it. Also, light can travel much farther through lightwave cables without regeneration than can electrons through copper carrier systems. This is because the light encounters little resistance from the very pure glass fibers through which it travels. Lightwave systems require significantly fewer signal regenerators than do electrical digital carrier systems: typically one every ten miles instead of one every mile.
Vocabulary Notes: lightwave communications system – система связи с использованием световых волн; hair-thin glass fiber – стекловолокно толщиной в человеческий волос; accommodate – включать, охватывать; substitute for – заменять, замещать; electromagnetic interference –электромагнитная помеха (интерференция); lightguide cables – световодный кабель; carrier system – многоканальная система связи; electrical digital carrier system- система электрической многоканальной цифровой связи.
1. the concept of using light pulses instead of electrical signals — идея использования световых импульсов вместо электрических сигналов
2.their most renowned quality — их самое известное свойство
3. over long distances— на большие расстояния
4. the entire contents of Webster's unabridged dictionary — полное содержание неадаптированного словаря Вебстера
5. translate into big savings — приводят к большой экономии
6. only a fraction of the diameter and weight — только частица в диаметре и по весу
7: right-of-way — полоса отчуждения
8. are immune to electromagnetic interference — невосприимчивы к электромагнитной интерференции
7.1.1 Answer the questions on paragraph 1:
1. Is the idea of using light pulses instead of electrical signals to transmit information new? 2. What are the qualities of light wave communication system?
7.1.2 Write out words and word combinations for describing advantages of lightwave systems.
7.2 Grammar exercises
7.2.1 Translate the following sentences into Russian paying attention to the emphatic construction it is (was)... that (who) (именно, только):
I.It is electronics that produced radar. 2. It was Einstein who provided a new conception of time, space and gravitation. 3. It was A.S.Popov who invented the radio. 4. It was from radio that the subject of electronics was born. 5. It was radioelectronics that produced cybernetics, cosmonautics and nuclear physics. 6. It was in the laboratory that I found him. 7. It was D.I.Mendeleyev who formulated the Periodic Law. 8. It was in the Soviet Union that the first
man was launched into space. 9. It was in 1868 that D.I.Mendeleyev formulated the Periodic Law of Elements. 10. It is automation that improves working conditions. 11. It was in 1944 that the first relay machine was completed. 12. It is the programme that ensures the execution of all operations assigned to the computers. 13. It was in the 20th century that electronic computers appeared. 14. It is the programmer that is the connecting link between the computer and the problem it has to solve.
7.2.2 Translate the following sentences with the construction "have+noun+participle ".
1. Machines of many types have their operation controlled by a computer. 2. A colliding molecule may have an atom or two knocked out of it. 3. The theory of atomic structure developed by Bohr has the electrons distributed around the nucleus in shells (orbits). 4. The large air-cooled engines have the cylinders arranged radially. 5. An atom which has one or more of its electrons raised to a higher than normal energy level is said to be in an excited state. 6. Current transformers are step-up transformers having their primaries connected in series with one line and their secondaries connected to the ammeter terminals.
7.2.3 Translate the following sentences with the construction “have+ noun+infinitive".
I. It is necessary to have the personell be aware of the dangers involved in operating such a device. 2. Slow neutrons can be detected by having them interact with an isotope of boron. 3. The advantage gained by having specialized groups concentrate on various tasks is obvious. 4. The main advantage of the autotransformation is the saving of copper obtained by having part of the winding serve as both primary and secondary. 5. In the early days of aviation, engines were small and could be started by having someone turn the propeller by hand. 6. Because of the many types of turbine engines, it is not possible to list all the major components and have the list apply to all engines.
7.3 Lexical exercises
7.3.1 Translate the sentences paying attention to the subordinating conjunctions introducing attributive clauses:
1. Electronics is that branch of science and technology which studies the conduction of electricity through gases or in vacuum. 2. There are about thirty radio stations in the world that put on Esperanto programmes. 4. Chemistry is the science that deals with the structure of matter and its changes. 5. The degree to which computers will take over human functions may frighten some people and astonish others. 6. Omar Khayam wrote a book on algebra which was the best of its time and he also prepared and improved astronomical tables. 7. The device which is expected to be available later, looks like a hand-held calculator with a keyboard of letters instead of numbers. 8. The laboratory is the place where experiments as well as scientific research may be carried out. 9. The liquid takes up the shape of a vessel in which it is contained. 10. There are some general guides that you will find helpful for your experiment.
