Алматинский Институт  Энергетики и Связи



    Кафедра иностранных языков










    Методические указания для студентов II курса направления «Радиотехника»
























    Алматы 2006

СОСТАВИТЕЛЬ: С.Н. Колмакова. Английский язык. Технический перевод. Методические указания для студентов специальности 050719 – Радиотехника, электроника и телекоммуникации. – Алматы: АИЭС, 2006.- 35с.








         Методические указания предназначены для тренировки и закрепления терминологического словаря по устным темам и рассчитаны для студентов по направлению «Радиотехника». Задания носят информативный характер. Они позволяют расширить словарный запас и закрепить знания о том, в каком контексте можно употребить ту или иную лексическую единицу.

         Студенты самостоятельно читают и переводят тексты по различным темам и выполняют упражнения к данным текстам.

















Рецензент: ст.преп.каф.ИЯ Коробейникова Л.Я.


         Печатается по плану издания Алматинского института энергетики и связи на 2006 г.



                                      @ Алматинский институт энергетики и связи, 2006 г.



Unit 1. Portable Computers

1.1 Match these words with their definitions:


Surface on which pictures or data are shown


Electrical force


Pattern used as a guide for creating letters or characters


Individual dot on a computer screen


Network of lines crossing at right angles


Pointed implement for drawing or writing


Portable board with a clip at the top for holding papers


1.2 Read the text and decide why the author chose the title Delete Keys. Can you suggest a better title?

Delete Keys – Clipboard Technology

         For the last generation, Silicon Valley and Tokyo have been working to design computers that are ever easier to use. There is one thing, however, that has prevented the machines from becoming their user-friendliest: you still have to input data with a keyboard, and that can require you to do a lot of typing and to memorize a lot of elaborate commands.

         Enter the clipboard computer, a technology that has been in development for the 20 years but took hold in the mass market only this year. Clipboard PCs- which, as their mane suggests, are not much bigger than an actual clipboard-replace the keyboard with a liquid crystal display (LCD) screen and an electronic stylus. Users input data by printing individual letters directly on the screen.

         There are two technologies at work in a clipboard PC: one allows raw data to get into the computer and the other allows the computer to figure out what that data means. The first technology relies principally on hardware and varies depending on the particular computer. In one system, marketed under the name GRIDPad, the computer’s LCD screen is covered by a sheet of glass with a transparent conductive coating. Voltage is sent across the glass in horizontal and vertical lines forming a fine grid; at any point on the grid, the voltage is slightly different. When the stylus –which is essentially a voltmeter –touches the screen, it informs the computer of the voltage at that point. The computer uses this information to determine where the stylus is and causes a liquid crystal pixel to appear at those coordinates. The position of the stylus is monitored several hundred times a second, so as the stylus moves across the glass, whole strings of pixels are activated.

         “What we do is sort of connect the dots,” says Jeff Hawkins, the creator of GRIDPad. “Users can then write whatever they want on the screen with a kind of electronic ink”.    

Making that writing comprehensible to the computer, however, requires the help of some powerful software. When the stylus is being used, the computer is programmed to look for moments when the tip does not touch the screen for a third of a second or more. Every time this happens –and it happens a lot when somebody is printing – the software assumes that one letter or number has been written. The pixel positions of this fresh character are then passed on to the computer’s pattern recognition software, which instantly identifies the letter or number written.

The software does this by first cleaning up the character –smoothing out crooked lines ad removing errant dots. The remaining lines and curves are then compared with a series of templates in the computer’s memory that represent hundreds of thousands of different versions of every letter in the English alphabet and all ten numerals. When the computer finds the closet match, it encodes the character in memory and displays it on the screen as if it had been typed. The entire process takes just a fraction of a second. To delete a word, you simply draw a line through it. To move to the next page, you flick the stylus at the bottom of the screen as if you’re flicking the page of a book.

There are a handful of clipboard computers now on the market, including GRIDPad, which is sold in the US; Penvision, manufactured by NCR and sold around the world; and Sony’s Palmtop and Canon’s AL Note, both sold only in Japan. IBM and Apple are also pouring millions of dollars into the technology.

In addition to this hardware, a variety of software is also making its way to the market. Depending on the power of the computer and the sophistication of the software, clipboard systems can be programmed to understand the particular quirks of a particular user’s printing; this is especially useful feature in Japan, where elaborate kanji characters make up most of the written language. Improvements in software may soon allow machines sold in the US to understand not only printing but continuous script as well.

Given such flexibility, the designers of clipboard computer are predicting big things – and a big market – for their products. “There is no doubt about it,” says an optimistic Hawkins. “You are going to own one of these things in the not-too-distant future.”


1.3 Decide whether the following statements are true or false in relation to the information in the text:

a) the Americans and the Japanese are working together to produce user-friendlier computers;

b) the clipboard computer was first sold twenty years ago;

c) on a clipboard, an electronic pen replaces the traditional keyboard;

d) in the GRIDPad system, when the pen touches the screen, it informs the computer and a liquid crystal pixel appears at that point;

e) the software decides that one character or number is complete if the tip of the stylus is not in contact with the screen for more than half a second;

f) the whole process of recognizing letters or numbers and printing them on the screen takes very little time;

g) there are many clipboard computers sold today which are all available everywhere in the world;

h) clipboard system can be made to understand any kind of writing.


1.4 Find the reference for the words in italics in the text:

         a) from becoming their user-friendliest;

         b) one allows raw data to get;

         c) it informs the computer;

         d) every time this happens;

         e) which instantly identifies;

         f) it encodes the character in memory;

         g) this is an especially;

         h) for their products;


1.5 Find the word or phrases in the text that have similar meaning to:

Understand, sold, covering, points, join, making even, not straight, made by mistake, move quickly and sharply, unique features.


1.6 Choose the correct word to complete each sentence. You may have to change some words slightly:

a) electron, electronic, electronics, electronically

         An ______ pen is one example of an input device.

         A computer solves problems______ .

         Many _______ students go on to work as engineers;

b) technology, technological, technologically, technologist

         The computer is the greatest ______invention of the 20th century.

         There are two ______ involved in a clipboard PC.

         Today’s computers are _______ far superior to those used a few years ago;

c) identify, identifying, identifiable, identity

         The clipboard’s pattern recognition software immediately ______ the letters and numbers written by the stylus.

          Most computer companies will not allow people without an ______card to enter their premises.

         A password is a mechanism for _____the computer-user and allowing access;

d) compute, computing, computation, computerize, computerization

          The ______ of the manufacturing division will be expensive in the term, but cost-effective in the long term.

         We should be able to ______ our profit for next year fairly accurately with the new program.

         I could tell from all the ______on the board that a maths lesson was in progress.


1.7 Read the text:

General Features of operating System

         An operating system is a master control program which controls the functions of the computer system as a whole and the running of application programs. All computers do not use the same operating systems. It is therefore important to assess the operating system used on a particular model before initial commitment because some software is only designed to run under the control of specific operating systems. Some operating systems are adopted as “industry standards” and these are the ones which should be evaluated because they normally have a good software base. The reason for this that software houses are willing to expand resources on the development of application packages for machines functioning under the control of an operating system which is widely used. The cost of software is likely to be lower in such circumstances as the development costs are spread over a greater number of users, both actual and potential.

         Mainframe computers usually process several application programs concurrently, switching from one to the other, for the purpose of increasing processing productivity. This is known as multiprogramming, which requires a power operating system incorporating work scheduling facilities to control the switching between programs. This entails reading in data for one program while the processor is performing computations on another and printing out results on yet another.

         In multi-user environments an operating system is required to control terminal operations on a shared access basis as only one user can access the system at any moment of time. The operating system allocates control to each terminal in turn. Such systems also require a system for record locking and unlocking, to prevent one user attempting to read a record whilst another user is updating it, for instance. The first user is allocated control to write to a record and other users are denied access until the record is updated and unlocked.

         Some environments operate in concurrent batch and real-time mode. This means that s “background” job deals with routine batch processing whilst the “foreground” job deals with real-time operations such as airline seat reservations, on-line booking of hotel accommodation, or control of warehouse stocks. The real-time operation has priority, and the operating system interrupts batch processing operations to deal with real-time enquires or file updates. The stage of batch processing attained at the time of the interrupt is temporarily transferred to backing storage. After the real-time operation has been dealt with, the interrupted program is transferred back to internal memory from backing storage, and processing recommences from a “restart” point. The operating system also copies to disk backing storage the state of the real-time system every few minutes to provide a means of “recovering” the system in the event of a malfunction.

