Шет тілдері кафедрасы










Ағылшын тілі

 Техникалық мәтіндер негізінде студенттердің оқу және

сөйлеу іскерліктерін дамытуға  арналған әдістемелік нұсқаулар

















Aлматы 2003



ҚҰРАСТЫРУШЫЛАР:У.Ж. Жумабекова, С.М. Нарбаев. Ағылшын тілі. Техникалық мәтіндер негізінде студенттердің оқу және сөйлеу іскерліктерін дамытуға арналған әдістемелік нұсқаулар - Алматы:АЭжБИ,2003 –3 б.










       Әдістемелік нұсқаулар студенттердің оқу және сөйлеу іскерліктерін техникалық мәтіндер негізінде дамытуға  арналѓан. Бұл нұсқауларда арнайы іріктеліп алынған техникалық мәтіндер және сол мәтіндерді жан-жақты қарастыруға арналѓан жаттығулар берілген.








           Пікір жазушы: шет тілдер кафедрасы меңгерушісі  Жакиева К.Р.






Алматы энергетика және байланыс институтының жоспары бойынша 2003ж. басылған







Ó Алматы энергетика және байланыс институты,2003ж.











Striving for Energy self-sufficiency


Some new words

consume   v.  -  пайдалану

sedimentary   adj. – т±ндырмалы

survey   v. - зерттеу

increase   v. - кµбейту

grid   n.  - энергетикалыќ ж‰йе

link   v. -  байланыстыру

up-grade n.  -  µсім

schedule v.  - тізімін жасау

thus for   adv.  - б‰гінге шейін

deposit    n. - кен орыны

strive (for) v. - талпыну

obtain   v. - алу

consequence   n. – нєтижесі

distribution  n. - бµлу


·    Мєтініді оќымас б±рын мына сµздерге т‰сініктеме беріњіз (дефиниция):

1.  infrastructure

2.  network

3.  a highly integrated sector

4.  internal market

5.  management



Striving for Energy self-sufficiency


     After Russia and the Ukraine, Kazakhstan is the third largest energy producer among the former Soviet republics. Its share of the former Union’s overall energy production in the eighties stood at about  51/2 per cent. The major primary energy source is coal, which accounts for 50-55 per cent of the primary energy consumed in the republic. Petroleum takes second place with about one-third of the total, followed by natural gas with some 13-15 per cent.

     Thus far, 169 hydrocarbon deposits have been discovered in the republic, of which 87 are oil fields, 17 gas fields, 30 gas and oil, 25 condensation oil and gas, and 10 condensation oil. These are concentrated in western Kazakhstan. Besides the known oil and gas basins, there are several sedimentary basins in Kazakhstan which have either been inadequately examined, or not surveyed at all. These include northern Turgay, Priaralsk, central Syrdarjya, Shu-Sarysu, Ili, Balkash, south Dzhungar, Alakol, Zaysan and the Priyrtysh depression.

     Despite being rich in indigenous source and an important fuel and power producer, Kazakhstan is a net importer of energy. This anomalous situation is the result of three main factors. 

     Firstly, Kazakhstan’s energy sectors is highly integrated with the neighboring republics. Energy distribution was not planned in terms of the requirements for an “internal market” for Kazakhstan, but rather to satisfy demand at the closest consumption area, anywhere in the former Soviet Union. Secondly, as a result of the investment priorities drawn up in Moscow as well as the lack of hard currency, the oil and gas industry was increasingly unable to obtain access to the most modern technology. As a consequence, old equipment and the inadequate maintenance of the existing infrastructure increased inefficiency and resulted in Kazakhstan producing far bellow its potential. Thirdly, the price structure for energy was highly distorted. This weakened the incentive to focus on energy savings and effectively subsidies the inefficient use of available resource.

     The government has consequently decided on a programme which should make the country energy self-sufficient by the year 2000. This will be done by an all-round improvement in energy management: identifying more efficient ways of meeting the country’s energy needs and increasing the local exploitation of energy source. 




     Kazakhstan’s electricity supply is carried across two completely separate networks. In the north, the grid links up with the Russian network, whereas in the south the grid is linked to the Central Asian network. Although Kazakhstan also exports electricity, it is currently required to import about 30 per cent of its electricity requirement.

     About 80 per cent of the electricity is generated from coal by the country’s 54 coal-fired power stations, although the aim is to increasingly make use of gas-powered stations. There are also 5 hydro-electric facilities. The only nuclear power station is located on the Caspian coast. Most of the power stations are old and will have to be replaced or up-graded. Kazakhstanenergo, the state-owned electricity utility, which is scheduled to be privatized around 1996, has signed an exchange agreement with Cincinnati Gas &Electric which will provide advice on how to compete in an open-marker environment.      



1.Мына с±раќтарды аѓылшын тіліне аударыњыз жєне мєтінді пайдаланып жауап беріњіз:

1.  Ќазаќстанда негізгі энергия кµзі неден µндірілуде?

2.  Негізгі м±най кен орындары ќайда орналасќан?

3.  Ќазаќстан электр энергиясын импорт±а шыѓарады ма?

4.  Неге Ќазаќстанныњ энергетикалыќ ж‰йесі кµрші елдерге тєуелді?

5.  ‡кімет ќандай баѓдарлама жасады?

6.  Ќанша пайыз энергия кµмірден µндірілуде?


2.Мына сµйлемдерді ќазаќ тіліне аударыњыз:

1.  Kazakhstan is rich in natural resource: coal, iron ore, oil and gas.

2.  80 % of thermal power plants use coal burning, the rest use gas and fuel oil.

3.  Kazakhstan with its huge raw resources is nevertheless becoming more and more depended on outside suppliers.

4.  It was planned to satisfy demand at the closest consumption area anywhere in the former Soviet Union.

5.  Our government decided to construct a new nuclear power plant.


3.Мына диалогты толыќтырыњыз:



B. There are such power plants in Kazakhstan: the nuclear power plant, the thermal power plant and the hydro power plant.


B.91% of electric power is produced by the thermal power plants, 8% by hydro power plants and less than 1% by the nuclear power plants.


B.83% of thermal power plants use coal burning, the rest use gas and fuel oil.


B. Kazakhstan  with his huge row materials is nevertheless becoming more and more dependent on outside suppliers of electric power.


B. During recent year, the majority of hydro and heat power plants as well as heat and electric supply systems have been privatized or taken in concession.