7.3.2 Choose the sentences with attributive clauses from the ones given below. Translate them into Russian:
1. Communication is a process by which information is exchanged between individuals through a common system of symbols, signs or behaviour. 2. Computers are machines which are able to solve complex mathematical problems. 3. Atoms and electrons are so small that they cannot be seen under the most powerful microscopes. 4. Radio is a device that transmits and receives signals and programs by electromagnetic waves. 5. A transistor is a small electronic device whose function is the same as that of an electronic tube. 6. The medium or channel through which the message is carried may take the form of face-to-face communication. 7. It is often said that one should use the language of those to whom one is speaking. 8. Corrosion is a very serious problem which worries scientists, technologists and economists.
7.3.3 Form the Nouns using the following suffixes and translate them
-ment: to arrange, to improve, to move, to achieve, to require, to measure
-ance: to appear, to assist, to resist, to acquaint
-ence: to exist, to depend, to differ, to insist
-ing: to mean, to begin, to broadcast, to build, to draw, to coat
-ness: tough, bright, thick, cold, exact, hard, effective
-ity: intens(e), activ(e), resistiv(e), equal, elastic, electric
-age: to break, to pass, to use, volt
-er: to view, to listen, to fight, to dream, to found, to driv(e), to boil, to burn, to contain, to convert, to condens(e)
-or: to direct, to act, to creat(e), to inspect, to investigat(e), to resist, to conduct, to compress, to react, to accelerate, to ventilat(e)
-ion: to attract, to reflect, to discuss, to express, to indicat(e), to insulat(e)
-ation: to inform, to consider, to found, to combin(e), to examin(e), to continu(e)
-sion: to conver(t), to divi(de), to explod(e), to deci(de), to conclud(e)
7.3.4 Arrange the following words according to
A. opposite meaning: inside, low, strong, vast, outside, narrow, high, weak, many, enhance, few, reduce.
B. similar meaning: tremendous, predominance, use, various, great number of, different, advantage, satellite, great, sputnik, application, of late, powerful, recently, a lot of, strong; to detect, to decrease, to reduce, to spread, to resist, to propagate, to investigate, to extend, to record, to study, to increase, to catch.
7.3.5 Check up if you know the meaning of the following verbs. Consult a dictionary if necessary:
to transmit, to cost, to consider, to abridge, to undermine, to accommodate, to handle, to install, to compare, to eliminate, to require, to allow, to encounter, to travel, to carry.
7.3.6 Read and translate the following word combinations paying attention to nouns as attributes:
light pulses, lightwave communications system, transmission system, telecommunications network, glass fiber, voice signal, data signal, television signal, telephone conversation, telecommunications transmission, construction cost, underground duct, copper cable, signal regenerator, carrier system, device reliability, laser beam, laser beam wave, radio wave, radio wave speed.
8 Unit 8
Text. The Age of Electronics
Грамматические основы перевода, упражнения.
Перевод сослагательного наклонения.
Неопределенные и определенные артикли
Лексические основы перевода, упражнения.
Перевод многозначного слова once.
Перевод разных случаев глагола to set... с предлогами.
Перевод слов и словосочетаний, связывающих отдельные части высказывания (otherwise, still, yet, rather than)
Перевод терминов, состоящих из self+ причастие I или II, соединенных дефисом.
Перевод разных значений предлога by.
Перевод слов с префиксами anti-, counter-,
8.1 Read the text. Try to understand all the details. Use a dictionary if necessary.
The Age of Electronics
1. The discovery of the electron, and the investigations into its nature which followed, led to a revolution in physical science.
2. The revolution in pure science rapidly bore fruit in many fields of applied science and technology, especially in the applied science of electronics. The vacuum techniques developed for the study of free electrons and cathode rays led directly to the radio valve and the television receiver. The new electronics combined with the older techniques of the telegraph and telephone produced a revolution in communications on a world scale. If the discovery of the electron had led only to radio and television it would still represent a decisive factor in the shaping of our civilization — but it led to much more.