         An operating system is stored on disk and has to e booted into the internal memory RAM where it must reside throughout processing so that command are instantly available. The operating system commands nay exceed the internal memory capacity of the computer in which case only that portion of the OS which is frequently used is retained internally, other modules being read in from disk as required. Many microcomputers function under the control of a disk operating system known as DOS. 


1.8 Match these common DOS commands with the appropriate explanation:


a)     searches for a specific string of text in a file;

b)    allows a text file from the current directory to be displayed on screen;

c)     allows the user to change the mane of a file;

d)    saves the contents of the hard disk to a floppy disk for security purposes;

e)     is used when it is necessary to change the current directory;

f)      clears data from the screen;

g)     alphabetically sorts and lists a disk directory;

h)     makes back-up copies of the contents of one disk to another;

i)       deletes a specified file from the current directory, specified drive, or

specified path;


j) produces a status report of the currently logged-on disk, indicating the

amount of disk space used, the available capacity, and the number of files on disk.


Unit 2. Online Service

2.1 Read the text:

Online Service

         I’m frequently asked which online service is best, but the answer is there is no best. Rating a particular service over another is entirely subjective. Price is important to some people, while the number of files available for download is important to others. Because of these and so many other different judgments, there can be no absolute. It all comes down to individual needs and preferences.

         Still, users tent to be fiercely loyal to their “home” online service-which is usually the first online service they ever used. They tend to judge all other online services based on this first service – often preventing themselves from seeing the advantages of a specific service. For my part, I like all the services I use and I’m on two dozen.

         Each offers one or more products or features that either do not exist elsewhere or are superior to the same features on other service. And I’ve really subjective reason for being on one service – I use it to send monthly articles to magazines in Japan.

         So, the real answer to the question is simple: the best online service is the service that has what you want and is easy for you to use. The point? Keep an open mind when checking out an online service.  Judge it based on what it offers and how it meets your needs – not in comparison to what you’re used to using. Eventually, we’re all going to be interlinked, no matter which service we use, in what DIALOG’s Richard Ream calls a “network of networks”.

         Until then, most of us have to go to more than one service to find everything we need.   

TAB Book Clubs Online: You’ve probably seen magazine ads for The Computer Professionals’Book Society. These are sponsored by TAB Books. This division of McGraw –Hill is now online on BIX, taking order and answering questions from members. The club conference is moderated by Tammy Ray and Jeanette Shearer. You can check them out by typing JOIN TAB.BOOK.CLUBS.

         Dell Computer Forum: Dell Computer Corporation has opened a product support area on CompuServe. The Dell area is part of the PC Vendor D Forum. Type GO DELL or GO PCVEND to take a look.

         CompuServe bolstered its position in Europe by making some of its services available via France’s national Mintel system in July. French Mintel users have access to an extra-cost service that is essentially a “limited edition”, English-language version of CompuServe. Among the services available are software and database downloads. E-mail and message –base posting are not available to Mintel users.

         Hobby Group Expands: DELPHI’s Hobby Shop special-interest group continues to expand its areas of interest. The most recent additions to the database and the group topics are Antique Auto, which focuses on classic vehicles, and Autotech, where you can learn about new cars and technology.



2.2 Decide whether these statements are true or false:

a) most people chose an online service because of the price or the number of available files;

b) everybody has one service which he/she likes more than all the others;

c) you should judge each service according to whether it is better or worse overall than the service you are currently using;

d) eventually, all services will be accessible from the service you are using;

e) McGraw-Hill is owned by BIX;

f) Tammy Ray and Jeanette Shearer think the BIX service is average.


2.3 Fill in the gaps in this summary:

         In my opinion, there is no single “best” online service. The choice depends on your ______ needs and preferences. Most users have their own _______, but this can prevent them from seeing the _______ of other services. Each one offers something which is either _______ to that service, or which is _______ than the same features on other services. So, when considering an online service, decide whether its features _________ to what you need. Until all services are _______, most of us will need to _________ using more than one.


2.4 Match each word in the first column with a synonym in the second column:










For my part




Until then



2.5 Before reading the text below, answer the questions:

a) what are the advantages of digital transmission?

b) how does digital transmission differ from analog transmission?

c) what information does the code supply?

Analog transmission

         The older telephone systems function on the basis of analog signals representing voice modulation patterns which are represented by variations in wave forms. When using telephone lines for transmitting data by terminal to a computer, the digital signals from the terminal need to be converted to analog signals by a acoustic coupler or modem prior to transmission. A modem is a device  which serves a dual purpose because it acts as a Modulator and DEModulator, hence the name MODEM. An analog communication system requires a modem at either end of the communication line. When the signals are received by the distant computer, the signals are reconverted to digital form prior to being input for processing.

Digital Transmission

         Analog transmission has been in use for many years as the basis of telephone technology and is very effective for this purpose, but it is not so suitable for high-speed transmission of information. Digital transmission consists of electrical pulses representing data in binary code as a series of on/off pulses. A number of different codes exist, some of which are based on a 6-, 7-, or 8-bit structure. ASCII is a 7-bit code and EBCDIC is an 8-bit code. The codes represent characters, transmission control signals, information separators, and device control. Digital technology has a number of advantages compared to analog, including higher transmission speed, lower incidence of errors, and the facility for mixing data consisting of voice, image, and the text on the same circuit. It is for this reason that data transmissions will be increasingly digital in the future. A network structure known as Integrated Digital Network facilitates these aspects.


2.6 Give the correct word to the following definitions:

a)  a combination of electronic devices and conductors that from a conducting path;

b) an agreement that covers the procedures used to exchange information between co-operating computers;

c) this kind of transmission has been the basis for telephone technology for many years, though it is gradually being replaced;

d) to send programs or data from a central computer  to a remote PC;

e) single vibrations of electric current;

f) a VDU screen and keyboard used to interact with a computer, usually with no computing capacity of its own;

g) this kind of transmission consists of electrical signals representing data in binary code;

h) a public database that can be accessed over a computer or telephone network;

i) a ____controller controls a number of similar peripheral device such as terminals and links them to the main computer;

j) this merges information from several channels into one channel;

k) a device that converts the computer’s digital bit stream into an analog signal for transmission over a telephone line;

l) a _____board is a public teleconferencing system that allows users to read and write messages;

m) the process of sending signals electronically.


         Unit 3. Programming and Languages

         3.1 Read the following text:

Programs and Programming languages

         Computers can be deal with different kinds of problems if thy are given the right instructions for what to do. Instructions are first written in one of the high-level languages, e.g. FORTRAN, COBOL, ALGOL, PL/I, PASCAL, BASIC, or C, depending on the type of problem to be solved. A program, written in one of these languages, is often called a source program, and it can’t be directly processed by the computer until it has been compiled, which means interpreted into machine code. Usually a single instruction written in high-level language, when transformed into machine code, results in several instructions. Here is a brief description of some of the many high-level languages:

         FORTRAN acronym for FORmula TRANslation. This language is used for solving scientific and mathematical problems. It consists of algebraic formulae and English phrases. It was first introduces in the United states in 1954.

         COBOL acronym for Common Business-Oriented Language. This language is used for commercial purposes. COBOL, which is written using English statements, deals with problems that do not improve a lot of mathematical calculations. It was first introduced in 1959.

         ALGOL acronym for ALGOrithmic Language. Originally called IAL, which means International Algebraic Language. It is used for mathematical and scientific purposes. ALGOL was first introduced in Europe in 1960.

          PL/I Programming Language I. Developed in 1964 to combine features of COBOL and ALGOL. Consequently, it is used for data processing as well as scientific applications.

         BASIC acronym for Beginner’s All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code. Developed  in 1965 at Darthmouth College in the United States for use by students who require a simple language to begin programming.

         C developed in the 1970s to support the UNIX operating system. C is a highly portable general-purpose language.

         Other such languages are APL, PASCAL, and LISP and PROLOG, both of which are used for work in artificial intelligence. LOGO  is a development of LISP which has been used to develop computer-based training packages.