B. In order to solve this problem in 1997, the government established KEGOC.


B. There are also regional distribution companies.


B. The Kazakhstan companies operating the national electric system has the highest credit rating.


B. Our Government has planned to build the nuclear power plant in Balkhash.


B. I think that our natural resources enable us to develop the branch of power engineering in our country.



4.Мєтіннен  Perfect Tense бар сµйлемдерді табыњыз жєне Perfect Tense б±л сµйлемде пайдаланылу себебін т‰сіндіріњіз.


5.Мєтіннен  Gerund  бар сµйлемдерді табыњыз жєне оныњ д±рыс аударылуына кµњіл бµліњіз.


6.Мына сµздердіњ антонимін жєне синонимін беріњіз:






to require

to demand


to make



to use









to survey








History  of  Hydro Power


Some new  words

wheel         n.  -  дµњгелек    

unveil         v.  -  ойлап табу, жасап  шыѓару      

thereafter  adv. -  содан соњ

reliable     adj. -  сенімді

majority     n. -  негізгі бµлімі

involve      v.   -  ќ±рамына енгізу,ќатыстыру

flood         n.  -   су тасќыны

provide      v.   -  қамтамасыз ету

impact        n. -  әсері


Мєтінді  оќымас  б±рын  мына  сµздер  мен  сµз тіркестерін  сµздікті

пайдалана  отырып аударыњыз:

1.incandescent light  blub  fossil  fired  plants

2. medium  sized  hydro-electric  generating  stations

3. expansion

4. a  constant  supply  of  electricity


History of Hydro Power


    The first  use of moving water  to produce electricity was a water wheel  on the  Fox  river  in Wisconsin in 1882. Two  years after  Thomas Edison  unveiled the incandescent  light bulb. The first  hydro electric  power plant  at Niagara  Falls  was completed  shortly thereafter. Hydro-power  continued to play  a major  role in  the expansion of electrical service  in this  century, both  in  North  America  and  around  the world. Contemporary  Hydro-electric  power  plants  generate  anywhere  from a few  kW, enough  for a single house, to thousands  of MW, power enough  to supply  a large city.

    Hydro-electric power plants were much  more reliable  and efficient  than  the fossil  fuel fired  plants. This  resulted in a poliferation of small to medium  sized  hydro-electric  generating  stations  distributed  wherever  there was supply  of moving  water  and a need  for electricity.

    The  majority of these  power  plants involved  large dams, which flooded  vast areas  of land  to provide  water to storage  and a constant  supply  of electricity. The environmental  impacts of  such  large  hydro projects  are  being identified  as a  cause  for concern. It is  becoming  increasingly  difficult  for  developers to  build  new  dams  because  of opposition  from  environmentalsists  and people  living  on the  land to be flooded.



1.Мына с±раќтарѓа жауап  беріњіз:

1.When  and where  was  the  first  use of   hydro power?

2. When  was  the  incandescent  light  bulb  unveiled?

3. Hydro-electric  power plants were  much  more  reliable, weren’t  they?

4. Why is it becoming increasingly difficult  for developers  to  build  new  dams?


2.Мына сµйлемдердегі асты сызылѓан сµздерге с±раќ ќойыњыз:

1) Hydro power  continued to play  major  role  in the  expansion  of electrical  service in this century,  both  in  North  America  and  around  the world(3).

2)The  majority of power plants  involved  large  dams, which flooded  vast  areas (2).


3.Мєтінді  пайдалана  отырып  мына сµйлемдерді  толыќтырыњыз:

1.    Thomas  Edison  invented … .

2.    Hydro-electric  power stations produce … .

3.    Hydro-electric  power  plants  can supply … .

4.    It is  not  easy  for developers … .


4.Мына сµйлемдерді  аѓылшын  тіліне  аударыњыз  (Past  Tenses)

1.    Алѓашќы  су  дµњгелектері  Фокс  µзенінде  пайдаланылды.

2.    Алѓашќы  су  электр  станциясы  Ниагара  сарќырамасында  салынды.

3.    Электр  станциясыныњ кµбею оѓан деген с±раныстан  туындады.

4.    Егер де єлемде  1950 ж  электр энергиясына  деген  с±раныс  саѓатына  бір триллилон  болса, ол 1990 ж он екі есеге µсті.


5.Берілген  сµздер  мен сµз тіркестерін пайдалана  отырып  су электр  станциясыныњ  ќ±рылысын суреттењіз:

river;  dam; hydroturbine runner; to flow; to rotate; a generator; water supply; a blade;


6.Мына шағын мєтіннен  кейбір грамматикалыќ ќателерді  табыњыз:


Electric power plants


 The history of electrical power have been  characterized  by a  steadily  increasing  rate  of  power consumption. Electric power is generate at electric power plants. The main  unit of an  electric power plant  comprise  a prime mover  and  the generate which  it rotates. There is many various sources  of energy  which are required  to actuate  the prime  mover. According  to the kind of energy  used by the prime  mover plants is divide with  groups. Termal, water-power and wind. 


7.Мына таблицаны толтырыњыз:   


Power plants

Main units (devices)

Source of energy

Hydro power plant



Nuclear power plant



Thermal power plant




8.В тобынан А тобындаѓы сµздердіњ  синонимін кµрсетіњіз:

A.1 to produce; 2.to unveil; 3. to complete; 4.contemporary; 5.to supply; 6. an impact.


B. 1 to finish; 2. to provide; 3.to invent; 4. to generate; 5. up-to-date;           

6. an influence.



Olive   oil  power  plants   could   give  Opec   the  slip


 Мєтінді  оќымас  б±рын  мына  сµздерді сµздікті

пайдалана  отырып аударыњыз:


liquid     n.  сұйықтық 

utility     n   

residue     v

drop       n

obvious   adj.

fuel    n


to  supply     v

meaning   n

get rid  off       v

tempt   v 

press  v



   1.Now  olive  oil,  the  golden  liquid  on  which  commercial  empires,  to  say  nothing  of  the  Mediterranean  diet,  have  been  built,  is  about  to  get  yet  another  use.

   2.Endesa,  one  of  Spain’s  biggest  utilities,  has  announced  plans  to  build  two  olive   oil-fired  power  station  at  a  cost  of  almost  $40m.  Well,  the  fuel  is  not  quite  olive  oil.  It’s   the  solid  residue – left  after  every  drop  of  oil  has  been  pressed  from  the  fruit.

   At  a  time  when  the  other  stuff  that  comes  out  of  places  such  as  the  North  Sea,  the  Middle  East  and  some  of  the  less  hospitable   parts  of  Russia   is  heading  for  $30  a  barrel  ,  Endesa’s  initiative  has   obvious  commercial  potential.