3. Electronics produced radar. It led to nucleonics and hence to the exploitation of the immense store of energy locked in the atom. It gave birth to the electronic computer. By the middle of the twentieth century a rapidly expanding, world-wide electronics industry had produced millions of parts for radio and television receivers and instruments for every branch of science and technology — instruments capable of unprecedented speed and sensitivity.
4. Electronic devices give immense extension to our senses. We can now examine structures too small to be visible in even the most powerful optical microscope and receive signals from radio stars which started their long journey through space ages before there was any life on our planet. Electronics combined with rocketry has enabled scientists to take close-up pictures of the moon. Electronics applied to medicine has already produced significant advances in diagnosis and treatment.
5. Without electronics there might be no radio, television, sound pictures or long distance telephone calls. Most of these familiar equipments serve to carry or give information; so communication early was a main purpose of electronics and still holds interest of many workers and students in this field.
6. Meanwhile industry seeking faster and more accurate methods of production has adapted electronic equipment to its own needs. Gradually during the past fifty years industrial plants have installed electronic equipment to give better operation of motors along with control of varied operations.
To bear fruit- приносить плоды, давать результаты; unprecedented speed and sensitivity – небывалая скорость и чувствительность; to take close-up pictures – делать снимки с близкого расстояния; to enable – давать возможность
8.1.1 Answer the questions:
1. What did electronics produce? 2. What did it lead to? 3. What did it give birth to? 4. What had electronics produced by the middle of the twentieth century?
8.1.2 Write out of the text words and word combinations describing general uses of electronics.
8.1.3 Speak about the age of electronics.
8.2 Grammar exercises
8.2.1 Translate the following sentences paying attention to the verbs ithe Subjunctive Mood:
1. Without radio we should hardly be able to observe artificial satellites and receive scientific information from space. 2. The solution of the problem requires that all the experimental data obtained be exact. 3. It is required that all measurements be done beforehand. 4. It is necessary that these data should be processed as soon as possible. 5. It is important that engineers should develop automatic control systems. 6. Atomic energy finds such wide and varied application in our life that our age might be called the age of atom. 7. It is important that safety measures be taken while working with the electric equipment. 8. It is desirable that the engine should combine high efficiency and lightness. 9. We suggested that his project be discussed in detail. 10. It is essential that he should inform us about the results of his research.
8.2.2 Translate the sentences. Mind the means of expressing the Subjunctive Mood:
1. Provided all of the requirements were met, the efficiency of the apparatus would be increased. 2. Without the new instrument this experiment would not have been successful. 3. If you classified the data fewer tests would be needed. 4. If you had known about semiconductors more, you would have understood the arrangement of this device. 5. You could have done this work better. 6. You might have asked me about the work of this machine before putting it into operation. 7. They suggest that he should begin the test immediately. 8. It is required that those devices be used in this case. 9. Had he informed me in time I should have sent this device. 10. Without proper care and maintenance this equipment wouldn't operate so well. 11. If the machine were repaired, it would be set in motion immediately. 12. If he had been able to get all the books on that subject, his report would have been much better. 13. Had you taken all the safety measures the machine would not have been broken.
8.2.3 Define the types of conditional clauses in the following complex sentences. Translate them into Russian:
A. 1. If a solid body or a liquid is heated, it will usually expand. 2. If you want to carry out your experiment successfully, you thoroughly prepare all the necessary ingredients. 3. The measurements were always correct provided the necessary instruments were used. 4. If you want to speak a language, you must hear it spoken. 5. If a machine is to make usable translations, the machine itself must be able to extract some meaning of the text. 6. If we are to believe some forecasts, computers may become a common thing of every day used by almost everybody. 7. If the model fits well, the observed data will be correct.
B. 1. If sound could propagate in interplanetary space it would cover this distance in 14 years. 2. If the earth were as hot as Venus, the oceans would evaporate. 3. Were it not for ionosphere, radio waves would propagate like light waves only within the limits of visible horizon. 4. If I were to see your experiment, I should get a clear conception of this phenomenon. 5. But for electricity little could be done in a modern research laboratory. 6. If a new telephone system were installed on the line we should be able to improve the reliability of telephone service. 7. If life existed on the Venus, we should know it. 8. It would be better if some experiments were repeated. 9. If the Earth did not rotate, it would not take the shape of a ball.