         When a program written in one of these high-level languages is designed to do a specific type of work such as calculate a company’s payroll or calculate the stress factor on a roof, it is called an applications program. Institutions either purchases these programs as packages or commission their own programmers to write them to meet the specifications of the users.

          The program produced after the source program has been converted into machine code is referred to as an object program or object module. This is done by a computer program called the compiler, which is unique for each computer. Consequently, a computer needs its own compiler for the various high-level languages if it is expected to accept programs written in those languages. For example, in order that an IBM RS/6000 may process program in FORTRAN, it needs to have a compiler that would understand that particular model and the FORTRAN language as well.

          The compiler is a system program which may be written in any language, but the computer’s operating system is a true system program which controls the central processing unit, the input, the output, and the secondary memory devices. Another systems program is the linkage editor, which fetches required systems routines and links them to the object module. The resulting program is then called the load module, which is the program directly executable by the computer. Although systems programs are part of the software, they are usually provided by the manufacturer of the machine.

         Unlike systems programs, software packages are sold by various vendors and not necessarily by the computer manufacturer. They are a set of programs designed to perform certain applications which conform to the particular specifications of the user. Payroll is an example of such a package which allows the user to input data – hours worked, pay rates, special deductions, names of employees – and get salary calculations as output. These packages are coded in machine language on magnetic tapes or disk which can be purchased, leased, or rented by users who choose the package that most closely corresponds to their needs.


3.2 Fill in the gaps in these sentences:

a) a _______ ________ is a program written in one of the high-level languages;

b) a program written in a high-level language must be interpreted into _______ ______ before the computer will read and process it;

c) a program designed to perform a specific task is called an _______ ;

d) the ________ ________ or ________ ________ is the program produced when the original program has been converted into machine code;

e) a _______ is a program that converts a high-level language into machine code;

f) they systems program which fetches required systems routines and links them to the object module is known as the ______ _______ ;

g) the ______ _______ is the program directly executable by the computer.


3.3 These are the answers to questions about the text. Write the questions:

a) no, it is quite wordy it is used for commercial purposes;

b) to support the UNIX operating system;

c) an applications program;

d) it is done by the compiler;

e) it fetches required systems routines and links them to the object module;

f) no, they are also sold by other vendors.


3.4 Complete the table below:















Mathematical and scientific purposes





Combines features of COBOL and ALGOL








To support Unix operating system











3.5 Look back in the text, find the references for the words in italics:

a) if they are given the right;

b) it can’t be directly processed;

c) it is called an applications program;

d) commission their own programmers;

e) to write them to meet;

f) that would understand;

g) which controls the central;

h) links them to the object;

i) they are set of programs;

j) which can be purchased.


3.6 Choose the correct word to complete the sentences. You have to change some words slightly:

         a) instruction, instruct, instructed, instructor

Our maths ________ explained to us the principles of binary arithmetic.

We were ________ to document our programs very carefully.

Both ________ and data have to be changed to machine code before the computer can operate on them;

         b) compilation, compiler, compile, compiled

Our university computer does not have a PASCAL _______ .

Usually, a programmer _______ his program before he puts in the data.

A source program can’t be directly processed by the computer until it has been ________ ;

         c) result, results, resulting

The linkage editor links systems routines to the object module. The _______ program, referred to as the load module, is directly executable by the computer.

The ________ of these mathematical operations were obtained from the university mainframe and not from my micro;

         d) specification, specify, specific, specified, specifically 

Our company bought three packages with very _______ applications: payroll, accounts receivable, and accounts payable.

An applications program is designed to do a _______ type work, such as calculating the stress factor of a roof.

Did the analyst give the new programmer the _______ necessary to start on the project?


3.7 Read the program below and the following text:

                          /* CALCULATE AVARAGES */

                          MAIN ( )


                              Float a ,b, c, d, average;


                            print f ( “Enter three numbers : “) ;

                             scan f ( “ %f  %f  %f “, &a , &b , &c ) ;

                            d = a + b + c ;

                            average = d / 3 . 0 ;

                            print f ( “ The average is % f “ , average ) ;



Comment Lines

A C source consists of statements and comment lines. Comment lines are enclosed by the characters /* (at the start of the comment) and */  (at the end of the comment).

The Function Main ( )

Every C program must have a function called main which must appear only once in a program. The parentheses following the word main must be present, but there must be no parameters included. The main part of the program is enclosed within braces ( ), and consists of declaration statement, assignment statements, and other C functions. In the above program there are six statements within the braces: a declaration statement (the first statement of the main program starting with the word float), two assignment statements (the fourth and fifth statements starting with the variable names d and average), and three function statements, two to print information on the screen and one to scan the keyboard for input.

As C a free from language, the semicolon (;) at the end of each line is a must. It acts as a statement terminator, telling the compiler where an instruction ends. Free from means that statements can be identified and blank lines inserted in the source file to improve readability, and statements can span several lines. However, each statement must be terminated with a semicolon. If you forget to include the semicolon, the compiler will produce an error, indicating the next line as the source of the error. This can cause some confusion, as the statement objected to can be correct, yet as a syntax error is produced.

Variables and the Declaration Statement

A variable is a quantity that is referred to by a name, such as a, b, c, d and average in the above program. A variable can take on many values during program execution, but you must make sure that they are given an initial value, as C does not do so automatically. However, before variables can be used in a program, they must be declared in a type declaration statement.


3.8 Complete the sentences:

a) the function _______ must appear only once in a program;

b) /*CALCULATE AVERAGES */ is a ________ line;

c) the statement float a, b, c, d, average is a _______ statement;

d) the program below contains ________ function statements;

e) the assignment statements are on lines _______ and _______ ;

f) the main part of the program is enclosed within _______ ;

g) each line of any C program must end with a ________, which acts as a statement __________ ;

h) if you forget to include the correct punctuation, the _______ will produce a _______ error;

i) a quantity referred to by name is known as a ________ ;

j) a _______ _______ statement must be used to declare variables.


3.9 Find the words in the text that means:

         a) brackets;

         b) not fixed;

         c) systematically check;

         d) recognized;

         e) completed;

         f) starting;


Unit 4. Computer Software

         4.1 In the magazine article which follows, a number of software developers express their opinions on the future of software technology. After reading the article tick the relevant boxes to show which opinions are expressed by the speakers.


Mary Evans

Gerry Harper

Matt Andrews

Bob Bolton

In general, customers are getting what they want.





In general, customers are not getting what they want.





Software is too complex.





Software is not complex enough.





Software developers know what users want.





Software developers don’t know what users want.





                            Catherine Ball investigates this week software.

         Software technology is getting more complicated. Developers have to cut through a jungle of computer languages, operating environments, and shifting standards to choose how they’ll create their software. It’s not an easy job. Software purchasers will have to live with the results for years to come. Which advances in software technology will prevail? Which ones will be just a flash in the pan? I chose four well-known software developers and asked each to talk about current and future trends in software technology. Their comments reveal some common and diverse themes.

         I began asking them if they thought that software purchasers are getting what they need? What should developers be doing differently to give purchasers a better product?

         Mary Evans

         In general, I think people are getting what they want – there are a lot of creative things being done with paint software, word processing, DTP systems, and the like. Do users want more? Of course! Users will always want more. The computer is an incredibly powerful tool, and any software that makes it easier, faster, more creative, or more cost-effective will inevitable be in demand. But I’m generally optimistic about the way things are going at the moment. I think most of the major software manufacturers are able to read the market quite well.

         Gerry Harper

          I’m afraid I completely disagree with Mary.  I just don’t think that software purchasers are getting the technical support they need. While the products are getting more and more complex, and more and more expensive, it seems that support is starting to be thought of as an additional business opportunity. More generally, I’ve thought for some time that applications are getting too big, and that they’re trying to do too much. Yes, they’re versatile and powerful, but they’re also often overwhelming. I think what we need are simple little programs that are easy to understand and use, and that work together to accomplish more complex tasks.

          Matt Andrews

          I really can’t agree with that. To imagine we can just go back to “simple little programs” just ignores the complex needs of many of today’s software users. No. I’m sure that you can’t stop progress. Suppliers know what their customers want – they just can’t supply it quickly enough. I’ve studied the market very closely, and I’ve found that purchasers’ needs seem always to exceed the capability of the available software by a constant time-frame of about six to twelve months.