  3. It  is  environmentally  friendly,  too.  The  fibrous  mass  that  is  orujo  has  a  high  thermal value  when burnt,  but  it  otherwise  tricky  for  olive  growers  to  get  rid  off. 

     Spain  is  handily  placed  as  a  provider  of  orujo.  It  has  nearly  200m  olive trees,

making  it  the  world’s  largest  producer  of  olive  oil – and  consequently  of  fuel  for  the  new  power   plants.

  4. They  will be  built  in  Jaen  and  Cuidad  Real,   at  the  heart  of  Spain’s  olive – growing  region,  and  when  they  come  into  operation  in  the  second  half  of  next  year  they  will  produce  32  megawatts,   or  enough  to  supply  100,000  people. They will  be  the  first  power  stations  in  the  world  to  use  olive   residues  to  generate  electricity.

   5.If  the  technology  turns  out  to  be  a  commercial  success   Spain’s  neighbours – olive  oil  producers  all – could  well  be  tempted  to  the   follow  Endesa’s  lead.

   That  could  give  Opec  a  whole  new  meaning.  Instead  of  the  Organisation  of  Oil  Exporting  Countries  it  might  find  itself  reinvented  to  become  the  Olive  Producers  Electricity  Cooperative.  Now  that  would  give  them  something  to  think  about,  be  it  in  Aberdeen  or  Azerbajan.


                                                                                                               Mark  Milner                             

1. Мәтінді оқыңыз және көрсетілген бөлікте берілген негізгі мағлұматты табуға тырысыңыз:

2. Қай сөйлем мәтіннің мазмұнына сәйкес келеді( False-F; True-T):

a.    Doctors  are  sure  that  olive  oil  can  prevent  heart  attacks. -  F

b.   Two  new  power  stations  will  be  built  in  Spain.-

c.    The  fuel  for  the  power  stations  is  pure  olive  oil.-

d.   Spain  makes  more  olive  oil  than  any  other  country.-

e.    Similar  power  stations  already  exist  in  other  countries.-

f.     Opec  is  going  to  change  its  name.


3.Мына сөздерден  сұраулы сөйлем құрыңыз және оларға жауап беріңіз:

1.is; golden; what; liquid? 2.company; has; what; power; in Spain; station; plan; two olive oil-fired; to build? 3.Endesa’s ;potential; commercial; has; obvious; initiative; hasn’t it? 4.environmentally; it; too; friendly;is? 5.trees; how; has; Spain; many? 6. plants; will; and; be; power; where; built; olive oil; the? 7. will; power; first; they; be; the ;such; station?


4.Мына тақырыпшаларды мәтін мазмұнына сай етіп реттеп жазыңыз:

1.The new technology and the new meaning of the organisation

2.Endesa’s new project

3.Olive oil power plant in  Spain

4.The new ways of  utilizing olive trees

5.Olive trees and our environment


5.Мєтінді пайдалана отырып берілген сөйлемдерді аяқтаңыз:

1.Endesa has plans ….

2.These power plants are….

3.Spain decided to build…in ….

4.Olive oil power plant …produce…

5.They … the first….

6.Instead of Opec it might….


6.Мәтіннен “s” жалғауымен берілген сөздерді табыңыз және функциясын анықтаңыз:

e.g.: Endesa’s new project – Possessive Case


7.Берілген етістіктерді дұрыс шақта жазыңыз:

1.Olive oil (to be ) the golden liquid in the near future.

2.Endesa’s olive oil power plant (to have) no by-products.

3.These power plants (to be built) in Spain.

4.At present Spain (to produce) great amount of olive oil products.

5.This project (can give)  Opec a new meaning.


8.Берілген сөйлемдерді ырықсыз етісте (Passive Voice)  жазыңыз:

1.They will build the olive oil power plant in Jean and Cuidad Real.

2.These power plants will generate 32 megawatts elecrtic current.

3.The engineers put into operation  two power plants.

4.The government asked Endesa to build the new power station.

5.Olive oil power plants supply 100,000 people with electricity.



9.Мәтіннен халықаралық терминдерді табыңыз және олардың синонимдерін беріңіз.


10.Мына сұраққа жауап беріңіз:

 According  to  the  text,  why  is  it  a  good  idea  for  Spain  to  build  olive  oil-fired  power  stations ?  List  as  many  reasons  as  possible. For  example:

The  price  of  fossil-based  oil is  increasing. 


11. Мына етістіктерден зат есім жасаңыз:

provider; generation; producer; operation; growth; usage; application; knowledge; movement; requirement;


12.Мына сөздердің антонимін және синонимін беріңіз:

supply; utilize; come into operation.  


Some General Engineering Subjects


Some new words


       define v  - анықтау, айқындау

treat v  -    өңдеу

eat end v     -   таралу

deal with v    -    айналысу, қарастыру

equation  n   -     теңестіру

subdivision  n    -    бөлшек

unity n    -    бірлік

extend n     -   өлшем

acceleration  n   -     жылдамдату

rigid adj  -  қатты

involve v   -     қатыстыру, құрамына енгізу

lever n    -    рычаг


Мына терминдерге қатысты сөздерді және сөз тіркестерін көрсетіңіз:


        Physics                 the theory of equations

Mechanics                   numerical calculations

Arithmetic                   dimensions, lines …

Algebra                        static’s, dynamics

Geometry                     natural phenomena



Some General Engineering Subjects


Mathematics is the science of space and quantity, concerned with concrete bodies and collections; it is now recognized to be a vast aggregation of deductions from assumptions about pure abstractions.

Mathematics comprises several large branches. The first of these is arithmetic.

Arithmetic is concerned with numbers and numerical calculations. In elementary arithmetic, operations of addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division are defined and systematized, first with whole numbers and then with fractions. Higher arithmetic treats these operations more abstractedly and more generally, and extends the number system to include complex numbers.

Algebra goes beyond arithmetic by greatly extending the symbolism. In particular, algebra utilizes letters for unknown, or specified, numbers. This makes it possible to deal with known and unknown numbers on an equal footing. A large body of algebra is the theory of equations. If includes systematic studies of equations of the first, second, third and fourth degrees in one unknown. Such equations can always be solved. Equations of the fifth and higher degrees cannot always be solved by algebraic process(i.e. addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, and extraction of roots), although the theory guarantees  the existence of solutions. The study of equations also includes system of equations involving two or more unknowns. The most important systems are of the first degree, called linear systems. Linear algebra includes also determinants, matrices, vectors and tensors.