C. 1. If he had prepared the material beforehand, he might have done the work quite easily. 2. If they had completed the research, the results would have been discussed at the conference. 3. The manned spaceships might not have been launched into the cosmos, unless scientists had studied the information received from the space satellites. 4. Could these observations have been proved theoretically they would have done much to advance our knowledge in the field of space research.
5. If he had been able to get all the books on that subject, his report would have been much better. 6. Had he taken into account the properties of the substance under inverstigation, he would have been careful when working with it.
8.2.4 Define the functions of should and would . Translate the sentences:
A. all the difficulties in our research. 3. We were sure that we should finish our work in time. 4. The director asked whether the materials of our research would be typed. 5. He said that he would mention your work in his report. 6. The teacher thought that the students of this group would be able to understand the new text. 7. Yesterday I found out that the professor would lecture on the latest developments in cybernetics.
B. 1. It is very important that you should take part in the discussion. 2. It is necessary that they should come in time. 3. It is important that the current should be measured exactly. 4. Without radio electronics there would be no cybernetics, cosmonautics and nuclear physics.
5. It would be impossible to measure the temperature of Venus without a radio-telescope. 6. They suggest that we should begin the tests immediately. 7. Don't raise the temperature lest the speed of the reaction should be too high. 8. The instruments were packed carefully lest they should be broken during transportation.
C. 1. If they had completed the research, the results would have been discussed at the conference. 2. If you had applied your theoretical knowledge to your practical work, you would have got a different result. 3. If he had not used this formula, he would not have made this mistake. 4. They would finish the work in time, provided they had the necessary material. 5. Should one transmitter fail, the other takes over its functions. 6. Should the temperature decrease, the velocity of electrons will decrease too.
D. 1. It should be borne in mind that this method fails to give good results. 2. He would work on his design for hours. 3. One should keep in mind this property of water. 4. The reaction wouldn't proceed until we added some water. 5. This transistor would operate at 400°C. 6. The results of the experiments should be checked up very carefully. 7. He would prepare for his exams for hours. 8. You should work at your English as hard as possible. 9. Last year we would spend much time in the laboratory.
8.2.5 Insert articles where necessary in the stable expressions.
He is always in ... hurry. 2. In winter the Browns live in … town. 3. I saw him at... distance of 10
metres. 4. One can't do different kinds of works at... time. 5. She is at...
work now. 6. When I was ...child I had ... friend, by ... name Mary. 7. She can
speak over the
telephone for ... hours. 8. It is ... pity I can't sew. 9. He always speaks in ... low voice. 10.I noticed it at... glance. 11. She reads English books in ... original. 12. My friend's parents live in ...country. 13. In summer pupils have ... lot of free time. 14.I saw him... other day. 15. My sister plays ... piano very well. 16. This little chap always tells ... truth. 17.1 get up at 8 o'clock in ... morning. 18. This excursion is out of... question. 19. She answered... negative.
20. I like to get up at... dawn. 21. He is over ... head and ... ears in… debt. 22. They sat... side by... side at the table. 23. He had to get up at ... sunrise. 24. She likes to work in the small garden from ...morning till... night. 25. She doesn't work at... present. 26. He has
... cold and will have to keep ... house a week. 27. On ... one hand she is very clever, but on ... other hand she has few friends. 28. My little brother likes to spend much time out of... doors. 29. My brother wants to go to ... sea, and I'd like to become a teacher. 30. My mother
keeps ... house. 31. It was a lie from ... begining to ... end. 32. She was dressed in red from ... head to ... foot. 33. He fell in love with her at... first sight. 34. She seldom flies into ... passion. 35. We had... good time in the village.
8.3 Lexical exercises
8.3.1 Translate the following sentences, pay attention to the meaning once (раз уж, стоит только, как…и)
1. It is surprising how simple many problems of physics become once the meaning of each concept involved is completely understood. 2. At ordinary atmospheric pressure helium, once liquefied, remains liquid to the lowest temperature that can be reached. 3. Before taking off the pilot checked his control once more. 4. The thrust magnitude and direction are at once known in terms of the motor performance. 5. It should not be thought that Newton's theory of gravitation was at once universally accepted.