          Bob Bolton

          I think users are getting what they want, provided that their needs fit the off-the-shelf application. Specialized software is usually so specific that it should be written in-house for businesses. Developers should add features that the customer needs, not what they think customers want. Some effort should be made to get feedback form the users before making an upgrade so that the proper features are added.


          4.2 Each of the following comments from the text is followed by two paraphrases. Decide which paraphrases (a or b) is closer in meaning to the original comment.

          Developers have to cut through a jungle of computer languages, operating environments, and shifting standards …. :

a)     the huge number of languages, environments, and standards makes life

difficult for software developers.

b)    software developers have to act to reduce the number of languages,

environments, and standards which currently exist.

          Their comments reveal some common and diverse themes:

a)     they talk about ordinary and wide-ranging topics;

b)    they agree about some issues, but disagree about others.

          I think most of the major software manufacturers are able to read the market quite well:

          a) most software manufacturers understand what consumers want;

          b) most software manufacturers know how to influence users to buy more of their products.

          It seems that support is starting to be thought of as an additional business opportunity:

a)     increased technical support is a means of making software more attractive

to business;

b)    software manufacturers are using the fact their products are complex to start

selling technical support to their customers.

          ….purchasers’ needs seem always to exceed the capability of the available software by a constant time-fame of about six to twelve months:

a)     it takes about six to twelve months for purchasers to understand fully the

software they buy;

b)    the software customers want now what will only become available in about

six to twelve months.


          4.3 Look back in the text and find words or phrases in the text that have a similar meaning to:

          a) penetrate;

          b) changing;

          c) win, survive;

          d) buyers;

          e) understand;

          f) flexible;

          g) too big, complex to manage;

          h) achieve;

          i) go beyond;

          j) information about a product/service.


          4.4 The features below are common on commercially available word-processing and desktop publishing packages. Match each feature with the correct definition.




Can automatically generate a table of contents for a document

Mail merge

Can carry out simple calculations within a document such as totaling columns

Style sheets

A single text file can contain several ‘rulers’ with different margins and tab settings

Input tagging

Automatic numbering of figures, paragraphs

Maths functions

Can adjust the space between successive characters to produce a ‘best fit’

Table of contents

Program can read in names and addresses from a database and create personalized letters for mail-shots

Auto numbering

Can automatically generate a sorted alphabetical index for a document


Text from word processors and databases can be precoded with tags to allow the correct format to be applied automatically

Index generation

These helps to ensure uniform style throughout a document

Multiple rulers

A writing aid enabling the structure of the document to be worked out be beforehand and used as a guide when doing the detailed writing



          4.5 Write the words for the following definitions:

          a) a program designed to perform a specific function;

          b) a general term for programs which do not form part of a computer but are used when operating;

          c) a facility which allows the user to read in a file of names and create ‘personalized’ letters;

          d) a sequence of instructions that is repeated until a desired condition is reached;

          e) a program that manipulates rows and columns of figures, used especially for accounting;

          f) the combines use on computer of text, graphics, video, animates and sound;

          g) the _____ editor is a system program that fetches required systems routines and links them to the object module;

          h) the business of preparing, printing, and distributing books or magazines to the public;

          i) someone who creates new software products;

          j) a program or series of programs directed at some generic application that can be tailored by the user to match his individual needs.


          Unit5. Computer Networks

          5.1 Read through the text below, and then match each paragraph with the appropriate summary:

          a) ____ network uses, past and present;

          b) ____ how distributed systems work;

          c) ____ networks and the future;

          d) ____ what networks are and how they operate;

          e) ____ the growth of networks, past and present;

                                               Computer Networks

          Computer networks link computers by communication lines and software protocols, allowing data to be exchanged rapidly and reliably. Traditionally, networks have been split between wide area networks (WAN) and local area networks (LAN). A WAN is a network connected over long-distance telephone lines, and a LAN is a localized network usually in one building close together. The distinction, however, is becoming blurred. It is now possible to connect up LANs remotely over telephone links so that they look as though they are a single LAN.

          Originally, networks were used to provide terminal access to another computer and to transfer files between computers. Today, networks carry e-mail, provide access to public databases and bulletin boards, and are beginning to be used for distributed systems. Networks also allow users in one locality to share expensive resources, such as printers and disk-systems.

          Distributed computers systems are built using networked computers that co-operate to perform tasks. In this environment each part of the networked system does what it is best at. The high-quality bit-mapped graphics screen of a personal computer or workstation provides a good user interface. The mainframe, on the other hand, can handle large numbers of queries and return the results to the users. In a distributed environment, a user might use his PC to make a query against a central database. The PC passes the query, written in a special language, to the mainframe, which then passes the query, returning to the user only the data requested. The user might then use his PC to draw graphs based on the data. By passing back to the user’s PC only the specific information requested, network traffic is reduced. If the whole file were transmitted, the PC would then have to perform the query itself, reducing the efficiency of both network and PC.

          In the 1980s, at least 100, 000 LANs were set up in laboratories ad offices around the world. During the early part of this decade, synchronous orbit satellites lowered the price of long-distance telephone calls, enabling computer data and television signals to be distributed more cheaply around the world. Since then, fibre-optic cable has been installed on a large scale, enabling vast amounts of data to be transmitted at a very high speed using light signals.

          The impact of fibre optics will be considerably to reduce the price of network access. Global communication and computer networks will become more and more a part of professional and personal lives as the price of microcomputers and networks should improve our work environments and technical abilities.


          5.2 Match these words and phrases with their definitions:

Word or phrase


Bulletin board

Analyze the syntax of a string of input symbols

User interface

A teleconferencing system allowing users to read messages left by the other users


Agreement governing the procedures used to exchange information between co-operating computers

Make a query

Means of communication between a human user and a computer system


Taking place at exactly the same time as something else


Request a search


          5.3 Read the summary of the text below and fill in the gaps using the list of words below:

distinction, distributed systems, environments, fibre-optic, LANs, parses, protocols, queries, screen handling, synchronous, workstations

          Computer networks link computer locally or by external communication lines and software _______, allowing data to be exchanged rapidly and reliably. The _____ between local area and wide area networks is, however, becoming unclear. Networks are being used to perform increasingly diverse tasks, such as carrying e-mail, providing access to public databases, and for _______. Networks also allow users in on locality to share resources.

          Distributed systems use networked computers. PCs or _______ provide the user ________. Mainframes process ________ and return he results to the users. A user at his PC might make a query against a central database. The PCs passes the query, written in a special language, to the mainframe, which then _____the query, returning to the user only the data requested. This allows both the networks and the individual PC to operate efficiently. 

          In the 1980s, at least 100,000 _______ were set up world-wide. As ______orbit satellites have lowered the price of long-distance telephone calls, data can be transmitted more cheaply. In addition, _______ cable has been installed on a large scale, enabling vast amounts of data to be transmitted at a very high speed using light signals. This will considerably reduce the price of network access, making global networks more and more a part of our professional and personal lives. Networks should also improve our work _______ and technical abilities.

          5.4 Using the reference given, look back in the text and find words that have the similar meaning to:

                   unclear, place, carry out, cost, world-wide

find words that have the opposite meaning to:

                   disparate, conflict, preventing, tiny, increase


          5.5 Read the text, given below:

                                               Network Configurations


In the star configuration, the central computer performs all processing and control functions. All access devices are linked directly to the central computer. The star configuration has two major limitations. First of all, the remote devices are unable to communicate directly. Instead, they must communicate via the central computer only. Secondly, the star network is very susceptible to failure, either in the central computer or the transmission links.


The central switch, which could be a telephone exchange, is used to connect different devices on the network directly. Once the link is established, the two devices communicate as though they were directly linked without interference from any other device. At the end of the session, the connection is closed, freeing capacity for other users and allowing access to other devices. Multiple switches can be used to create alternative transmission routes.


Each device is attached to a network shaped as a continuous loop. Data proceeds in only one direction and at a constant speed round the loop. Devices may send information only when they are in control of the ‘token’. The token is a package of data which indicates which device has control. The receiving device picks up the token, and then clears it for another’s use once it has received the message. Only one deice may send data at any given moment, and each device must be working for the network to function.