Geometry is a vast field of mathematics with many subdivisions. The basic elements of geometry are points, lines, and planes. More complicated elements, such as triangles, circles, and cubes, are defined in terms of the undefined elements. In the 17th century a scheme was devised for uniting geometry and algebra. This is now known as analytic geometry, or coordinate geometry.

Physics is the systematic study of natural phenomena to discover the basic laws governing them. Traditionally physics is divided into several major topics, namely, mechanics, heat, optics, electricity and magnetism, atomic physics and nuclear physics. Because of the remarkable unity of Nature this separation into topics is, to some extent, artificial and only exists for convenience. Newton is second law, relating action force to acceleration, and his third law, relating action and reaction, form the basis of mechanics. Maxwell is equations, which combine in mathematical form the laws discovered by Ampere, Coulomb and Faraday, form the basis of electricity and magnetism and optics.

An understating of statistics is necessary to describe the behaviors of bulk matter and, with the laws of mechanics, electricity and magnetism, forms the basis of heat and thermodynamics. All the above topics constitute the realm of classical physics, which reached a high state of development by the end of the 19th century. Modern physics began with the work of Planck and the theory of relativity of Einstein, reaching its climax in the theory of quantum mechanics.

Due to atomic physics it became possible for Mendeleyev to construct his Periodic Table of Elements, to predict their properties, and to understand the nature of atomic spectra.

Mechanics is the oldest branch of physics, dealing with the state of rest or motion of particles and rigid bodies and with forces acting on bodies. The subject has three main branches: static dynamics and fluid mechanics. In statics, the forces acting on the body, or system of bodies, are so arranged that the body is in equilibrium – it does not move in any way. Typical problems involve the balancing of weights on a lever, the stresses and strains on a bridge, and, in hydrostatics, the forces acting on a body submerged in of floating on a liquid.


1.Мына сөйлемдерге сұрақ қойыңыз:

1.Arithmetic is concerned with numbers and numerical calculations.

2.Algebra utilizes letters for unknown, or specified, numbers.

3.The basic elements of geometry are points, lines, and planes.

4.Physics studies natural phenomena and discovers the basic laws governing them.

5.Mechanics deals with the state of rest or motion of particles and rigid bodies and with forces acting on bodies.


2. Мєтінді пайдалана отырып мына сөйлемдерді аяқтаңыз:

… the theory of equation, and …

The major topics of  physics …

Mechanics has three main branches …

More complicated elements of geometry …

Higher arithmetic treats …


3.Мәтіннен  Passive Voice сөйлемді тауып, Active Voice жазыңыз:

e.g.: Traditionally physics is divided into several major topics. (P.V.)

         We divide physics  into several major topics. (A.V.)


4.Мәтіннің ішінен мына сөйлемдердің синонимін табыңыз:


field;                                                      to invent;

to determine;                                         to spread


e.g.:1.field – branch


5.Мына терминдердің дефинициясын жазыңыз:


heat;                                                       magnetism;

optics;                                                    atomic physics.



6.Мына атақты ғалымдар туралы мағлұмат беріңіз:

I. Newton;                                                     C. A. Coulomb;                                              

J. Maxwell;                                                    M. Faraday;

A. Ampere;                                                    A. Einstein.

e.g.: A. Einstein – a well-known German physicist and mathematican….


7.Мына етістіктерден сын есім жасаңыз:




to know


to complicate


to apply


to act


to use


to solve


to relate





Metric system and its original


Some new words

measure n. - µлшем ќолдану

work out v. - жете зерттеу

unit n. - бірлік

define v. - аныќтау

divide (into) v. - бµлу

volume n. - кµлем

spread n. - таралу

decimal n.  - ондыќ

however - біраќ та

adopt v. - ќолдану

compare v. - салыстуру

equal - тењ



·      Кµп н‰ктелердіњ орнына мына сµздерді ќойыњыз: to adopt, to measure, to define.


1.    Scientists wanted … units for length and weight.

2.    These units are used … the weight.

3.    Metric system … in our country. (Passive)



Metric system and its original.


1.    The idea of a universal system of measures and weights  dates from long ago, but it was realized only two centuries ago. The metric or decimal system was worked out by the French Academy of science in 1791. I low were the units for length and weight defined then?

2.    Two French scientists who were given the task to define these units took one fourth of distance from the North  Pole to the Equator on the geographical meridian which is running through Paris (the distance from Dunkirk in France to Barcelona in Spain ) and divided it into ten million equal parts. One of these parts was called a metre or “measure”. For shorter measurements the metre was divided by ten , for longer things the metre was mutilated by tens.

3.    It was easy to use the same metre for volume. The weight of one cubic centimeter of water was called a gramme. Thus  the metric system was created.

4.    Russian scientists played a great part in the spreading of the metric system in Russian as in other countries.

5.    As far as in 1867 D.I.Mendeleyev addressed Russian scientists to help to spread the decimal system. D.I.Mendeleyev also worked out he project of the low about the use of the metric system in Russia.

6.    It should be said , however , that up till the end of the 19thy century different units of measurement were used in various countries. In our country metric system was adopted in 1918, soon after the Great October Socialists Revolution. Now it is adopt by most countries. None of the system of the past can be compared simplicity to that of our days.        


1.Мына таќырыптар мєтінніњ ќай абзацтарына сай келеді:

1.    The role of Russian scientists

2.    The measurement of liquid

3.    The task of scientists

4.    The first step Academy of Science

5.    Common use units of measurement

6.    The great contribution of Russian scientists


2.Д±рыс жауабын кµрсетіњіз:


1.    When was the metric or decimal system worked out?

a.    in 1791

b.   in 1891

c.    in 1797

2.    What was two French scientists given to define?

a.    the units for electric charge

b.   the units for magnetic field intensity

c.    the units for length and weight

3.    How was the weight of one cubic centimeter of water called?

a.    kilogramme

b.  gramme

c.  metric ton

4.    What was the contribution of Russian scientists?

a.    They played a great part in the spreading of the metric system

b.   They played a great part in the making an experiments

c.    They played a great part in describing the effect of metric system

5.    What was in our country adopted in 1918?

a.    the unit of force in the International Measurement System

b.   the unit of the measurement of radioactivity

c.    units of metric system


3.Мына сµйлемдерді ќазаќ тіліне аударыњыз:

1.    We often use to measure units of the metric system.

2.    The metric system is the international system of measures and weights which is based on the metre and the kilogramme.

3.    The metric unit of length is the metre.

4.    There is also another system of measures and weights, the Imperial System, which is based on the foot and the pound.