8.3.2 Translate the following sentences, paying attention to the verbs: to set, to set up, to set out, to set forward, to set in motion.
1.The directional gyro can be set to give any desired compass reading. 2. When a current flows through a conductor it sets up a magnetic field. 3. The different applications of radar are so numerous that it is impossible to set them out in detail in such a short article. 4. Considerations of VTOL (Vertical Take-Off and Landing) aircraft have been set forth in an article published recently. 5. When new scientific theories are set forward they usually begin with relating new observations to familiar concepts based upon older observations. 6. A force is needed to set a mass in motion.
8.3.3 Translate the following sentences, pay attention to the meanings also.
I. So far, electrons have been treated as particles, but it can be shown that electrons have a wave nature also. 2. The warm air heats air above it. Also, the warm air will rise, and going to a region where the pressure is less it will expand. 3. In this chapter we have created symbols that are associated with vectors. Also, various vector operations have been given possibility us to represent actions in nature mathematically. 4 The curved shadow of the earth on the Moon even thousands of years ago was regarded as proof that the earth was a sphere. Also, the fact that different constellations (созвездия) were seen in northern and southern parts of the World was taken to indicate that the earth was curved.
8.3.4 Translate the following sentences, pay attention to the meanings again.
1. If at a given instant the velocity remains constant with respect to distance along a streamline, the flow is said to be uniform. Again, it must be remembered that, if there is a change either in magnitude or direction along the streamline, then the flow is non-uniform. 2. Solid sugar, when added to water, dissolves and forms a homogenous solution. Liquid alcohol and water also mix irrall proportions to form solutions. It is generally possible by suitable means, to separate again the constituents of solutions, one method being by distillation. 3. There are several methods of investigating the structure of the upper atmosphere from the ground. Again, spectroscope studies of the radiation from Aurora have enabled determinations to be made of the temperature in the region near the 70-mile level. 4. The fact that electrical energy can be converted into mechanical energy can be readily observed in the electric motor. Again, electric energy can be converted into heat energy by means commonly used electrical heaters, for example.
8.3.5 Translate the following sentences, pay attention to the meanings otherwise (иначе, в противном случае):
1.From early times man has been continually creating and improving devices to assist him in completing tasks that would otherwise be difficult or impossible. 2. Space vehicles can carry the scientist's instruments as well as the scientist himself to region otherwise not accessible to collect information otherwise unattainable. 3. A force is a push or pull, which tends to start, stop or otherwise change the motion of a body on which in acts. 4. External forces, whether lifting or otherwise, that act upon a body are termed "loads". 5. All the engine parts must be checked before flight; otherwise, some engine failure may occur. 6. The pilot has to watch the controls all the time; otherwise, the plane will be unstable.
8.3.6 Translate the following sentences, pay attention to the meanings yet (однако, все же, тем не менее).
1.The nucleus of an atom contains most of the atom's mass yet it occupies little of the atomic volume. 2. Mendeleyev was able gaps in his table for elements yet to be discovered. 3. As yet we have no? considered the speeds of spaceships. 4. When the new hydroelectric plant will be completed is not yet known. 5. As yet no practical means of controlling this procedure has been found.
8.3.7 Translate the following sentences, pay attention to the meanings still (однако, все же, тем не менее), rather than (а не; вместо того, чтобы):
1. A rocket starts its trip rather slowly, but after its propellant (ракетное топливо) supply is consumed its acceleration increases. 2. In mechanical systems energy will be stated in joules (джоуль) rather than in ergs (эрг). 3. Rocket may differ from each other. Still the principles of rocketry are the same. 4. The simpler phenomena of magnetism are known for every student, but a complete understanding of the mechanism of magnetic action is still the subject of advanced research.
8.3.8 Translate the following words and word combinations which connect the separate parts of the sentence. Make up the sentences with them.
to begin, in addition, otherwise, hence, in short, alternatively, yet, first, so, as a result, to sum up, rather, again, nevertheless, conversely, likewise, also, then, in contract, accordingly, in summary, briefly, still, moreover, second, further, similarly, however, besides, now therefore, thus, first of all, finally, next, in consequence, lastly, furthermore, to summarize.