A bus network consists of one piece of cable terminated at each end to which all deices are connected. In a bus-based network, each device is able to broadcast a message when it has directed silence for a fixed period of time. All devices receive the broadcast and determine from the content of the message whether it was intended for them. The only problem occurs when two devices try to send at the same time. When a sending device detects another’s transmission, it aborts its own.


          5.6 These are answers to questions about the text. Write the questions:

          a) to connect different devices on the network directly;

          b) no, it goes in only one direction round the loop;

          c) no, only one device may send data at any given moment;

          d) from the content of the message;

          e) it cancels its own transmission.


          5.7 You are a customer interested in the Netplan Eazy Kit. Before deciding whether to buy it, ask questions to find out:

          a) what you need in order to use the Netplan Eazy Kit;

          b) the total number of PCs you can ran on it;

          c) the cost of adding additional PCs;

          d) how difficult it is to install;

          e) what software it runs;

          f) the other features offered.

You represent the makers of the Netplan Eazy Kit. Answer any questions and try to encourage the customer to buy it:

                                               Netplan Eazy Kit

          This is not the only way to share software. If your idea of sharing is looking over a colleague’s shoulder, then Netplan may have the idea solution. To benefit from a network you only need two PCs.

          The Netplan Eazy Kit costs just $215 and gives you all the hardware, software, and cabling you need to link two PCs. And for $100 per PC you can extend the network to up to six users. With Netplan Eazy even the smallest business can save time, and effort.

          Extra efficiency: the Netplan Eazy Kit allows PCs to share the same data and software without having to copy and transfer disks. So whether you’re dealing with customer enquiries or updating accounts, you can do it from the same machine. You can even send messages from one PC to another by e-mail. Netplan Eazy will also save you money on expensive resources like printers.

          It’s so Eazy: if you can use a screwdriver, you can install Nteplan Eazy yourself. That’s all it takes. And one installed, it runs on all popular software. We also offer our customers unlimited access to our Freephone Helpline as part of the package. So why wait? Contact your nearest Netplan dealer today. Details are on the back cover of this magazine.


          Unit 6. Computer Viruses

          6.1 Read the text:

                                      How Computer Viruses Work

          A computer virus – an unwanted program that has entered your system without your knowing about it – has two parts, which I’ll call the infector and the detonator. They have two very different jobs. One of the features of a computer virus that separates it from other kinds of computer program is that it replicates itself, so that it can spread (via floppies transported from computer to computer, or networks) to other computers.

          After the infector has copied the virus elsewhere, the detonator performs the virus’s main work. Generally, that work is damaging data on your disk, altering what you see on your computer display, or doing something else that interferes with the normal use of your computer.

          Here’s an example of a simple virus, the Lehigh virus. The infector portion of Lehigh replicates by attaching a copy of itself to COOMAND.COM (an important part of DOS), enlarging it by about 1000 bytes.

          So let’s say you put a floppy containing COOMAND.COM into an infected PC at your office – that is, a PC that is running the Lehigh program. The infector portion of Lehigh looks over DOS’s shoulder, monitoring all floppy accesses. The first time you tell the infected PC to access s your floppy drive; the Lehigh infector notices the copy of COMMAND. COM on the floppy and adds a copy of itself to that file.

          Then you take the floppy home to your Pc and boot from the floppy. (In this case, you’ve got to boot from the floppy in order for the virus to take effect, since you may have many copies of COMMAND. COM on your hard and floppy disk, but DOS only uses the COMMAND.COM on the boot drive).

          Now the virus has silently and instantly been installed in your PC’s memory. Every time you access a hard disk subdirectory or a floppy disk containing COMMAND.COM, the virus sees that file and infests it, in the hope that this particular COMMAND.COM will be used on a boot disk on computer some day.

          Meanwhile, Lehigh keeps a count of infections. One it has infected four copies of COMMAND.COM, the detonator is triggered. The detonator in Lehigh is a simple one. It erases a vital part of your hard disk, making the files on that part of the disk no longer accessible. You grumble and set about rebuilding your work, unaware the Lehigh is waiting to infect other unsuspecting computers if you boot from one of those four infected floppies.

          Don’t’ worry too much about viruses. You may never see one. There are just a few ways to become infected that you should be aware of. The sources seem to be service people, pirated games, putting floppies in publicly available PCs without write-protect tabs, commercial software (rarely), and software distributed over computer bulletin board systems (also quite rarely, despite media misinformation).

          May viruses have spread through pirated – illegally copied or broken – games. This is easily to avoid. Pay for your games, fair and square.

          If you use a shared PC or a PC that has public access, such as one in a college PC lab or a library, be very careful about putting floppies into that PC’s drive without a write-protect tab. Carry a virus –checking program and scan the PC before letting it write data onto floppies.

          Despite the low incidence of actual viruses, it can’t hurt to run a virus checking program now and then. There are actually two kinds of antivirus programs: virus shields, which detect viruses as they are infecting your PC, and virus scanners, which detect viruses once they’ve infected you.

          Viruses are something to worry about, but not a lot. A little common sense and the occasional virus scan will keep you virus-free.

          Remember these four points:

          a) viruses can’t infect a data or text file;

          b) before running an antivirus program, be sure to cold-boot from write-protected floppy;

          c) don’t boot from floppies except reliable DOS disks or your original production disks;

          d) stay away from pirated software.



          6.2 Match the words and definitions below:

A detonator

A protective device

An infector

To remote all traces of something

To boot

A device used to set off an explosion or other destructive process

To trigger

To discover or recognize that something is present

To erase

To set a process in motion


Something which transmits a disease or virus

A shield

Stolen, obtained without the owner’s consent

To detect

To load the operating system into memory 


          6.3 Decide whether the following statements are true  or false in relation to the information in the text. If you feel a statement is false, change it to make it true:

          a) viruses can’t be spread through a computer network, only via floppies transported from computer o computer;

          b) the virus will spread as soon as you put the infected floppy in your PC;

          c) the infector works by interfering in some way with the normal use of your computer;

          d) the detonator in Lehigh works by altering what you see on your screen;

          e) most viruses spread through pirated games;

          f) you should run an antivirus program every time you see your computer;

          g) there are not very many viruses in circulation;

          h) virus shields are more effective that virus scanners.


          6.4 These are answers to questions about the text. Write the questions:

          a) two, one that infects and one that does the damage;

          b) by interfering in some way with the normal use of the computer;

          c) after it has infected four copies of COMMAND.COM;

          d) every time you access a hard disk subdirectory or a floppy disk containing COMMAND.COM;

          e) yes, by using your common sense and by occasionally scanning for them.


          6.5 Using the line references given look back in the text and find the words or phrases with similar meaning to:

          reproduces, infect, changing, immediately, complain

find word or phrases with the opposite meaning to:

          reducing, removed, records, ignorant, frequency


          6.6 Read the newspaper report and discuss the questions that follow:

NSA consultant’s son is computer saboteur:

A court heard today how a Cornell University graduate student, Robert T. Morris Jr. (25), infected a host of government and educational computer centers with a computer virus, known as ‘worm’, which literally brought all computational activity to a halt in over 6,000 installations. Morris, the son of a prominent National Security Agency computer consultant, was sentenced for his offences yesterday. As punishment, he was required to spend no time in prison but, instead, serve three years’ probation, contribute 400 hours of community service, and to pay a $10,000 fine along with associated court and probation costs.

          a) how serious do you think Robert Morris’s crime was?

          b) do you think the punishment was?

                   1) too severe

                   2) about right not severe enough

          c) do you know of any similar incidents of computer hacking?


          6.7 Decide if these words or phrases have ‘protective’ or ‘destructive’ meaning:

detonator                       infector                 erase                     pirated

infect                             write-protect tab    worm                    virus scanner

hacker                            password              smart card            shield

signature                        cipher                            keyboard lock       access control


          Unit 7. Computers in the Office

          7.1 Read the text:

                                               Visions of Tomorrow

          First safety. Radiation screens are available, and have been for some years. Most of them place an emissions barrier between you and the front of your display, while others encase the entire monitor, protecting you from side and rear emissions as well. Many offices already have these screens available for their workers.