4.Мына сµйлемдерді Passive Voice жазыњыз:

1.    The French Academy of Science worked out the metric or decimal system.

2.    Two French scientists made an experiment  to define the units for length and weight.

3.    D. I. Mendeleyev worked out the project of the law about the use of the metric system in Russia.

4.    In the 19th centry countries used different units of measurement.

5.They divided the metre into 100 centimetres.


5.Мына есептерді шыѓарыњыз:

1.The dimensions of the window are 1*1/3  (one and one third) m. by  1*2/5 (one and two fifths) m.

       What is the area of the window?

2.    The area of the wall is 5 times that of the window area. What is the area of the wall?


6.Мына ќысќартылѓан сµздерге т‰сініктеме беріњіз:


1.    a. c.                                                                                                                                                                                    

2.    d.c.

3.    l.m.t

4.    h.

5.    h.p

6.    m.p.h

7.    t.-

8.    deg

9.    c.





7.Мєтінге ќарамастан мына тапсырманы  орындањыз:







The metric system was worked by the French Academy of Science.












8.Мына таблицаны толтырыњыз:



Imperial System


Metric System

1 inch(in)


2.540 cm

1 foot(ft)



1 yard(yd)



1 mile(m)




Transmission Technology


      Most transmission-at least most transmission  in the local exchange plant-is analog in nature. That is, the signal being transmitted varies continuously, both in frequency and in amplitude. A high-pitched voice mostly contains high frequencies; a low-pitched  voice contains  low frequencies. A loud voice contains a high-amplitude signal; a soft voice contains a low-amplitude signal.

       In the long-distance network, and more and more in the local exchange plant, digital transmission is being used. A digital signal is comprised of a stream of 1s and 0s that portray the analog voice signal by means of a code.

       Analog signals can be combined (i.e., multiplexed) by combining them with a carrier frequency. When there is more than one channel, this is called frequency division multiplexing (FDM). FDM was used extensively in the past but now has generally been replaced with the digital equivalent: time division multiplexing (TDM). The most popular TDM system is known as tier 1 (T1). In a T1 system, an analog voice channel is sampled 8,000 times per second, and each sample is encoded into a 7-bit byte. Twenty-four such channels are mixed on these two copper pairs and transmitted at a bit rate of  1.544 megabits per second . T1 remains an important method of transmitting voice and data in the PSTN (see Figure 4).

       Such a digital transmission scheme (and certainly there are modifications of it that improve efficiency, capacity, or quality, etc.) works hand in glove with the digital-switching schemes we talked about previously. Those 1s and 0s need not be transmitted through an actual circuit in that switch; rather, one can simply turn on and off the various electronic devices that make up that switch.

       Thus a talking path (i.e., a switched circuit) in the PSTN can be either analog or digital or a combination thereof. In fact, a digital signal can transmitted over a packet-switched network as easily as a circuit-switched network. Now if we consider the next step, we see that digitized voice is not very different from data, and if data can be transmitted over a packed network, then so can digitized voice. This, of course, is now known as voice over the Internet. The challenge, of course, is to get the transmitted signal to the destination fast enough. After all, this may well be a time-sensitive voice conversation. A second challenge is to get each packet, which is a small piece of a voice conversation, to the destination in the proper order. Progress is being made, and we can well believe that packet switching will play an important role in the PSTN of tomorrow.              



1.̸òiííåí áàðëûº àáðèâèàòóðàëàðäû òàóûï, îëàðäû» ìà¹ûíàñûí



2.̸òiííåí òåðìèíäåðäi òàáû»ûç. Îëàðäû êàçຠòiëiíå àóäàðû»ûç.


3.̸òiíäå ºîëäàíûë¹àí òåðìèíäåðäi ïàéäàëàíûï 10 ñ¼éëåì º½ðàñòûðû»ûç. ʼðøi»içãå, ¼çi»içäi» ºàçàºøà í½ñºà»ûçäû à¹ûëøûí òiëiíå àóäàðó¹à áåði»iç, ñîäàí êåéií ðîëüäåði»içäi àóûñòûðû»ûç.



Broadband Access and Service


     Transmission in the telecommunications networks of today is, more and more, digital in nature, and the transmission medium of choice is fiber. «Digital,» however, does no more than imply a string  of 1s and 0s racing through the network. But how are these 1s and 0s to be arranged? At what speed are they to travel? What route should they take? Answers to questions such as these have taken many forms and have made for the most complicated aspect of the telecommunications business.


       There has never been a scarcity of  coding schemes in the industry. Starting with Morse code, going to the Baudot code, then the ASCII code, we have seen each proving for better transmission and higher quality. In this section we will discuss the most popular and important three codes.




      SONET is a standard for optical telecommunications transport. The SONET  standard is expected to provide the transport infrastructure for worldwide telecommunications for at least the next two or three decades. It defines a technology for carrying many signals of different  capacities through a synchronous optical hierarchy. The standard specifies a byte-interleaved multiplexing scheme. The synchronous optical hierarchy mentioned is shown in table2.

       The SONET standards govern not only rates, but also interface parameters; formats; multiplexing methods; and operations, administration, maintenance, and provisioning (OAM and P) for high-speed transmission. We most often hear of  SONET rings in which fiber strands are strung around a metropolitan area in a ring configuration. The system is designed so that transmission can take place in either direction; should there be a fault at any one location, transmission will immediately take place in the opposite direction. That is, the system is self-healing.


     Asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) is a high-performance switching and multiplexing technology that utilizes fixed-length packets to carry  different types of traffic. Information is formatted into fixed-length cells consisting of 48 bytes (8 bits per byte)  of payload and 5 bytes of cell header. The fixed cell size guarantees that time-critical information (e.g., voice or video ) is not adversely affected by long data frames or packets. Of course, if the cells were longer in length the system would be more efficient, because the header would take up a smaller percentage of the total cell.

      Multiple streams of traffic can be multiplexed on each physical facility and can be managed so as to send the streams to many different destination. This enables cost savings through a reduction in the number of interfaces and facilities required to construct a network.


      Asymmetric digital subscriber line (ADSL) is, essentially, a modem that employs a sophisticated coding scheme. This coding scheme permits transmission over copper pairs at rates as high as 6 Mbps for distances of  9,000 to 12,000 feet. Speeds of this magnitude bring to mind television signals; a 6-Mbps channel can easily handle a television movie.

      ADSL succeeds because it takes advantage of the fact that most of its target applications (video-on-demand, home shopping, Internet access, etc.) function perfectly well with  a relatively low upstream data rate – hence the word asymmetric. LECs are now using ADSL as an access technology for their television businesses and  for Internet access.



1.̸òiííåí àëûí¹àí ñ¼ëåìäåðäi àÿºòà»ûç. Îëàðäû ºàçຠòiëiíå àóäàðû»ûç.

1. Transmission in the telecommunications networks of today is, more and more, … in nature.

2. What  … should they take?

3. There has never been … of coding schemes in the industry.

4. The SONET … is expected to provide … for worldwide telecommunications for at least two or three decades.

5. We most often hear of SONET … in which … … are strung around a metropolitan area in a … configuration.

6. Information is formatted into fixed-length … consisting of 48 bytes (8 bits per byte) of … and 5 bytes of … header.

7. Of course, if the … were longer in length the system would be more …, because the … would take up a smaller … of the total cell.

8. Multiple … of … can be … on each physical facility and can be managed so as send the … many different … .

9. Asymmetric digital subscriber line (ADSL) is, essentially, a … that employs a sophisticated … scheme.

10. Speeds of this … bring to mind television … ; a 6-Mbps channel can easily … a television movie.

11. LECs are now using ADSL as an … technology for their television businesses and for Internet … .


1.̸òiííåí áàðëûº ºûñºàðòóëàðäû òàóûï, æàçû»ûç. Îëàðäû» iøiíåí ºàéñûñû á½ðûííàí òàíûñ, àë ºàéñûñû æà»à åêåíií àéòû»ûç.


2.²ûñºàðòóëàðû áàð ñ¼éëåìäåðäi ºàçຠòiëiíå àóäàðû»ûç.


3.̸òiííi» æîñïàðûí º½ðû»ûç.




      The first commercially available radio and telephone system, known as improved mobile telephone service (IMTS), was put into service in 1946. This system was quite unsophisticated – but then there was no solid state electronics available.

       With IMTS, a tall transmitter tower was erected near the center of a metropolitan area. Several assigned channels were transmitted and received from the antenna atop this tower. Any vehicle within range could attempt to seize one of those channels and complete a call. Unfortunately, the number of channels made available did not come even close to satisfying the need. To make matters worse, as the metropolitan area grew, more power was applied to the transmitted or receiver, the reach was made greater, and still more subscribers were unable to get dial tone.

       The solution to this problem was cellular radio. Metropolitan areas were divided into cells of no more than a few miles in diameter , each cell operating on a set of frequencies (send and receive) that differed from the frequencies of the adjacent cells. Because the power of the transmitter in a particular cell was kept at a level just high enough to serve that cell, these same sets of frequencies could be used at several places within the metropolitan area. Beginning in 1983, nonwireline carrier, were given a franchise to operate in each major territory.

       Two characteristics of cellular systems were important to their usefulness. First, the systems controlled handoff. As subscribers drove out of one cell and into another, their automobile radios, in conjunction with sophisticated electronic equipment at the cell sites (also known as base stations) and the telephone switching offices (also known as mobile telephone switching office [MTSO] ), transferred from one frequency set to another with no audible pause. Second, systems were also designed to locate particular subscribers by paging them in each of the cells. When the vehicle in which a paged subscriber was riding was located, the equipment assigned sets of frequencies to it, and conversation could begin .

       The initial transmission technology used between the vehicle and the cell site was analog in nature. It is known as advanced mobile phone service (AMPS). The analog scheme used was called frequency division multiple access (FDMA).

       But the age of digital transmission was upon us, and many companies operating in this arena concluded that a digital transmission  scheme would be preferred. The result was time division multiple access (TDMA). In Europe, the selected scheme was an adaptation of the TDMA used in the United States, and it was called group special mobile. Since then, the name  has been changed to global system for mobile communications (GSM).

       As if that was not enough, a third group of companies determined that a special spread-spectrum or frequency-hopping scheme would be even better, and this also was developed and trailed. This is called code division multiple access (CDMA). Thus, there are at least four schemes that may be used for communications between a vehicle and the cell site. Communications between the cell site and the MTSO utilized more conventional techniques, such as microwave, copper pairs, or fiber optics.

       The continuing growth of cellular communications (there are presently about 20,000 new subscribers signing on each day), led government and industry in the United States to search for additional ways to satisfy the obvious need not only for ordinary telephone service but also for special services and features, smaller telephones, and cellular phone use. This search led to the PCS industry. Additional frequency bands were allocated for their use, and rather than assign them to the first comers or by way of a lottery, the FCC auctioned them off through a sophisticated bidding contest that brought the US treasury billions of dollars.

       Geosynchronous satellites represent yet another way of providing wireless communications. These satellites, located 22,300 miles above the earth, revolve around the earth once each 24 hours – the same as the earth itself. Consequently they appear to be stationary. Communications between two places on earth can take place by using these satellites; one frequency band is used for the unlink, and another for the downlink. Such satellite systems are excellent for the transmission of data, but they leave something to be desired for voice communications . This is a result of the vast distance and the time it takes for an electrical signal to make an earth-satellite-earth round trip. That time amounts to one quarter of a second. A reply from the called subscriber takes another quarter of a second, and the resultant half a second is definitely noticeable. Conseqently, voice communications is seldom carried via geosynchronous satellites.

       Yet another wireless telecommunications technology is the low earth orbit (LEO) satellite system. LEOs are satellites that communicate directly with handheld telephones on earth. Because these satellites are relatively low – less than 900 miles – they move across the sky quite rapidly.

       In a LEO system the communications equipment on a satellite acts much like the cell site of a cellular system. It catches the call from earth and usually passes it to an earth-based switching system. Because of the speed of the satellite, it is frequently necessary to hand off a particular call to a second satellite just rising over the horizon. This is akin to a cellular system, except that in this case it is the cell site that is moving rather than the subscriber.

       Several systems are now in the planning stage, and in fact  many satellites  have already been launched. The most noted is Iridium, created by Motorola, which would utilize  sixty-six satellites. A second system , called Globalstar, would employ forty-eight satellites. There are at least two or three others that are well advanced in terms of preparations to launch.


1.Êåëåñi ñ½ð຺à æàóàï áåði»iç:


1.    When was the first commercially available radio and telephone system put into service?

2.    What problem did cellular radio solve?

3.    Which characteristics of cellular systems were important?

4.    What technology was used between the vehicle and the cell site?

5.    How many schemes may be used between the vehicle and the cell site?

6.    How did the PCS industry appear?

7.    What do geosynchronous satellites represent?

8.    What is LEO?

9.    What are the most noted satellites?  









̸òiíäi îºûï, àìàëäàðäû îðûíäà»ûç.