          The paperless office is still a dream, but the basic tools are in place. We receive mail in two basic forms: on paper in an envelope, or electronically on your computers. Most of us have access to e-mail in one form or another. That’s half the battle won. The other half is the bit more difficult, but it can be, and is being, done. All mail can be opened in the mail room and scanned into the computer using optical character recognition (OCR). Then a document-image-processing program takes over and lets you accomplish electronically what you would normally do with paper. Various personal computer products are available for this purpose.

          Pen-based computing is coming into its own. Pen-input capabilities are beginning to show up in hardware, applications, and operating systems. You can’t take notes that will go directly onto your computer, and the technology wouldn’t know what to do with your doodles, but it would know that a doodle isn’t a valid word. And that’s a start – a good one.

          Multimedia really needs no explanation. There are many packages that help you create multimedia presentations, and the tools to create customized multimedia training programs are also plentiful, CD-ROM disks, such as Ziff-Davis’s Computer Select and Microsoft’s Bookshelf, let you access mountains of information with ease.

          Computer are already much smaller than they used to be, and you can’t go to an industry show these days without finding some company promoting its ‘smaller footprint’. When you start talking about laptops, notebooks, and palmtops, the question becomes, ‘how small is too small?’ FAX capabilities are already available on boards that you can plug into your computer. When you combine the technologies present in internal modems with voice recognition, the basics for having your computer replace your phone-voice line are in place.

          Voice recognition is another technology that may appear limited it its present from, but it shows great promise for the future. Current voice-recognition systems can handle speaker- dependent continuous speech or speaker – independent discrete speech.

          Speaking to your computer will be a major factor in the office of the future. In some locations, it is already a major factor in the office of today. Stock is traded in some brokerage houses by verbal command from the broker to the computer. So, you ask your computer a question, and it answers you – verbally. Depending on the rate of speech sampling used and the resolution the A/D converter uses for each sample, we can already create a credible approximation of human speech with digitalized sound.

          Lager display screens?  You can get screens of up to 35 inches now, and between Barco and Mitsubishi competing for the honor of having the largest monitor, it’s hard to predict just how big they will get in the future. As for color, some companies offer upwards of 16 million. Somewhere in that number must lie the perfect color for reducing eye-strain.

          The real disaster that most of us still have to deal with is the tradition keyboard, which is the cause of much pain and suffering in the form of carpal tunnel syndrome and other repetitive-strain injuries. Wrist rests are available to alleviate the problem, and new designs for strange-looking keyboards, star-track style, are moving from the drawing board to the factory.

          Enterprise networks are proliferating almost as fast as LANs did just a year or two ago. Public data networks are ripe for the dialing up and signing on. And the Internet already exists, with several of the research and educational facilities on its membership rolls.

          Worldwide connectively is already available in the enterprise networks of some major corporations. Admittedly, these are proprietary networks, but they are living proof that the concept can and does work.


          7.2 Each of the following sentences from the text is followed by two paraphrases. Decide which paraphrase (a or b) is closer in meaning to the original comment.     

          Pen-based competing is coming into its own:

a)     pen-based computing is receiving the recognition it merits;

b)    pen-based computing is good for tasks where a conventional pen would

normally be used.

          …you can’t go to an industry show these days without finding some company promoting its ‘small footprint’:

a)     at every exhibition these days, you will find at least one company

advertising its own miniature computer;

b)    it is impossible to get invited t a compute show these days unless you have

a contact in a company manufacturing miniature computer.

          Current voice-recognition systems can handle speaker-dependent continuous speech or speaker-independent discrete speech:

a)       some of today’s voice-recognition systems are set up to recognize

continuous speech from certain people, while others can recognize specific words from anyone;

b)      all of today’s voice-recognition systems are set up to recognize either

continuous speech from certain people or specific words from anyone.

          Public data networks are ripe for the dialing up and signing on:

a)     there are public data networks waiting to b used;

b)    public data networks are now sufficiently developed to be used.


          7.3 Give the correct answer and reasons for your choices:

          Do you think the English in the text is:

a)     very formal?

b)    quite formal?

c)     neutral?

d)    quite informal?

e)     very informal?

          Do you think this article originally appeared in:

a)     a computer magazine?

b)    a general magazine for young people?

c)     a general magazine for adults?

d)    an online bulletin board?

e)     the science page of a newspaper?

          Do you think this article is written by:

a)     a British person?

b)    an Australian;

c)     an American;

d)    a non-native speaker of English.


          7.4 Using the references given look back in the text and find the reference for the words in italics:

          a) while others encase;

          b) the other half is a bit more difficult;

          c) but it can be;

          d) it its present form;

          e) it is already a major factor;

          f) which is the cause;

          g) on its membership.


          7.5 Using the references given look back into the text and find the words a similar meaning to:

          a) whole;

          b) usually;

          c) acceptable;

          d) seem;

          e) believable;

          f) decreasing;

          g) spreading;

          h) ready;

          Now find the words or phrases that mean the opposite of:

a)     danger;

b)    destroy;

c)     rare;

d)    separate;

e)     minor;

f)      less than;

g)     enjoyment;

h)     aggravate.


          7.6 Choose the correct word to complete each sentence. You may have to change words slightly:

consider, considered, consideration, considerable, considerably

a)     we’ll have to ______ using another company if they can’t provide the

software we need;

b)    the company has invested a ______sum of money in ergonomic


c)     the CEO has submitted this proposal for your ______ ;

d)    this computer is ______ faster than the old one.

apply, applying, applicant, application, applicable

a)     we have interviewed five ______ for the new position;

b)    the last part of the form is not ______ to foreign students;

c)     my student is thinking of ______ for a government grant to continue his


d)    the new book uses business ______ to teach computer studies.

explain, explained, explaining, explanation, explanatory

a)     the package includes an ______ booklet;

b)    the instructions are very clear and do not require any further _______ ;

c)     it will only take a couple of minute to ______ how the program works;

d)    if you are a new to this system, almost everything will have to be ______ .

depend, depending, dependent, dependence, dependable, dependably

a)     the company has supplied us ______ for over ten years;

b)    we have to reduce our _____ on imported goods;

c)     this is very _______ equipment. We have never ha a serious breakdown;

d)    today, many companies ______ more on FAXes than on mail.

connect, connected, connecting, connector, connectivity, connection

a)     _______ is an important concept in global communications;

b)    he only got that contract because he has ________ in the government;

c)     make sure the _____is not loose before you call a service technician;

d)    once the new telephone lines are ______, our system should be more



7.7 Before reading the text, try to decide which of the following definitions

best describes a management information system:

a)     a system for supplying information to management;

b)    a system for managing information;

c)      a system which supplies information about management.



Information Systems

         The objective of information system is to provide information to all levels of management at the most relevant time, at an acceptable level of accuracy, and at an economical cost.

         Individual businesses require information according to the nature of their operations. A car manufacturer is particularly interested in the extent of competition from oversea s manufacturers in the home market and competition from other home-based manufacturers. A tour operator is concerned about purchasing power and its effect on holiday bookings and the political situation prevailing in the various countries.

         As a general guide, the detail contained in reports containing information varies according to the position of the recipient in the hierarchical management structure. The chairman and managing director of a company require details of operations which are broad in scope and which concentrate on key factors pinpointing economic and financial trends. Functional management require information relating to the departments they are responsible for in sufficient detail to enable them to apply whatever measures are required to bring situations into line with requirements. They require information relating to events as they occur so that appropriate action can be taken to control them.

         Information systems are often computerized because of the need to respond quickly and flexibly to queries. At the bottom level in the information hierarchy is the transaction processing systems, which capture and process internal    information, such as sales, production, and stock data. These produce the working documents of the business, such as invoices and statements. Typically, these are the first systems which a company will install. Above the transaction-level systems are the decision support systems. These take external information – market trends and other external financial data – and processed internal information, such as sales trends, to produce strategic plans, forecasts, and budgets. Often such systems are put together with PC spreadsheets and other unconnected tools. Management information systems lie at the top of the hierarchy of information needs. The MIS takes the plans and information from the transaction-level systems to monitor the performance of the business as a whole. This provides feedback to aid strategic planning, forecasting, and/or budgeting, which in turn affects what happens at the transactional level.