Current Cellular Standards

The cellular solution, originally designed by Bell Telephone laboratories in the 1970's makes use of multiple fixed stations. Each station, located in what is termed a "cell" services subscriber stations within a limited geographical area. Cellular companies are each granted 25 Mhz of the spectral division in the 800-900 Mhz region, each split between the two directions of communications. Typical analog systems such as AMPS employ FDMA schemes that divide the spectral allocations into uniform frequency channels in the range of 25-30 kHz wide. Applying simple algebra shows the approximate number of channels to be around 416. This number, although appearing somewhat large, is rather small with respect to data communications.

Different types of cellular systems employ various methods of" multiple access", meaning that multiple, simultaneous users can be supported. These users share a common pool of radio channels and can gain access to any channel. Just as each telephone call is granted a specific line for discourse, each subscriber is assigned a unique channel to propagate data transmission. Only one subscriber at a time is assigned to each channel; no other conversations can access it until the call is completed. These channels are a limited resource of cellular companies, <as are the number of phone lines for Ma Bell. Solutions to achieve greater capacity are central to cellular principles.

Spectral allocations are limited for each cell, due in part to regulatory agencies limiting the bandwidth in order for communication companies to create highly efficient solutions. This spectral efficiency is measured in Erlangs per unit service area, per MHz. Quite simply, this dimensionless unit of telephone traffic intensity, known as the Erlang blocking probability (typically 0.05), is equal to calling rate multiplied by the average call length. This shows the capacity for a channel to be completely occupied for some given time frame, with higher values (representing higher channel usage. Due to the explosive growth of the cellular industry exceeding initial predictions of analysts, subscribers in many urban cities often experience "blocking" with the trend increasing as the number of wireless LAN's and personal cellular radios continue to grow. Anyone who has tried to make a call and has been prevented or "blocked" will understand this concept. One in six Los Angeles subscribers experiences blocking during peak hours. Many subscribers also experience ''dropped calls" when leaving one cell and moving into another when the new cell can't allocate a carrier channel to the mobile. Consequently this leads to poor customer relations which forces the cellular providers to arrive at solutions that achieve high spectral efficiency to increase cell capacity.

Central to the cellular concept is frequency reuse, which is critically dependent upon the fact that the carrier wave power decays with increasing distance. With this information, and some physics (which we won't get into), a cellular division of frequency channels can be implemented. It's the same rationale when travel ling long distances: your favorite radio show on a familiar frequency is not the same in each city. The channel is allocated to another radio station far enough apart where signals won't interfere with each other. By reusing channels in multiple cells, the system can grow without geographical limits.

Here each cell represents an allocation of channels where no adjacent cells share common frequencies, with a typical maximum subscriber load at about 350 users. This idealized depiction is a hypothetical representation of true cellular systems that is good for modeling, but unfortunately not substantial enough for real world implementations of cellular technology.



1.Ò¼ìåíäåãi ñ¼ëåìäåðäi ºàçຠòiëiíå àóäàðû»ûç

1.     Applying simple algebra shows the approximate number of channels in the range of 25 - 30 kHz wide.

2.  Only one subscriber at a time is assigned to each channel, no other conversations can access it until the call is completed.

3.         Solutions to achieve greater capacity are central to cellular principles.

4.  Due to the explosive growth of the cellular industry exceeding initial predictions of analysts, subscribers in many urban cities often experience "blocking" with the trend increasing as the number of wireless LAN's and personal cellular radios continue to grow.

5.     By reusing channels in multiple cells, the system can grow without geographical limits.


2.Ò¼ìåíäå áåðiëãåí ñ½ðàºòàð¹à æàóàï áåði»iç.

When was the cellular solution designed?

What schemes do typical analog systems employ?

What do multiple access methods mean?

How many subscribers are assigned to each channel at a time?

How is spectral efficiency measured?

What do subscribers experience?

What does frequency reuse depend upon?





̸òiíäi îºû»ûç æ¸íå ñ½ðàºòàð¹à æàóàï áåði»iç.


1.    What has led to a rapid development of the technology?

2.    When was the first commercial CDMA network installed in Hong Kong?

3.    What was happened since the installation of the first commercial network in Hong Kong?

4.    Why is the widespread acceptance of the network likely to be accelerated?

5.    What is the trend with the new CDMA networks?

6.    How is the building performed?



Commercial Application


The technical advantage associated with the usage of CDMA technology has led to a repeat development of the technology from its conception to use in full- service telecommunication networks. Despite the claims from advocates of existing technology that CDMA was a theory that looked good on paper but could never be refined enough to be applied, the technology was researched and pursued. By 1991, Qualcomm Corporation had demonstrated it first example of CDMA technology in rather promising field trial. By proving that the technology could in fact be applied, Qualcomm effectively started the CDMA bandwagon. The next year saw CDMA’s acceptance by the technology. By the year 1995 the first commercial CDMA network was installed in Hong Kong- making CDMA’s maturation period less then five years, A significantly shorter time period then for most other communication standards.


Since the installation of the first network in Hong Kong, the major telecommunications corporations have been feverishly shaking their claims in the future CDMA market, especially in the United States. 1996 saw FCC auctions for the frequency ranges used by CDMA networks, and several companies have been trying to capture the most profitable regions of the country for their coverage. Several pockets of CDMA coverage were established in the United States a late 1996, and 1997, and 1998 promised to be the years of major construction for the infrastructure. Sprint claims that the CDMA network will be come the “replacement for current cellular technology”, and many companies are working on making that statement reality. Technology enthusiasts and those who live in the center of the initial CDMA coverage areas will probably take advantage of the services during this first year of service, but it will probably be at least 1998 before it becomes widespread enough to gain widespread public acceptance.


The widespread acceptance of the network is likely to be accelerated nearly as much by the change in the typical conventions of cellular service as by the improved quality due to the new technology. The highly competitive market has caused companies to place more importance on what consumers see as a barrier to using cellular and wireless network. Consumers will be attracted to the new networks by the promise of increased call quality, range privacy and all of the other benefits of CDMA technology, but may likely be convinced by the changes that have been made from the way cellular service has typically been billed. One of the major problems that consumers report with existing cellular service is the ambiguity related to the billing. A side from being expensive, it is often unpredictable what any particular call will cost roaming fees and long distance fees very in every location and it is impossible to tell ahead of time what the rates for any one call will be. The trend with the new CDMA networks is to establish a defined “local calling air” and bill any minutes outside of that air at a constant amount of money per minute, typical 50 or 60 cents.  Also, user of the networks will be able to carry they account balanced any time from they phones, configure the network to notify them when a certain balance is exceeded, and program the phones to stop working after a maximum balance has been reached. Other subtle differences such as not charging for airtime if a call cannot be completed are changes in police that the likely to effect the purchasing decisions of consumers.