7.8 Decide whether these statements are true or false:

a) all businesses are interested in more or less the same information regardless of the nature of their operations;

b) the managing director of a company needs a lot more detailed information about the day-to-day operations than his executives do;

c) functional management require up-to-the-minute information so that they can take action to control events s they happen;

d) information systems are usually computerized;

e) transaction processing systems are usually the first systems to be installed.


         Unit 8. Computers in Education

         8.1 Read the text quickly to find:

         a) the overall purpose of NCET;

         b) another expression meaning ‘educational technology’;

         c) whether NCET produces learning materials;

         d) how many priorities NCET’s Schooling Directorate has;

         e) three groups of people helped by NCET’s Vocational training programme;

         f) three examples of new and developing technologies that the Council gives advice about.

National Council for Educational Technology

         The Council’s purpose is to bring beneficial change to the processes of learning in the education and training through the development and application of educational technology.

         Educational technology – or learning technology, as it is sometimes known - embraces everything from the way computers, satellites, and interactive video are used in schools, colleges, and industry to issues of copyright and flexible learning. Focusing on the learner, our purpose is to support change in the ways we learn by applying the benefits of educational technology – especially the new information technologies – to the process of learning.

         We design and produce learning materials in all subjects to support education and training. We carry out research and manage projects, offer consultancy on technical matters, support training for trainers and teachers, and offer expertise in areas such as open and flexible learning, resource management, and educational software. We provide a comprehensive information and enquiry service.

Information Technology in Schools

         Through its I.T. in Schools Program, NCET’s Schooling Directorate is pursuing four properties:

To identify and promote and spread good practice in the use of new technologies;

To provide professional guidance to teacher trainers so that they can help teachers and schools in managing I.T. and in applying in to all areas of study;

To develop high-quality curriculum materials and encourage other publishers to do the same;

To give particular support for those concerned with children and young adults with special educational needs, including the handicapped.

Learning after School and at Work

         NCET’s Training Directorate focuses on the needs of those wishing to learn after the school-leaving age. Projects under the Vocational training program include looking into the training needs of women, older workers, and those who use information technology to work from home. In further education, lecturers and senior managers are being helped to plan for I.T. and changing client needs. For industry, our work has included language training in the run-up to 1992, and the application of artificial intelligence systems to training. This directorate also takes the lead in important trans-sectoral issues such as open and flexible learning, copyright, and the use of computers in careers guidance.

Technical Expertise

         Keeping abreast of developments in technology and maintaining a national expertise on standards and specifications is the work of NCET’s Technical Consultancy Directorate. Through links with other organizations, it identifies issues associated with the adoption of new technologies and, where appropriate, carries out projects to assess or develop their potential in education and training. It has a watching brief and provides consultancy on new and developing technologies such as satellites. CD-ROM, and interactive video. Current projects involve the examination of the use of educational software in schools, the use of massive storage systems, and the use of satellites in education and training. The Directorate also produces guidance to users on a wide range of technology, from desk-top publishing and remote sensing to teleconferencing and audio-visual systems.


8.2 Imagine you represent NCET and that a newspaper reporter is interviewing you. Use the information in the text to complete the dialogue in your own words.

Reporter What exactly does the term ‘educational technology’ cover?

You         ________________________________________________

Reporter I see. Apart from offering advice on technical matters, what other services do you provide?

You         ________________________________________________

Reporter Does the I.T. in Schools Program  help teachers as well as students?

You         _________________________________________________

Reporter What about those with special educational needs?

You        __________________________________________________

Reporter What responsibility does the NCET’s Training Directorate have?

You        __________________________________________________

Reporter Does that include helping people in industry?

You        __________________________________________________

Reporter One last question. What kind of work is the Technical Consultancy Directorate doing in schools at the moment?

You        __________________________________________________


8.3 using the references given, look back in the text and find words or phrases which have similar meaning to:

         a) includes;

         b) advantages;

         c) covering everything;

         d) course;

         e) physically or mentally challenged;

         f) approach;

         g) up-to-day with;

         h) instructions to monitor;


8.4 A teacher has been looking at some publicity material for the Adam & Eve program. Read the material and fill in the gaps in he teacher’s notes.

Choose your own text

Adam & Eve allow you to create exercises based on any text you want. The text could be from the course-book you are using, from a reader, from a newspaper – whatever your students are interested in.

Analyze your texts

Adam & Eve will analyze the vocabulary of the text according to the database of word frequency contained within the software. From this analysis you get a precise idea of the level of difficulty of a text. You can compare one text with another text, and you can see whether it fits in with the syllabus your students are working to.

Generate exercise

Adam & Eve will then create a wide variety of exercises based on this analysis. These exercises, which are easily and quickly generated, can be presented to your students either as printed worksheets - you will be provided with the answers on a separate sheet – or can be put on to a floppy disk so that a performance will be automatically evaluated and the score recorded.

Simple use

No previous experience with computers is necessary. If you can type using a word processor you will have no difficulty in putting your texts into the software. The whole program is ‘menu driven’ in any one of five languages so you will always know where you are and it will be obvious from the screen where you can go next. There is a full and clearly written manual to help you get started. Once you are familiar with the basic workings, don’t forget to go back to the manual to learn about the program’s finer points.

Something for the whole school

Up to twenty-five different teachers can work with Adam & Eve. The program will keep each teacher’s texts and the exercises generated on those texts in separate files which are only accessible using that teacher’s password.

Adam & Eve

1. You can create exercises from any text e.g.

________, _________, ________ .

2. You can ________ a text to assess its, ________to _______ it to another text, or to determine its suitability for a given _________ .

3. Exercises can be easily ________, and can be presented to students either as _______ or on ________ .

4. No ______ of computers is needed. This program is _______ driven in any of _______ languages. The package comes with a comprehensive ________ .

5. Up to ________ teachers can use the program. It can store all generated texts and exercise in separate _______ . Each teacher has a personal ______ to ______ his or her files.


8.5 Choose the correct word to complete the sentences. You may have o change some words slightly:

create, created, creating, creation, creativity

a)     the ______ of this database will give us a huge advantage over our

competitors in the long run;

b)    the procedure for _______ a new file is very simple;

c)     the new position we are advertising is going to require someone with

enormous ________ .

generate, generated, generative, generation

a)     exercises can be quickly _______ using this program;

b)    our company is working on a new _______ of software products;

c)     this development is sure to _______ great interest.

access, accessed, accessible, accessibility

a)     all user requests to _______ a database are handled by the database

management system;

b)    _______ to the computer room is restricted to authorized personnel;

c)     those files are not _______ unless you know the password.

analyze, analyzed, analysis, analyst

a)     when a text is _______, all pronouns, prepositions, conjunctions, and verb

forms are automatically identified;

b)    this _____ shows that most PC users are not aware of the full potential of

the software products they buy;

c)     the DBMS first receives the request and ______ it for syntax errors.


Unit 9. Computers in Medicine

9.1 Read the text:

Computers in Medicine

         Eileen Carleton has a whimsical talent for hand signals. When 65-year-old stroke victim draws a vertical line in the air, her family knows she is referring to a very slim friend of her son.

         But a lexicon of hand gestures – no matter how inventive – and the few dozen words left in Carleton’s vocabulary following her stroke are inadequate for conveying even the most basic wishes, observations, or questions to her family. Through pilot study at the School of Medicine, however, Carleton has learned to communicate using a specially designed computer program that has restored not only her ability to express herself, but also, family members and therapists say, her enthusiasm for life.

         The stroke that Carleton suffered in 1985 damaged the portion of her brains where words and speech are processed, leaving her with a condition known as aphasia, or the inability to se language. While she is able to comprehend much of what people say to her, she can’t formulate her thoughts into coherent phrases or sentences.

         Using the computer program, she can select from hundreds of pictures that represent people, objects, actions, and descriptive qualities and arrange them in sequence to communicate thought, obviating the need to use words.

         ‘When Eileen first entered the study, she depended on her husband Steve to figure out what she wanted to say from her gestures and facial expressions. All she could say was, ‘Come on! You know!’, with increasing frustration.’ said Dr Cheryl Goodenough Trepagnier, associate professor of rehabilitation medicine.

         The computer program used in the Tuffs study was developed in conjunction with the Palo Alto, California, Veterans Administration medical Center and grew out of research in the 1970s at the Boston Veterans Administration Hospital. ‘Researchers had found that chimpanzees, whose brains lack specialized language centers, could engage in a kind of communication using plastic tokens that represented different objects an actions,’ Dr Trepagnier said. ‘We wondered whether aphasics – whose language processing areas are damaged – could benefit from the same idea.’