Current cellular service providers cover only relatively small geographic areas, which leads to billing nightmares if a phone serviced by one company is used in an area serviced by another. While the phone can still be used, the “foreign” company bills the original service provider who in turn bills the customer, with unpredictable rates and fees. Sprint’s Personal Communications Services (PCS) division currently plans to operate a network that will cover the entire nation. Sprint currently hold licenses to operate this network in 33 metropolitan areas, plans to add coverage for 59 more cities in 1997, and fill in the remaining areas in the years to follow. Their own estimates place the potential coverage area between 190 and 260 million people. Such a nationwide network would alleviate many of the difficulties currently associated with using cellular technology outside of one’s own local coverage area.


1.̸òiííåí êåëåñi ñ¼ç òiðêåñòåðiíå à¹ûëøûí ýêâèâàëåíòòåðií òàáû»ûç:

Òåõíèêàëûº ì¾ìêiíäiêòåð; ½ÿëû áàéëàíûñ ºûçìåòòåði; æàºñàðòûë¹àí ñàïà; åãiñòiê æà¹äàéûíäà ñûíàºòàí ¼òêiçó; áàéëàíûñ ñòàíäàðòòàðû; ºàìòó àéìà¹û; îðíû¹ó êåçå»i (ïåðèîäû); áîëæàíûëìàéòûí; ºàëààðàëûº áàéëàíûñºà ò¼ëåì; áà¹à; êå» òàðàë¹àí; æèiëiê äèàïîçîíû; ºî»ûðàó øàëûñòàðäû» åñåï øîòû.  


2.̸òiííåí àëûí¹àí êåëåñi ñ¼ëåìäåðäi àÿºòà»ûç. Îëàðäû ºàçຠòiëiíå àóäàðû»ûç.


1.    The next year saw the CDMA acceptance…

2.    Sprint claims that the CDMA network…

3.    Technology enthusiasts and those who live in the center…

4.    One of the major problems that consumers report…

5.    Their own estimates place the potential coverage…




̸òiíäi ºàçຠòiëiíå àóäàðû»ûç.




If we were to assume the role of a physician in order t diagnose the health of the ozone layer, no doubt we would state that our patient is in very poor health, and that the patient’s condition is getting worse.

·      In 1995, 1996 and now in 1997 we have experienced record ozone depletions over both the Southern and Northern hemispheres.

·      The 1996 Antarctic ozone hole reached a record 10 million square miles-an area greater than the total surface air of North America, and twice the size of Europe.

·      During November an December 1996, ozone levels over Northern Europe and the north Atlantic were 20% lower than the average measurements between 1957 and 1970 more than 25% ozone depletion was measured over some populated areas.

·      Following the trend, in March 1997, the ozone layer was 15 to 25 percent thinner over the arctic than is was a year earlier and environment Canada reported a record of nearly 40% ozone depletion over the North West Territories.

·      The European communication – Environment and climate program reported in May, 1997, than “For the third winter in succession, record low temperatures in the Arctic’s lower stratosphere, coupled with the presents of man-made pollutants, have resulted in … up to 40% ozone depletion in the Northern Hemisphere… (with) total ozone as low as 270 Dobson Units near the pole during March this year.”


Of further concern is the recurrence of externally cold spring time temperatures over the Arctic which is precondition for increased ozone depletion. The European Commission noted  that “Analyses of stratospheric temperature data shows that the stratosphere during March 1997 was by far the coldest on record. The average monthly mean over the Pole was some six degrees lower then the previous minimum average. These very low temperatures in the Arctic springtime for the third successive year give rise to the concern that they may be part of a longer-term trend. It is important to understand whether, for example, this represents part of changes induced by chemistry-climate feedback.’

Concurrently scientist  are reporting a alarming date due to increases of UV-B radiation. For example, scientist have now for years that UV-B radiation reduces the reproduction of phytoplankton the micro organism at ht bottom of the marine food chain which are vital to the survival of marine animals; but to this past year they have also found species of fish with UV-B induced skin cancer and DNA damage. In other findings, than 1996 UNEP Scientific Assessment states that “recent studies suggest that potentially detrimental effects of UV-B radiation evergreen woody plants may accumulate from year to year… and that there accumulating and intensified adverse effects on plants from generation to generation.” In other words, UV-B damage is cumulative and passed on from one generation to the next.

       The environmental imperative has always been, and continues to be,  to stop using all ozone depleting substances as quickly as possible without resorting to the use of substances, such as HFCs , that significantly exacerbate crises of global warming and the toxification of the environment.

The alarming state of ozone layer dictates that it is essential from both a short term and a long term perspective, that the Parties to the Protocol adopted polices that aim to eradicate they use of all ozone destroyers on an emergency time scale. Greenpeace calculations show that emergency phase out of ozone depleting substances could accelerate recovery of the ozone layer by nearly fifteen years (to 2026) and this would reduce ozone depletion by nearly 40%.

The goal must be not only to minimize further ozone loss, but ultimately, to facilitate-as much as it is humanly possible- the earliest recovering of the ozone layer.





Æî¹àðûäà àòàï ¼òêåííåí áàñºà, ºîðøà¹àí îðòàíû ºîð¹àóäû» á¾ãiíãi òà»äà¹û ìà»ûçäû ì¸ñåëåëåði ºàíäàé? Îë òóðàëû ¼ç ê¼ðøiíi»çáåí ïiêið àëìàñû»ûç. ²àçàºñòàíäà¹û æ¸íå á¾êië ¸ëåìäåãi ºîðøà¹àí îðòàíû ºîð¹àó¹à àðíàë¹àí ì¸ñåëåëåðäi ºûñºàøà áàÿíäàï áåði»iç.
























Striving for Energy self-sufficiency………………………………………

History of Hydro Power…………………………………………………….

Olive   oil  power  plants   could   give  Opec   the  slip……………………………

Some General Engineering Subjects………………………………………………

Metric system and its original………………………………………………………

Transmission Technology…………………………………………………..

Broadband Access and Service……………………………………………………..


        Current Cellular Standards………………………………………………………...

Commercial Application……………………………………………………

The Health of the Ozone Layer……………………………………………













    Жоспар, 2003




Умит Жунусбековна Жумабекова

                            Сабит Муталович Нарбаев




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