         On small cards, researchers drew symbols representing different people, objects, and actions trained aphasic patients to select and arrange the cards to form statements or questions. By selecting cards showing a woman, a person walking, store, and a chicken, for example, an aphasic patient could ask his wife to go to the grocery store to buy some poultry.

         ‘Some patients become quite adept at using the cards,’ Dr Trepagnier said. ‘But as a number of card increased, it became awkward and time-consuming to find the right cards and then put them back in the right order. Patients found the cards too cumbersome and didn’t use them at home.’

         In the mid-1980s, however, a computer program was developed that, like the cards, used pictures to represent ideas, but was easier to use. With the program, aphasic patient could select from hundreds of pictures simply y a moving a computer mouse. Dr Trepagnier was among the first researchers to test the new software on aphasics.

         ‘At first, there was a great deal of doubt over whether aphasics would be able to use computer.’ Dr Trepagnier said. “But we found that many took to the computer quite easily. As they became more proficient on the computer, some showed gains in their overall self-confidence, as well.’

         It’s hardly an exaggeration to say that the program transformed Carleton’s life. In the aftermath of her stroke, Carleton ‘was so despondent she sat on the couch all day and did nothing,’ said her speech therapist, Evelyn Chedekel. ‘But as soon as she learned that she’s capable for communicating with the computer, her whole world changed. Now she can introduce topics, rather than hoping that people will guess what’s on her mind. When her husband passed away suddenly, she was able to carry on.’

         Encouraged by the results thus far, Dr Trepagnier will study ways of expanding the computer program’s capabilities. For unknown reasons, many aphasics have more trouble conceptualizing verbs than nouns. Making the intellectual connection between a picture of a sailboat and the idea of a sailboat is easier than connecting a picture of a boy running to the idea of running. Trepagnier hopes to overcome this difficulty by designing a program that enables patient to see computer images in motion.


9.2 Read the summary of the text and fill in each gap with an appropriate word:

         Eileen Carleton’s life has been completely transformed by Dr Trepagnier’s computer program. Whereas she used to be entirely _______ on her husband to deduce what she wanted to say, now she is able to _______ her own ideas. Before, she had to hope other people would ______ what she was thinking. Now she is ________ of starting a conversation with others.

         Dr Trepagnier’s program was _______from research on symbolic communication by chimpanzees, which _______specialized language areas in their brains. As these language-processing areas are also known to be _______ in human aphasics, the same idea of using visual symbols to represent different people, objects, and actions was thought likely to be effective. Using cards to show these symbols proved _______for most patients, but the introduction of computer technology has greatly _______ the use of the system by aphasics, whose lives have been immeasurably ________since the invention of this program.


9.3 Each of the following sentences from the text is followed by two paraphrases. Decide which paraphrase (a or b) is closer in meaning to the original comment.

But a lexicon of hand gestures – no matter how inventive – and the few dozen words left in Carleton’s vocabulary following  her stroke re inadequate for conveying even the most basic wishes, observations, or questions to her family:

a)     Eileen Carleton’s hand gestures and words are not clear enough to allow her

thoughts to be understood;

b)    Eileen Carleton does not have enough hand signals and words to express her thoughts.

While she is able to comprehend much of what people say to her, she can’t formulate her thoughts into coherent phrases or sentences:

a)     Eileen understands quite a lot of what people are saying to her and knows

what she wants to say. However, she can’t translate her thoughts into understandable messages;

b)    Eileen finds it difficult to choose the right words and sentences to express

herself while she is concentrating on what people are saying to her.

 As they became more proficient on the computer, some showed gains in their overall self-confidence, as well:

a)     some people found that their growing confidence about using the computer

made them generally more self-confident;

b)    the more people used their computer, the more self-confident they became.

It’s hardly an exaggeration to say that the program transformed Carleton’s life:

a)     the program changed Carleton’s life in some respects;

b)    the program completely changed Carleton’s life.


9.4 Match each word in the list on the left with the appropriate synonym on the







Take part in



Figure out


Engage in

Completely changed










9.5 Read the text:

Robot Eye for Surgery

Laparoscopy is a procedure in which a camera is pushed through a small hole in the abdominal wall. It allows a surgeon to operate by television, with instruments inserted through a second hole. The small size of the incisions reduces the trauma for patients and speeds up recovery. Until recently, the procedure has required the presence of a second doctor to guide the camera for the surgeon. A new development now facilitates this procedure. A robot maneuvers the camera in response to the surgeon’s head. Four tiny transmitters, worn on a headband, send radio signals to a base unit. As the surgeon moves his head left or right, up or down, forwards or backwards, the robot causes the camera to track his movements, enabling him to view the exact area he wishes to see.

Robot Surgery for Eye 

Techniques derived from virtual reality will soon allow surgeons to feel as well as see the inside of the eye during an operation. During the operation, the surgeon manipulates a set of controls known as the master. These are connected through a high-performance computer to the robot. The robot’s limbs move in exactly the same way, except that the movements can be scaled down as much as thousand times, thus eliminating hand tremor and reducing damage to the eye. The computer also relates at three-dimensional view of the inside eye, which the surgeon can see wearing a virtual reality helmet and ‘feel’ via a sensory feedback system which emulates the forces generated by cutting with a surgical tool.


9.6 Read the following text:

      Database Management System

         Databases are used within a medical context for many purposes. For example, they are used to hold patient details so they can be accessed from anywhere within a hospital or network of hospitals. With the recent improvements in image comprehension techniques, X-rays and scan output can also be held in databases and accessed in the same way.

         These multi-user databases are managed by a piece of software called a database management system (DBMS). It is this which differentiates a database from an ordinary computer file. Between the physical databases itself and the users of the system is the DBMS. All requests for access to data from users – whether people at terminals or other programs running in batch –are handled by the DBMS.

         One general function of the DBMS is the shielding of database users from machine code. In other words, the DBMS provides a view of the data that is elevated above the hardware level, and supports user-requests such as ‘Get the PATIENT record for patient Smith’, written in a high-level language.

         The DBMS also determines the amount and type of information that each user can access from a database. For example, a surgeon and a hospital administrator will require different views of a database.

         When a user wishes to access a database, he makes an access request using a particular data-manipulation language understood by the DBMS. The DBMS receives the request, and checks it for syntax errors. The DBMS then inspects, in turn, the external schema, the conceptual schema, and the mapping between the conceptual schema and the internal schema. It then performs the necessary operations on the stored data.

         In general, fields may be required from several logical tables of data held in the database. Each logical record occurrence may, in turn, require data from more than one physical record held in the actual database. The DBMS must retrieve each of the required physical records and construct the logical view of the data requested by the user. In this way, users are protected from having to know anything about the physical layout of the database, which may be altered, say, for performance reasons, without the users having their logical view of the data structures altered.


9.7 Match the following words with their definitions:



Logical record

The collection of data transferred as a unit


The user’s permitted view of the data

Physical record

The logical design of the database

Internal schema

An item of data such as a number, a name

External schema

The way that the data is physically held

Conceptual schema

The collection of data relating to on subject






































         1. Computing – Keith Boeckner and P. Charles Brown, Oxford University Press, 2002.

         2. English for computer science – Norma D. Mullen, Oxford University Press, 2000.

         3. A framework for smart systems – Steven H. Kilm, Oxford University Press, 2004.

         4. Dictionary of computing, 3rd ed. – Market House Books, 1995.













Unit 1. Portable Computers ………………………………………………………3

Unit 2. Online Service ……………………………………………………………7

Unit 3. Programming and Languages …………………………………………….9

Unit 4. Computer Software……………………………………………………….14

Unit 5. Computer Networks ……………………………………………………...17

Unit 6. Computer Viruses ………………………………………………………..20

Unit 7. Computers in the Office………………………………………………….23

Unit 8. Computers in Education …………………………………………………28

Unit 9. Computers in Medicine ………………………………………………….31


















Сводный план 2006 г., поз 36










Сара Нурлановна Колмакова






(для студентов специальности 050719 – Радиотехника, электроника и  телекоммуникации)





Редактор Ж.М. Сыздыкова








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